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Grammar for PET:
Linking Words/Connectives/Conjunctions
Linking Words…
Also called “connectives” or “conjunctions.”
Some of the simplest:
F: for (Fans love to watch Anna, for ...
Linking Words: Connecting Your IdeasLinking Words: Connecting Your Ideas
We arrived late. The traffic was bad.
We arrive...
We use linking words to join two clauses, and show the
relationship between them.
The relationship can show:
1) a cause/...
1: Linking Words showing a Cause
 We arrived late. The traffic was bad.
 Which is the cause? The effect?
 We arrived la...
2: Linking Words showing Effect/Result
 We were late. We missed the beginning of the show.
 Which is the cause? The effe...
3: Linking Words showing Contrast
 We missed the beginning of the show but we still had a good time.
 RULE: Never start ...
3: Linking Words showing Contrast
 We missed the beginning of the show. However, we still had a good time.
 *However: 
...
4: Linking Words showing Purpose
Which “W” question does this sentence
answer?
We should have left early to avoid the tr...
5: Linking Words showing Time
We use when, until, before, after, as
soon as, and while to connect two
actions in time.
W...
Bonus: both…and, either…or
Both Karen and I arrived late.
Karen and I both arrived late.
Next time, either leave earlie...
Common Mistakes:
1. Some students begin sentences
with But and So.
Joe went to university. But he didn’t like it. → Joe
w...
Content based heavily on:
http://www.examenglish.com/grammar/b1_
connectors.htm
http://danienglish.com.br/2012/05/29/coh...
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Grammar for pet LINKING

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Grammar for pet LINKING

  1. 1. Grammar for PET: Linking Words/Connectives/Conjunctions
  2. 2. Linking Words… Also called “connectives” or “conjunctions.” Some of the simplest: F: for (Fans love to watch Anna, for she dances beautifully.  A: and (She is a graceful dancer, and people enjoy watching her. ) N: nor (She hasn't taken dance lessons, nor does she need to. ) B: but (Her technique is unconventional, but her lines are extraordinary. ) O: or (She can fill an audience with joy, or she can bring people to tears.) Y: yet (Other dancers try to imitate her style, yet they have not succeeded.) S: so (She is talented, so she will have fans for many years to come.
  3. 3. Linking Words: Connecting Your IdeasLinking Words: Connecting Your Ideas We arrived late. The traffic was bad. We arrived late because the traffic was bad. We were late. We missed the beginning of the show. We were late, so we missed the beginning of the show. We missed the beginning of the show. We still had a good time. Even though we missed the beginning of the show, we still had a good time.
  4. 4. We use linking words to join two clauses, and show the relationship between them. The relationship can show: 1) a cause/reason because, because of, since, as a result of, due to 2) an effect/result so, consequently, as a result, thus, therefore 3) a contrast Although, but, even though, however, despite, in spite of 4) why/purpose to, in order to 5) when/time when, until, before, after, as soon as, while Does it matter which you choose?  Yes! They may be located in different places within the sentence, and they may use a different grammar.
  5. 5. 1: Linking Words showing a Cause  We arrived late. The traffic was bad.  Which is the cause? The effect?  We arrived late since the traffic was bad. OR Since the traffic was bad, we arrived late.  We arrived late as the traffic was bad. OR…  We arrived late because the traffic was bad. Because the traffic was bad, we arrived late. >>more formal; used in writing  RULE: In the above sentences, what is on either side of the words because, since, as?  RULE: We can ONLY start a sentence with Because, as, or since if there are two complete clauses in the sentence. Because we were late. INCORRECT Because we were late, we missed the start of the show. CORRECT We arrived late because of the bad traffic. OR  Because of the bad traffic, due to we arrived late.    as a result of   What part of speech are these expressions followed by? (RULE)
  6. 6. 2: Linking Words showing Effect/Result  We were late. We missed the beginning of the show.  Which is the cause? The effect?  We were late so we missed the beginning of the show.  RULE: Never start a sentence with So. So can follow a comma(,). In short sentences, no punctuation is needed.  We were late and thus we missed the beginning of the show. We were late and consequently we missed the beginning of the show. We were late and as a result we missed the beginning of the show. We were late and therefore we missed the beginning of the show.  Consequently, As a result, Therefore and Thus:  are more formal than so  often start a sentence but can be joined to the previous sentence with and.
  7. 7. 3: Linking Words showing Contrast  We missed the beginning of the show but we still had a good time.  RULE: Never start a sentence with but. We can use but after a comma(,). In short sentences, no punctuation is needed.  Although we missed the beginning of the show, we still had a good time.  Even though we missed the beginning of the show, we still had a good time.  *Although and Even though are located in a different part of the sentence than but.  Although and Even though go before the known clause, whereas but goes before the unknown clause. The two clauses are separated with a comma. The order of clauses can be reversed. We still had a good time, even though / although  We missed the beginning of the show.
  8. 8. 3: Linking Words showing Contrast  We missed the beginning of the show. However, we still had a good time.  *However:   starts a sentence  is followed by a comma  may also be seen after a semi-colon (;)  Despite missing the beginning of the show, we still had a good time In spite of missing the beginning of the show, we still had a good time  *Despite and In spite of go before the known clause. The order of clauses can be reversed: We still had a good time  despite / in spite of missing the beginning of the show.  Also note that these words are followed by a noun, not a verb clause. You can also use the –ing form of the verb in these sentences.
  9. 9. 4: Linking Words showing Purpose Which “W” question does this sentence answer? We should have left early to avoid the traffic. We should have left early in order to avoid the traffic. Looking at the sentence above, what are to and in order to followed by?
  10. 10. 5: Linking Words showing Time We use when, until, before, after, as soon as, and while to connect two actions in time. When we got there, we found our seats as soon as we could. What type of phrase do these words connect, a noun phrase or a verb phrase? When we arrive, we’ll try to sneak in quietly. What tense are we using with when? What time period are we talking about?
  11. 11. Bonus: both…and, either…or Both Karen and I arrived late. Karen and I both arrived late. Next time, either leave earlier or go to a later show. Which one is giving a choice? *Both goes after the verb to be and auxiliary verbs: Karen and I were both late.
  12. 12. Common Mistakes: 1. Some students begin sentences with But and So. Joe went to university. But he didn’t like it. → Joe went to university, but he didn’t like it. 2. Some students write a sentence with because and only one clause. I went to the shop. Because I needed some bread. → I went to the shop because I needed some bread. 3. Some students do not use nouns when they needed to. I went indoors due to it was cold outside. → I went indoors due to the cold weather outside.
  13. 13. Content based heavily on: http://www.examenglish.com/grammar/b1_ connectors.htm http://danienglish.com.br/2012/05/29/cohe sive-devices-linking-words-and-phrases/ http://www.grammar-quizzes.com/8- 3punc.html

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