Biodiversity in Community Gardens, Orchards and Allotments - Dundee, Scotland


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Biodiversity in Community Gardens, Orchards and Allotments - Dundee, Scotland

  1. 1. Wildflowers at the Scottish Crop Research Institute’s “Living Field Centre” © C A G LloydCover Photography:Law Allotments – © Dundee Photographic SocietyMeigle Community Garden ‘pow wow’ – © Sue Cole
  2. 2. CONTENTSIntroduction 5Healthy Eating, Healthy Exercise and Local Food 6Community Spaces - Gardens, Orchards & Allotments 6 • Ten Top Tips to Safeguard Wildlife 6Starting Up a Community Garden 7 • Perthshire Case Studies 7Allotments for All Ages 8-9 • Dundee Case Study 8 • Top Tips for Gardens and Allotments 9Starting Up a Community or School Orchard 10 - 11 • Broughty Ferry Case Study 10 - 11 • Top Tips for Orchards 11Sustainable Gardening in Allotments and Community Gardens 12 - 17 • Soil 12 • Planting for wildlife 13 o Top Tips for Wildflower Planting 13 • Boundary Biodiversity 14 • Ponds and water features 15 o Top Tips for Ponds and Water Features 16 • Other Things to Think About 17Tables 17 - 22 1 Boundary Biodiversity 17 2 Biodiversity Benefits 18 - 19 3 Flowers for Wildlife 20 - 22Appendices 23 1. Allotments in Tayside 23 2. Further Information 24 - 26Acknowledgements 27 2
  3. 3. INTRODUCTIONThe statistics are worrying – in the UK 97% of As they are not commercially managed, they areour flower-rich meadows have been lost, so have important refuges for wildlife. Community75% of our wild ponds, 95% of our tree sparrows Gardens are as varied as our own back gardens –and 52% of our skylarks. Once common ‘garden’ many are rich in wildlife, and many more couldspecies such as the song thrush, bull finch and welcome more wildlife with just a few simpleblue tit are in serious decline. So are some changes.species of bumble bees, butterflies and moths. As more and more species are threatened withIn Tayside we have lost a quarter of our extinction and more and more habitats arehedgerows (that’s 1,000km lost since the 1940s), degraded, many of us do not know how to makeand a third of our heather moorland. Yet there is a difference. The UK’s gardens, however, covermuch to be proud of in the region: 1.25 million hectares. Add allotments,internationally-significant arctic alpine plants in community orchards and community gardensour uplands, Britain’s largest continuous stand of and suddenly there is a great deal we can all doreedbeds and the national stronghold for to help preserve ‘the web of life’.breeding Marsh harriers. We can provide biodiversity havens andThe Tayside Local Biodiversity Action Plan encourage a network of wildlife corridors around(TLBAP), published in 2002, is focussing action them to let species move or feed in other areas.on threatened habitats and species – both urban We do not know the consequences of losing ourand rural. The Tayside Biodiversity Partnership’s wildlife, except that it will diminish the quality ofmany members are actively taking forward over life for all of us. By gardening with wildlife in50 projects and contributing to both local and mind, we can benefit as much as the othernational targets. The latest set of Action Plans species we share the Earth with.includes “Community Gardens, Orchards andAllotments”, “Burial Grounds”, “Urban This booklet brings together some of the bestWatercourses”, and “Ponds and Pools”. ideas to enhance our community spaces: allotments, community gardens and orchards.Allotments are especially important habitats for Many of these ideas are very simple and can bewildlife as they provide food, shelter and easily incorporated into the everydaybreeding sites. Britain has lost at least two-thirds management of these sites.of its traditional orchards, but many communitiesand schools are now planting their own. What is Biodiversity? It simply means “the variety of all living things”: it includes the tiniest insects and the largest trees – and us. 5
  4. 4. HEALTHY EATING, HEALTHY EXERCISE AND LOCAL FOODAssisting in a community garden or orchard, or eating. It becomes very easy to be part of the “5working on an allotment, are activities which can a Day” campaign with fruit and vegetablesbe enjoyed alone or with families or friends who providing vitamins, fibre and antioxidants whichwant a shared recreation. Plenty of fresh air and in turn helps reduce the risk of heart disease,healthy exercise is involved, plus the mental stroke and some cancers. We help to lower ourstimulation of planning next years crop, deciding food miles and become part of the local foodwhat to grow and making it possible with movement. If children are also involved inphysical work. There is a cost-saving in growing growing vegetables and picking fruit they areour own fruit and vegetables, plus the much more likely to eat it. This helps to establishsatisfaction of knowing exactly what we are healthy eating habits early on.COMMUNITY SPACES – GARDENS, ORCHARDS AND ALLOTMENTSAs gardeners we quickly learn that we are just one of many species in the natural world of a garden.This biodiverse habitat teems with life throughout the seasons and is a partnership from which we allbenefit when we follow good gardening practices. Remember: No matter what you grow, the garden, orchard or allotment is still a habitat for wildlife and you dont need to have a wilderness to attract it. Wild corners can be helpful in attracting beneficial insects, but if they are inappropriate, you can still make a real difference by observing what is around you and considering how your usual gardening activities affect wildlife. Some of the neatest gardens and allotments are exceptionally rich in wildlife because of the type of plants grown and the way they are managed.1. Site nestboxes and bat boxes in quiet areas, 6. Move bonfire material to a fresh sitesheltered from extremes of weather and away before setting alight so that hedgehogs,from cats and other predators. Clean out each frogs or toads escape incineration.winter. 7. Undisturbed places provide somewhere for2. Avoid using chemicals - they kill wildlife to hide in the summer and shelter inbeneficial insects and can endanger the winter.hedgehogs and birds. 8. Check undergrowth before strimming to3. Grow nectar-rich flowers in early spring to ensure hedgehogs, toads and frogs arehelp queen bumblebees, then plant not present.nectar-bearing summer plants for the restof the colony. 9. A bowl containing pebbles, filled with water allows butterflies, birds, amphibians4. Pollen and nectar-rich plants are needed and mammals safe access to other insects, including butterflies. 10. A sink pond or tub is safe for all the5. Dense shrubs and hedges help conceal family, but still provides water for wildlife.small birds and fledglings from predators. Different depths will prevent birds from drowning. 6
  5. 5. STARTING UP A COMMUNITY GARDENA community garden is simply a garden The Federation of City Farms andbuilt by local people for the enjoyment of Community Gardens has published alocal people (and visitors). It can be of any Scottish Community Garden Starter Park.size, any type. It can also be a welcome It covers the complex issues of negotiatinghome for wildlife. for a site and then developing a community garden. There is advice on legalA community garden can be an important obligations, fundraising and employingfocus for community activity, as well as staff. Further details are available fromproviding an oasis for quiet walks or friends. Such a garden can help The Scottish Natural Heritage’s bookletcreate a green corridor between private "Community Gardens - Places for Peoplegardens and other landscape features such and Wildlife" also offers advice andas hedges and treelines, rivers and burns, provides a wealth of case studies showinggreenspace and allotments. These vital examples of different types of garden -‘natural bridges’ help many mammals (in from church garden to medical centre, fromparticular bats, hedgehogs, and red maternity hospital to school gardensquirrels) and invertebrates move from ( to garden and out into thesurrounding countryside. There are two community gardens in Perth and Kinross - the Hayfield Wildlife Garden in Kinross, managed by volunteers until recently, but now managed by Perth & Kinross Council. The garden has areas of spring and summer meadow, as well as native trees and shrubs. The ‘Coalyards’ in the village of Glenfarg was created by two local people, but open to the public. The garden has now been gifted to Perth & Kinross Council. It has a wide variety of formal plantings, native flora, a pond and stream running through it and a water “flowform” at the garden’s entrance. The informal species-rich meadow areas are hand-cut to maintain the floral diversity.The new wall and plantings at Meigle Community Garden View from the pond at Coalyards, Glenfarg© Sue Cole © C A G Lloyd 7
  6. 6. ALLOTMENTS FOR ALL AGESThe main purpose of an allotment is to It is not just individual tenants who benefitprovide land for growing fruit and from working an allotment. Gardening isvegetables, but Scottish planning policy highly therapeutic and groups onnow recognises that allotments are allotments have health and well-being asparticularly important elements of key objectives. Allotments also supportgreenspace networks in increasingly lifelong learning opportunities - Dundeebuilt-up urban areas. university students use allotments as a study resource as part of their art, planningThe Convention of Scottish Local and environmental courses. Another cityAuthorities (COSLA) has published allotment site is used by trainees agedguidance notes for Scottish Councils between 15 and 18 years who are not inregarding allotments – local authorities education or employment. The emphasis ishave a statutory duty to respond to on developing vocational and personal skillsdemand for the provision of allotments. A in addition to improving the young people’srecent Scottish study suggests there are health. Elsewhere, Eco Schools take6,300 plots across the country, just 23% of allotment plots to hone their Citizenshipthem independently owned. Nationally skills as well as environmental awareness.there are 3,000 people on waiting lists. Barnardo’s Hopscotch Allotment Project has a plot in Arbroath – its aims are to promote better mental health for vulnerable people who are affected by parental alcohol and drug misuse. A tea break at the Law allotments, Dundee © Dundee Photographic Society 8
  7. 7. In spring earthworm activity is increased when organic matter such ascomposted vegetation or farmyard manure is worked into the soil. This keeps it open andaerated and retains moisture near to the roots of summer crops. This helps to prevent the build-up of crop specific, soil-basedproblems, but also helps maintain the nutrient balance across the whole cultivated area. The early flowers of gooseberriesand currants offer nectar to emerging bees and other insects. Later in the season the flowersof vegetables and herbs provide nectar. Different flowers attract different insects andpollination depends on their visits. Certain plants grown together help reduce attack by pests anddisease. For example, onions or leeks grown with carrots help deter the carrot fly. Frenchmarigolds grown with tomatoes make whitefly infestation less likely. Pollination can also beimproved by planting flowering herbs among the vegetables: sage with carrots or brassicas,borage with tomatoes (or amongst fruit trees). The benefit to us is that it looks attractivetoo. Plants native to Scotland tend tocope well in our climate and soil conditions, producing flowers, berries and seeds. Many‘exotic’ plants are, however, just as good for wildlife so they do not need to be dismissed.The simpler the flower, the easier it is for bees and hoverflies to access them: bear this inmind if choosing many double-flowered ‘exotics’. More than 70% of our birds depend oninsects which in turn, depend on plants, so our choices are important. A regular supply of water can be provided in a shallow dish. Ponds or water features such as a water sink or barrel, flowforms or bog gardens can be a welcome feature in many community gardens and allotments. Leave seed heads and foliage on herbaceous perennial plants, tidying them away only in the spring - many beneficial insects hibernate in plant stems. A pile of fallen leaves and other vegetation will give shelter to frogs, toads, hedgehogs and field-mice. - if suitable, enhance with bird feeders, bird or bat boxes, or consider a "green roof" of sedum, mosses or wildflowers. Photograph © James Farrell 9
  8. 8. STARTING UP A COMMUNITY OR SCHOOL ORCHARDIn the past, Tayside has been well-known for its Managed without the use of chemicals, theorchards. Many of these were within walled orchard can be a very species-rich refuge: fromgardens or as commercial plantings for jam mammals and birds to insects and plants. Newlymaking. The Carse of Gowrie orchards started life planted or managed veteran trees - all orchardsnearly 800 years ago as part of the great can engage the local community and all ages canmedieval grange farms managed by local get involved. The same goes for school orchards:abbeys. Many Scottish the children can helpvarieties emanate from plant them, tend themthis area, including the and then finally collectBloody Ploughman, Tower the harvest and celebrateof Glamis and Lady of Apple Day with longestWemyss. Elsewhere in peel competitions,Scotland, new community artwork, cooking theand school orchards are produce or helping tobeing enthusiastically prune the new fruit trees.planted and tended. It is The orchard can also behappening here too, the used for scientific studies,Orchar Park orchard in including researching oldBroughty Ferry being one varieties, measuringof the first specifically growth rates, mappingplanted by the local The start of the Apple Arch at Alyth Primary School local orchards,community. Developers © Alison Bowman photography andand housing associations drawing.are beginning to consider the planting of fruittrees in either the front or back gardens of Advice Notes are available vianew-builds. Local Authority parks are Regular safeguarding existing trees or practical training sessions are also held on winter considering planting new orchard and summer pruning, pollination and how to take areas or fruit tree avenues. grafts. Local varieties can be sourced from many local garden centres or from: A community orchard can provide a focus for community A survey of the proposed site activity, provide a should be undertaken - whats there now, what quiet retreat for relaxation, changes there will be, how the orchard is going or an attractive place for to be managed. Will the grass beneath the trees walking or picnicking. It be kept cut or will it be a wildflower meadow? creates a distinctive green Might it be suitablespace and can provide a source of fresh fruit for for grazing bylocal people. It also helps to safeguard the local livestock and if so,varieties of fruit - not just apples, but also pears who will beand plums for which Tayside is well-known. As in responsible fora community garden, community orchards can this? What sort ofhelp to link private gardens and parks to create a boundary is there?vital green corridor through an urban area. This (continued onbenefits the movement of wildlife – mammals, next page)birds and insects. The orchard itself can be abiodiversity hotspot, especially if there areknarled old trees or standing deadwood. Manywindblown trees still continue to bear fruit andare extremely important to retain for theirbiodiversity value. 10
  9. 9. (continued) Is there room to add a native fruit trees along a path in a community garden orhedge and to leave a wildlife corner? How many school grounds, for instance. If the site ispeople will be available to volunteer or work on relatively small, an apple arch can be planted orthe orchard to get it established? How will it be the trees can be pleached or cordoned against amaintained? What wildlife is there already and wall. There are “step over” fruit trees suitable forwhat new wildlife will be attracted? making a low hedge. You can also use tall-grown fruit trees as a live boundary - trimmed to form aAn orchard does not have to be a square plot: narrow wall of fruit trees at the back of a gardenlinear orchards can be just as good: an avenue of or school. Although the new community orchard at Orchar Park (Broughty Ferry) has been vandalised the project is still ongoing. Local volunteers from the Broughty Ferry Environment Project have created a stunning apple tree mosaic at the entrance to the park. The mosaic at Orchar Park, Broughty Ferry © C A G Lloyd equally relevant in allotments andcommunity gardens, uncut grass strips or difficult-to-usecorners can be left to provide shelter and food forover-wintering insects, birds and mammals. They will alsoprovide a hunting ground for kestrels and barn owls. Nativehogweed and other umbellifers such as cow parsley, areespecially good for attracting beneficial insects. will give welcomeshelter, not just to the fruit trees planted within, but to the richbiodiversity that inhabits them - from lichens, mosses andliverworts on walls to nesting birds, mammals andbumblebees in the hedges. once every two years - and then only in lateJanuary or February. This will provide food for the birds duringmuch of the winter. grown beneath orchards Pear orchard on the Carse of Gowriewill greatly increase the invertebrate numbers (especially © C A G Lloydbees) to help pollinate the fruit. Managed carefully, themeadow area can be of great visual interest, helping create a special "contemplation" or "festival" zoneduring the spring and summer months. planting new trees, either in an existing orchard, or a relatively new one, willprovide important habitat in the next few decades as the trees age. Many orchard insects rely ondecaying wood using splits in the bark, rot holes or hollow trunks in dead trees or veteran trees. Mostold trees are still good fruiters - even if they are windblown and on their side. Holes in old trees are vitalas roosting sites for bats, or nesting places for a variety of birds (including woodpeckers). 11
  10. 10. SOILThe key to successful gardening, withbiodiversity in mind or not, is healthy soil. Green manures are ideal whenever a patch ofSustaining the goodness in the soil is vitally land is going to be free of crops for six weeks orimportant for healthy plants / vegetables and more, and they are particularly useful tofruit. This can either be done using artificial vegetable gardeners and allotment holders.fertilizers and finite natural resources such as Although many green manures can be sown allpeat or by using products and processes which year round, they are ideal when sown in theare natural. If we garden in harmony with the autumn to over-winter, when vegetable plots arenatural processes already happening on our plot, generally empty. For more information visitbiodiversity will benefit as well as protecting our and the health of our environment. Pioneered by the SEER Trust near Pitlochry, rockComposting is part of the natural cycle of growth dust contains a very wide range of slow releaseand decay. Numerous microscopic organisms of minerals and trace elements. Organicallyboth vegetable and animal origin break down the approved, the dust increases microbial activity,vegetable matter and release nutrients into the reduces odour and improves fertility in compostsoil in a form which plants can use. In turn, theplants provide food for the insects which thenbecome food for the birds. We disturb this cycle Using peat-free alternative products such as coirby removing part of the natural ecosystem. If we will help protect Scotland’s fast disappearing peatcontinue to remove and not replace plant bogs which have taken thousands of years tomaterial, the soil becomes unproductive because is deficient in essential nutrients.Artificial fertilizers are often used to providenutrients. However, they do not support the Adding a protective layer of compost, bark chipsgrowth and the activity of the beneficial or coir helps retain moisture in the soil andmicro-life in the soil, nor do they improve the soil suppresses weed growth down. As the mulchstructure. They do, however, deplete the worlds rots down it also helps to add nutrients to thefossil resources. soil.More information on how to make your owngarden compost can be found on the internet: or just search for compost.Alternatively check the recommended book list.Natural fertilizers such as bone meal, blood andfish meal can be used to improve the nutrients inthe soil. However, many gardeners are reluctantto use these animal by-products.Farmyard manure is a good source of nitrogen,but garden compost, because of its more variedmicro- organisms produces a much wider varietyof nutrients. 12
  11. 11. THE LIVING SOIL are a key species of the is deposited all thesoil. Besides the minerals in the soil they time from fallen leaves, dead and livingrequire organic matter in the form of plant material, remains of dead animalsdecaying vegetation. The casts they and animal waste. We can add farmyardproduce breakdown to provide nutrients manure or rotted down compost. This helpsfor the roots of plants. Earthworms to improve the structure ofcreate a vast network of tunnels that the soil as it breaks up heavyhelp air and water circulate throughout clay and increases thethe soil, benefiting plant roots and other moisture retentive propertiessoil living organisms. of sandy soil. include moles, include tiny fungi, bacteria, protozoa,millipedes, centipedes, woodlice very small insects, larvae and worms.and ground beetles which all These are all involved in the process ofimprove the soil. Their burrowing, decomposition of organic matter.feeding activities and waste products aid This is a complex process withthe incorporation of organic matter, help many stages which is extremelysoil drainage, aeration and prevent soil beneficial to the soil and the ecosystem ascompaction. a whole. PLANTING FOR WILDLIFEThere are excellent leaflets available from Scottish Natural Heritage’s “Garden for Life” series– and many books on the subject of Wildlife Gardening. However, the following is a briefoverview of the types of plants that will attract a variety of wildlife into allotments, gardensand orchards. Use single-flowered cultivars so that insects can reach the nectar more easily. Grow night-scented plants to enjoy yourself and attract moths (and bats). Plant for each season – bees and butterflies need a long season of nectar-rich plants. Plants in pots are just as good as herbaceous borders – herbs by the kitchen door, for instance. 13
  12. 12. BOUNDARY BIODIVERSITYSome of the richest wildlife areas can be foundaround boundaries. A few simple actions can - even sheds can be used as frames forincrease biodiversity, improve security and attractive climbing plants such as clematis, roses,enhance the view at the same time. honeysuckle and ivy - all good for wildlife. As a year-round wildlife plant, ivy cannot be bettered as it provides winter berries for birds, very earlyA thick hedge around the garden, orchard or nectar for bumble-bees, nesting for sparrows andallotment is invaluable as it can deter unwelcome hibernation areas for bats. Existing features canintruders, lessen traffic noise and provide food for be enhanced to look good and assist wildlife.insects, birds, mammals - and us. It is an effective Vegetables such as runner beans or French beanswindbreak, a shelter belt and a superb wildlife can be grown on pergolas and arches, andhabitat. A hedge can also act as a green corridor hanging baskets can be filled with Tom Thumbwhich allows wildlife to move from place to place tomatoes, chillies, herbs and relative safety. (See Table 1) can host a wideA good native hedge should be planted in a variety of lichens and mosses, and provide a homedouble row 15cm wide with 25cms between to mason bees. Where appropriate, small plantsplants. Hawthorn attracts over 200 species of can be allowed to gain a foothold to add visualinsect which in turn are important food sources attractiveness and give another dimension to thefor birds, bats and mammals. A mix of hawthorn garden wildlife. Un-mortared stone walls canand blackthorn as the main hedging plants is ideal provide insect food for wrens and other birds andand they can be interspersed with other species important hibernationsuch as holly, hazel and dog-rose to give a variety places for lizardsof flowers and berries throughout the seasons. and toads.This will provide a variety of attractive, nectarproducing flowers in the spring, nest sites duringthe summer and berries for essential winter food.A new hedge should be pruned hard in its firsttwo years so that there is thick growth at thebase. It takes about four years for a hedge tomature, after which a trim every other year willensure a selection of flowers and berries. Faster pile against thegrowing plants such as roses and brambles boundary gives a home(where appropriate), can be used to fill gaps. to frogs, spiders,Small trees: crab apple, rowan, bird cherry or millipedes, centipedes andhazel, increase the diversity of the plant species ground beetles and will often be exploited by birdsand provide additional food for the wildlife. such as wrens.Standard trees can provide song posts for someof the more territorial birds. - in many allotment and garden areas there are small pieces of ground - underIf a particularly strong barrier is required, the trees, compost heap corners, wet or stonyhedge can be laid - cutting the branches almost patches – that can be left alone as they providethrough and interweaving them. Planting excellent refuges for amphibians, reptiles,thornier species can also help make an bumblebees and butterflies. Alternatively, aimpenetrable hedge. planted wildflower strip, either in a communal area, or along one side of an allotment can addAlternatively, attractive “soft hedges” can be bright summer colour and attract pollinators suchgrown which are wildlife-orientated: lavender, as bees and butterflies. This can be replicated inpyracanthus, box, or rosemary. These often look a community garden or orchard as low hedges grown to delineate certainareas of the allotment or garden. 14
  13. 13. POND AND WATER FEATURESMaking a pond is one of the most effective things • Avoid rampant growers - planting in potsyou can do to improve an allotment or garden’s controls the growth of plants in small ponds.biodiversity; the results can often be seen in a • Choose a selection of plants: different typesvery short time. will encourage different wildlife.Ponds not only provide breeding places for frogs,toads, dragonflies and newts, but also provide If a pond is not appropriate, but there is still adrinking places for other wildlife such as birds, damp area that cannot be used for anything else,field-mice and squirrels. Even a small pond or consider making a bog garden. After a lot ofwater feature will be used, especially if there is rainfall, bog gardens will often resemble ponds,another pond nearby. but they will dry out and make attractive features if planted with wet-loving species such as purple loosestrife, ragged robin, flag iris. Bog plants often prefer lots of organic matter, rather than pond plants which prefer a low-nutrient environment, so ponds and bog gardens provide very different habitats. If neither a pond nor bog garden is suitable, or if there are young children or elderly people on site, water can still be a feature: consider sink or half-barrel ponds, a pebble pond – or even a “flowform” water sculpture. © C A G Lloyd• Choose a sunny, sheltered spot. Include some border planting to give light shade for some of the day.• Avoid over-hanging trees, leaves rotting in the water reduce the amount of oxygen in the pond and can kill some of its wildlife.• Make one area of the pond fairly deep to allow aquatic wildlife to hide and survive extremes of temperature.• One side should slope up to ground level so that frogs, toads – and hedgehogs - can easily get out of the pond. Alternatively, gently step the base to provide different depths for a variety of plants.• The shallowest step could be separated from the main pond by a water-permeable barrier, filled with soil and planted as a bog garden.• Plant enough vegetation to give cover for amphibians and give escape routes for dragonflies and damselflies.• Leave enough open space for birds to come down and drink.• Add oxygenating plants to deter algae – use plants such as water buttercup or one of the The flowform at Glenfarg - a sculptural water feature native pondweeds. © C A G Lloyd 15
  14. 14. Ornamental fish eat tadpoles and insect larvae and can make the water murky. In most cases it is best to avoid using them in wildlife ponds. Top water levels up in dry weather: rain collected in a water butt is ideal. Clean the pond in the autumn to avoid disturbing any hibernating wildlife; leave vegetation or silt at the side of the pond for at least a day to allow any trapped pond life to escape back into the water. Avoid using fertilisers nearby as run-off can pollute the water. OTHER THINGS TO THINK ABOUTSave water: collect rainwater in water butts fromshed or greenhouse roofs and use a watering canto water only the plant roots where it is needed.Use local wood from sustainably managedplantations. British grown hardwoods andspruce, pine and larch from other Europeancountries are available in many stores, but check Food shortages can occur throughout the year soit is ‘FCS standard’. if you start to feed birds, it is best not to stop. A well-managed wildlife garden will provide mostReuse timber wherever possible and consider of the needs of adults and young birds, but youtreating the wood with one of the natural wood could supplement with high protein foods in thepreservatives containing vegetable oils and tree summer (ensuring your choice does not harmresin. Untreated wood will not last as long, but young chicks). Further advice is available fromwill help lichens and mosses. and Find out about the life cycle of pests or diseases so that preventative action can be timed: for example, use a barrier to deter a pest, put out a slug trap, pick off caterpillars by hand or prune diseased and damaged stems. Consider ‘companion planting’ to safeguard against pests.Small garden ponds are a haven for wildlife© David Williamson 16
  15. 15. TABLE 1 - BOUNDARY BIODIVERSITYBlackthorn (sloe) Flowers March to April. Sloes in Pretty blossom in spring.Prunus spinoza autumn. Jam and sloe gin.Worcesterberry Flowers in March. Fruit July to Jam and stewed fruit.Ribes divaricatum August. Hybrid with gooseberry and blackcurrant parents.Holly Evergreen. Flowers April to May. Christmas decorations.Ilex aquifolim Berries (poisonous) in autumn.Cotoneaster Flowers late spring with many Visual interest in winterRosaceae family (there are 200 berries in autumn. and spring.species)Hawthorn Flowers May to June and haws in Pretty blossom in spring.Crataegus monogyna autumn. Jelly.Guelder Rose Flowers June to July. Fronds of red Visual interest in autumn.Viburnum opulus berries in autumn.Firethorn Evergreen. Flowers early summerPyracantha (many species) followed by berries in autumn.Sweet Briar Flowers June to July. Rosehips in Rose hip syrup (forRosa rubuginosa autumn. Vitamin C)Honeysuckle Flowers June to September with Fragrant flowers.Lonicera periclymenum berries in autumn.Dog Rose Flowers midsummer; large hips inRosa Canina autumn.Ramanas Rose Flowers all summer and autumn;Rosa Rugosa large fruits in autumn.Hornbeam Nuts in the autumn.Carpinus betulusWinter Honeysuckle Winter-flowering. Visual interest in winterLonicera Purpusii and early spring.Bramble Flowers July to September. Fruit Pies, jam and jelly.Rubus spp. August / September.Buddleia Flowers summer to autumn. Can be invasive, so needsBuddleia davidii and Buddleia globosa careful managementHazel Catkins in early spring. Good shelter. VisualCoryllus avallana Nuts in Autumn interest in early spring.Box Evergreen. When unclipped, fragrantBuxus sempervirens flowers in the spring. 17
  16. 16. TABLE 2 - BIODIVERSITY BENEFITS Beneficial SPRING SUMMER AUTUMN WINTER Creatures Bats Males and females come out of t f Females give birth to just one baby o Most bats search out a Bats hibernate - they need e hibernation and need to feed well in mid summer: the young are fed cooler roost for Autumn, cool, moist, undisturbed to get into good condition. milk. but some will use the places, safe from predators. same roost all year They will wake up occasion- April- May: females gather in The males do not help to raise the around. ally to stretch their wings, warm places to give birth. young. By July young bats are drink or move site. learning to fly. Bats concentrate on Planting a variety of night feeding and resting to scented flowers, trees and shrubs Adult bats feed on insects – build up fat for hiberna- and creating ponds helps provide craneflies, aphids, moths and tion. insect food and shelter for bats. midges. Hedgehogs Hibernation end and breeding Hedgehogs sleep all day. An adult A hibernation nest is built Hedgehogs hibernate and begins. The young are born in a beg male can travel 3km in one night. of piles of grass or leaves emerge as the days warm18 nest specially built by the female. t beneath a hedgerow. up. If the winter is mild they They feed after dark on a diet of will need plenty of food to slugs, snails, beetles and worms. survive. Blue Tit Tits 7 12 7-12 eggs are laid in late spring. Fewer eggs are laid in summer. Berries, fruits and seeds Blue tits shelter in tree On average a pair of adults rear Adults visit the nest to feed their are eaten. cavities in the winter. two broods each year. young hundreds of times in one day. Plant hedging which Grubs in tree bark offers All birds keep pests at bay all Blue tits feed on insects and larvae contains native species - essential fat-rich food. They year round in their search for (especially caterpillars). hawthorn, holly and dog also need berries and grass food. rose; they provide both seeds to survive. shelter and food. Frogs and Frogs and toads eat almost any Provide a small pond, bog garden or Frogs and toads hibernate in Toads live prey they can find including damp grassland. Remember to add the bottom of ponds. If you insects, slugs and snails. a few rocks or logs in different carry out work to a pond in areas, or leave a wall unmortared to the winter, do not do it all at provide resting or hibernation areas. once and leave the silt to one side for a few days to allow wildlife to escape.
  17. 17. Bumble The mated queen bee emerges Eggs continue to hatch and bees The mated young queen The old drones, worker bees Bees from hibernation and feeds on feed from nectar and pollen rich bee searches for a and queens die at the first nectar and pollen from spring flowers throughout the summer. hibernation place, e.g. a frost. Only the young queen flowers. She begins to lay her pile of leaves, tussocky survives to hibernate over eggs and worker bees hatch Plant a variety of native wildflowers grass, or an undisturbed the winter. three weeks later. thr as well as cultivated varieties to hedge bottom. flower over as long a season as Bumble bees are much better possible. pollinators than honey bees. Butterflies utterflies Overwintering adults emerge Ov A time of breeding and dispersal. Adults feed up (often on Adults over-winter in sheds and Moths from hibernation and lay eggs. Some species (including those that over-ripe fruit) before or deep in vegetation. Many Species that over-winter as eggs, over-winter as adults) may start a searching for somewhere caterpillars spend the winter caterpillars or pupae emerge later second generation, but most species to hibernate. Most in dense vegetation or under and start feeding on fresh new have one generation a year. caterpillars go into the soil. leaves. hibernation in early Grow plants with purple, violet, autumn before plants Retain patches of dense Butterflies pollinate a wide variety orange or yellow flowers such as start to die back. vegetation. of plants as they feed on the buddleia, hebe and most herbs nectar of flowers. (remember that buddleia is a19 non-native species that can become invasive). Nettles are the only plant the caterpillar of the small tortoise- shell butterfly will eat. Ground Slugs, snails, cutworms, Provide them with shelter Beetles flatworms and root maggots are under a pile of logs or devoured by these busy stones in a corner. Adults over-winter in bark creatures. litter or tree stumps. Ladybirds The adult emerges from Ladybirds and their larvae feed on They seek out places in Retain standing or lying dead hibernation and lays her eggs in h large quantities of aphids, mealy which to hibernate for the wood. aphid colonies. The ladybird a bugs, whiteflies, mites and scale winter. larvae feed on aphids. insects throughout the summer. fli Hoverflies Adults are useful pollinators. A Grow plants such as yarrow, Plant yarrow, goldenrod and Larvae devour aphids, mites, poached egg plant, marguerite and and asters. Lacewings mealy bugs, thrips and other French marigold; herbs such as small pests. lavender, thyme and rosemary.
  18. 18. TABLE 3 - FLOWERS FOR WILDLIFEWINTERSnowdrop An excellent nectar source for insects (especially bees) coming out of hibernation earlySnowflakes (naturalised in many parts of An attractive alternative to snowdrops (a nice mixturethe UK) is snowdrop, snowflake and winter aconite)Winter Aconite (naturalised in many parts An important pollen source for the first insects of theof the UK) year, especially bees.Crocus (non native) Often attacked by sparrows and starlings who leave them ragged. Good source of nectar and pollen for bees.Heather An excellent nectar source for insects (especially bees) coming out of hibernation earlyWinter Jasmine (and Jasmine) An excellent nectar source for insectsSPRINGDaffodils (most non native) Not very wildlife orientated; the more natural, smaller varieties of narcissus are better. The value lies in leaving the grass surrounding the plants long for an extended period. The more natural narcissus looks good in window boxes or tubs.Grape Hyacinth (non native) Very easy to grow; good for window box planting. Attracts butterflies (especially tortoiseshells) and bees - superb early nectar source.Squill A pretty bright blue easily-grown ground-hugging plant useful as a pollen source for early insects (excellent under trees or in the border)Tulips (non native) If allowed to fully open out the flowers are a good pollen source for bees and bumblebees. [Best type - Water Lily Tulip]Honesty, Aubretia, Columbine, Foxglove Butterflies and bumblebeesand forget-me-notSpring plants suitable for planting into All excellent for butterflies, hoverflies and bumble bees.grass - cowslip (only buy as plant plugs);self-heal, ladys smock, cats ear, saladburnet, red campion (all native plants)Shaded or slighted wooded areas - All extremely good for butterflies and bumble bees.Primrose, bugle, lungwort, red campion,sweet violet, common dog violet (native)Damp ground – flag iris, purple Excellent for dragonflies, toads and newts (they useloosestrife, water mint, meadowsweet the leaves for egg-laying) 20
  19. 19. LATE SPRING/SUMMERHerbs - Chives, sweet cicely, angelica, Flowers are greatly visited by hoverflies, bees andborage, marjoram, rosemary, mint (all butterfliesvarieties), hyssop, fennel, thymeSnakehead fritillary (native to UK, but Good naturalised in an urban grass situation. Nectarnot to Scotland) source for butterflies and other insects.Bluebell (Hyacinthoides non-scripta) Never plant the Spanish Bluebell or any of the hybridised varieties (which tend to be pink, white or pale blue). Be very careful where you source the native bluebell corms/seed (further information available from Plantlife – Excellent for bees and butterflies.Wild Garlic (for a naturalised wooded Good for a range of insects, including bees.area where the pungent smell isacceptable!)Crown Imperial lily (non-native) Provides nectar for blue tits, blackcaps, bees and bumblebees (a ‘sculptural plant’ - good in pots).Flowering onions (allium giganteum), Great for butterflies, bees and other insects – looksnon- native great grown in the herbaceous borderSunflower Birds and beesShrubs: Rosemary (native); Flowering Moths and butterflies, bumble beesCurrant; Ceonothus, Buddleia (non-native)Japanese anemone; Lambs Lugs; Moths and butterflies, bumble beesScabious; Eryngium; Heathers (summerflowering varieties); Rock Rose;Penstemon; Verbena BonariensisMoth-attractive plants – privet, crab Moths and butterflies, bumble bees, and batsapple, Tobacco plant, evening primrose,red valerian, sweet rocket, jasmine,honeysuckle, night-scented stock, phlox,soapwort.Dry ground - forget-me-not, aubrietia, Bumble beesharebell, devil’s bit scabious, coltsfoot,ox eye daisy, corn cockle, cornflower,corn marigold, poppyDamp ground - ragged robin, butterbur, Dragonflies, moths, butterflies, bumble beeslesser celandine 21
  20. 20. AUTUMN Wood Anemone An open-woodland plant, excellent as a nectar plant for bees and other insects (do not plant the double- flowered varieties - most insects cant use them) Michaelmas daisy, Ice plant, Lavender, Bees and butterflies Candytuft, Hebe, Red valerian, Knapweed, Caryopteris Ivy Bumble bees in spring, birds and bats (nesting/roosting) in summer; birds and bats (feeding/hibernating) in winter. Plums, pears, apples, crab apples Late food for butterflies, moths and birds Hazel, Teazel Mammals and birds Autumn Crocus (non-native) A useful late pollen and nectar source for bees and bumble beesPhotograph © C A G Lloyd 22
  21. 21. APPENDIX 1 ALLOTMENTS IN TAYSIDEDundeeContact: Tel. Leisure & Communities (01382) 307474Dundee City Council’s Leisure & Communities Department is responsible for four main allotments in thecity: Arklay Terrace, MacAulay Street, Ancrum Road, and Magdalen Road.Other allotments are situated at:City Road, Dundee, DD2 2ALClepington Gardens, DD3 7JNGardner Street, DD3 6BJKinnaird Gardens, DD3 6LDMagdalen Green, Richmond Terrace, DD2 1UHMagdalen Yard Road, DD2 1UHMurrayfield Drive, DD4 0BAOld Craigie Road, DD4 7JBStirling Park, Law Road, DD3 6LDWest Law, DD3 6LDAngusContact: Parks (01307) 461460 or (01674) 664138There are council allotments in Montrose, Arbroath, Monifieth and Kirrimuir. The Carnoustie AllotmentsAssociation is looking into creating one in Carnoustie. The contact for the Arbroath Allotment Associationis: Frank Gilbert (Secretary), 39 Hill Street, Arbroath, DD11 1AL.In Montrose there are allotments in Rutland Crescent. In Arbroath there are two sites: Brechin Road,and Hill End Road. Monifieth has one allotment site at Barry Road. In Kirriemuir, the allotments are nextto the Health Centre.Other allotments are situated at:Arbroath - Dalhousie Place, DD11 2AAArbroath - Hayshead Road, DD11 2AZBrechin - Cathedral Banking, DD9 6ANForfar - Helen Street, DD8 2HXPerth & KinrossContact: Parks Development (01738) 476476 Matthew Young (01738 635319): Moncrieff Dupplin Estate (01738 622757)Moncrieffe Island Allotments, Perth, is managed by the Perth Working Men’s Garden Association. TheLow Road Allotment is managed by Dupplin Estate. 23
  22. 22. APPENDIX 2Further Information (if not covered in the booklet)AllotmentsScottish Allotments & Gardens Society, c/o The Laigh House, Inveresk Village, Musselburgh EH21 7TD-; Society of Allotment & Leisure Gardeners (including a discounted seed scheme, and aninsurance scheme) – Tel. 01536 266576; Food & Health (Scotland) – Tel. 0141 226 5261; Society Allotments & Leisure Gardeners Regeneration Initiative: Tel. 0117 963 1551 Aid Scotland (information on planning issues): Tel. 0131 220 9730; Organic (Henry Doubleday Research Association):; tel. 0247 6303517; resources for schools: GardensFederation of City Farms and Community Gardens -;Tel. 0131 623 7058OrchardsCommon Ground: Orchard Forum: Core Orchard Network:’s Organic Nursery, Garden Cottage, Auchinleck Estate, Cumnock, Ayrshire, KA18 2LR;tel. 01290 551088; mobile: 07732 254300; Orchards, Selling Road, Faversham, Kent. Tel. 01795 858140; www.brogdale.orgDeacons Nursery, Moor View, Godshill, Isle of Wight, PO38 3HW. Tel: 01983 840750 or 01983 522243; Nursery, Cullompton, Devon. Tel: 01884 266746; Nurseries Ltd., Crewkerne, Somerset: Tel. 01460 72306. 24
  23. 23. APPENDIX 2General GardeningRoyal Caledonian Horticultural Society: www.royalcaledonianhorticulturalsociety.orgSoil Association: www.soilassociation.orgRoyal Horticultural Society: Botanic Garden Edinburgh: Organic (Henry Doubleday Research Association) - practical gardening advice, including asection for schools: Tel. 0247 630 3517; Recycling Network (community composting): Tel. 01786 469002; Network of Scottish projects, information & advice on therapeutic gardening – Tel. 01738624348; Perthshire Organic Gardening Association: Wildflower Plant Sources (all offer mail order):• Scotia Seeds (Angus) –; tel. 01356 626425• Plants with Purpose –; tel. 01738 787278• Var Scotica (Perthshire) - tel. 01250 881336; e-mail• Scottish Origins (Kinross) – tel. 01577 861437;• Scotts Wildflowers (East Lothian) – tel. 01946 830486• Snowdrops, Snowflakes and Winter Aconites (available ‘in the green’): Cambo Gardens, Kingsbarns, St. Andrews – OrganisationsBTCV Scotland (British Trust for Conservation Volunteers): Supports groups taking practical action intheir local community, volunteering, training, access to insurance scheme for community groups; Tel.01786 479697; Gym: Council for Voluntary Organisations: supports & advises community groups: Tel. 0800 1690022; Tel. 01786 468234; www.ecoschoolsscotland.orgCommunity Webnet: information on developing & carrying out projects"Trellis" Therapeutic Horticulture:; Tel. 01738 624348 25
  24. 24. APPENDIX 2Wildlife organisationsBTO Scotland (British Trust for Ornithology): Tel. 01786 466560; (Biological Recording in Scotland): Tel. 01786 474061; Tel. (01733) 201 210; Conservation Trust:; E-mail Conservation Scotland: Tel. 01929 400209; www.butterfly-conservation.orgFlora Locale: promote use of wildlife planting: www.floralocale.orgPlantlife Scotland: Tel. 01786 478509; Postcode Plant Database - Biodiversity Partnership - Biodiversity Strategy - Biodiversity Forum Wild Flowers -, Leaflets and CDs:• The Scottish Garden• Gardening ‘Which’• Gardeners World• SNH Garden for Life series of leaflets• ‘Gardening with Wildlife in Mind’ (CD – Natural England and the Plant Press:• ‘The Hedge Book’, FWAG:• ‘Living Roofs’, Natural England:• ‘No Nettles Required’, Ken Thompson• ‘Orchards - A Guide to Local Conservation’, Common Ground• ‘How to Make a Wildlife Garden’, Chris Baines• ‘The Wild Garden’, Lucy Huntington• ‘Natural Gardening in Small Spaces’, Noel Kingsbury• ‘The Ultimate Birdfeeder Handbook’, John A Burton & Steve Young• ‘The Therapeutic Garden’, Donald Norfolk• ‘Finding Scotland’s Allotments 2007’, Scottish Allotments and Gardens Society• ‘Community Gardens – Place for People and Wildlife’, Scottish Natural Heritage• ‘Scottish Community Garden Starter Pack’, Federation of City Farms and Community Gardens• ‘Allotments and Biodiversity’, Glasgow Biodiversity Partnership 26
  25. 25. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTSPhoto Credits: Sue Cole, Meigle Community Garden; Dundee Photographic Society; Catherine Lloyd;Alison Bowman; David WilliamsonPrint by: Fairprint - Paul Kirkland, Butterfly Conservation (Scotland); David Williamson, Perth &Kinross Council; Anne Youngman, Bat Conservation Trust; Scottish Allotment Group (for theirpermission to use information from their report: “Finding Scotland’s Allotments 2007”); RachaelHiggins, Tayside Biodiversity Partnership (TBP); TBP Urban Sub-Group members.Booklet Compiled by: Catherine Lloyd and edited by Catherine Lloyd, Alison Anderson and PamCoutts on behalf of the Tayside Biodiversity Partnership.Inspired and based on the booklet “Allotments and Biodiversity”, a joint initiative between Glasgow CityCouncil’s Land Services (Biodiversity), Glasgow Allotments Forum and Scottish Natural Heritage (thebooklet was compiled and illustrated by Betty Stewart and Joyce Gibson of the Glasgow AllotmentsForum and Judy Wilkinson of the Scottish Allotments and Gardens Society). Booklet Funded By: Tayside Biodiversity Partnership BIODIVERSITY THE VARIE T Y O F LI FE 27
  26. 26. Coalyards Community Garden, Glenfarg © C A G Lloyd TAYSIDE BIODIVERSITY PARTNERSHIP c/o Dundee City Council, Floor 13, Tayside House, Dundee. DD1 3RATel: 01382 433042 E-mail: Website: Published 2008 Printed on Greencoat Plus Gloss 80% Recycled Paper