The Enemy Within: United States news framing of the Boston bombings

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A research project studying US news coverage of the Boston Marathon bombings on 15th April 2013. The study compares coverage following the initial attacks to coverage following the release of the identity of the perpetrators, exploring racial profiling in the US press and how America's patriotism is conveyed in articles.

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The Enemy Within: United States news framing of the Boston bombings

  1. 1. Alice C Woodward 1 The Enemy Within: United States news framing of the Boston bombings Introduction On 15 October 2010, Fox News’ Brian Kilmeade asserted on the 9/11 attacks: “It wasn’t just one person, it was one religion. Not all Muslims are terrorists, but all terrorists are Muslims”1 . Following the attacks on 11 September 2001, Islam has become stigmatised for anti-Americanism and a hatred for Western values. Meanwhile, domestic terrorism from the far-right is downplayed, and rarely acknowledged under the same label (Chermak and Gruenewald 2006; Shane 2011). Kilmeade’s comment is indicative of a wider belief that is promulgated in the media, which culminated in the emergence of the ‘Islamic Threat’ as the propaganda theme of the 1990s (Ibrahim 2010:112). On 15 April 2013, two bombs exploded at the finish line of the Boston Marathon, killing 3 people and injuring an estimated 2642 . This research will study coverage of the Boston bombings, utilising a close textual analysis to study ten articles across six top American newspapers and the CNN’s online news. The research aims to investigate how the framing of the event varied from the day following the initial attacks to the day after the identities of the suspects were revealed to the public. The study seeks to highlight assumptions about the identity of the perpetrators, and the techniques used to portray America’s collective victimhood. Literature Review The literature review will explore the main topics relevant to the study: approaches to reporting terrorism; US news framing of terrorism; and domestic versus international terrorism. 1 Berrier, J. 2010. Kilmeade “misspoke” about “all Muslims” being “terrorists” – twice. Media Matters for America [Online] 18 October 2010. Available at: http://mediamatters.org/research/2010/10/18/kilmeade- misspoke-about-all-terrorists-being-mu/172077 [Accessed: 20th April 2013]. 2 Kotz, D. 2013. Injury toll from Marathon bombs reduced to 264. The Boston Globe [Online] 24 April 2013. Available at: http://www.bostonglobe.com/lifestyle/health-wellness/2013/04/23/number-injured-marathon- bombing-revised-downward/NRpaz5mmvGquP7KMA6XsIK/story.html [Accessed: 20th April 2013].
  2. 2. Alice C Woodward 2 WESTERN APPROACHES TO REPORTING TERRORISM It has been argued that the news media are a primary medium through which the public learn about terrorism (Chermak and Gruenewald 2006; Barnett and Reynolds 2009; Spencer 2012). How the news frames terrorism is therefore paramount in impacting public perception. The different approaches of British and American media in their framing of terrorism have been widely acknowledged. The inquiry into the London 7/7 bombings was treated as a criminal investigation rather than a military affair, contrasting to America’s warlike framework (Barnett and Reynolds 2009). Similarly, following both 9/11 and 7/7, British news tended to focus on the dissemination of important, factual information, whereas the US was recognised as fear-inducing (ibid). While the September 11 attacks caused a shift in the discourse of anti-Muslim racism from a perceived cultural threat to a security threat, the 7/7 bombings were committed by UK citizens, characterising the concept of ‘home-grown’ terrorism, and causing a further shift from Islam as a global to an internal threat. It was from this that the concept of ‘the enemy within’ emerged, and the ‘War on Terror’ gained momentum. The editor of the BBC World Update noted that “it is the style of the BBC World Service to call no one a terrorist, aware as we are that one man’s terrorist is another one’s freedom fighter” (cited in Barnett and Reynolds 2009:40). However, the US has traditionally embraced the t-word, in keeping with their approach to ‘the politics of fear’ that reinforces the War on Terror as justified (Spencer 2012). Thus, while modes of representation shift and the framework is adjusted, “the Manichaean frame – according to which ‘we’ are ‘defending’ our right and only good way of life – is never challenged” (Schiffer 2011:213). UNITED STATES NEWS FRAMING OF TERRORISM Altheide (2009:xv) argued that terrorism is often conveyed as a threat in news through the employment of simple narratives, episodic moments, and drama and fear. This results in events like 9/11 becoming charged with meanings and emotions “that are not only culturally discomforting but politically consequential”; for example, establishing public support for the invasions of Afghanistan (2001) and Iraq (2003).
  3. 3. Alice C Woodward 3 Barnett and Reynolds (2009:130) identified that American coverage of 9/11 “focused on the symbolism of the attacks, the ability of the American people to pull together and recover, and expressions of patriotism and support for the government and its leaders”. This was substantiated in the strong perceptual link that metaphorised terrorism as a war, justifying a military response (Spencer 2012:16-17). This indicates the power news holds in commanding public consent and support for government actions. Kitch (2003:213) studied American newsmagazines coverage following 9/11, stating that coverage contained elements of a funeral ritual, “creating a forum for national mourning and playing a central role in civil religion” in which “vulnerability and fear were replaced by heroism and patriotic pride”. Thus, reporters made sense of an event they couldn’t understand by placing it within a grand narrative of resilience and progression (ibid). Barnett and Reynolds (2009:5) identified that “terrorism is framed differently depending on who is covering the story, where the story takes place, who the terrorist is, and who the victims are”. According to the U.S. Army manual, terrorism is: The calculated use of violence or threat of violence to attain goals that are political, religious, or ideological in nature. This is done through intimidation, coercion, or instilling fear (TRADOC cited in Chomsky 2003:236). However, it has been acknowledged that this definition only applies to terrorism directed at the West, and does not carry to Western inflictions on ‘the rest’ (Chomsky 2003). DOMESTIC ‘LONE WOLF’ VERSUS INTERNATIONAL ‘ISLAMIC’ TERRORISM Chermak and Gruenewald (2006) examined media coverage of domestic terrorism in the US from 1980 up to the attacks in September 2001, and found that most cases received little or no coverage. The Southern Poverty Law Center (2012) cites a total of 99 domestic terrorist plots, conspiracies, and racist attacks that have occurred in America since the 1995 Oklahoma City bombing, recognising a total of 1018 active hate groups in the US. Despite the multitude of domestic terrorist groups, Islam has been staged as the primary threat to American freedom and values (Schiffer 2011). This re-establishes the binary of “Orient vs Occident, East vs West, them vs us, whereby vast geographical, cultural and political expanses are reduced to two imagined cultural regions” (Fekete 2012:40).
  4. 4. Alice C Woodward 4 Amr and Singer (2008:214) theorised that the US may be on the verge of a “clash of civilizations” (Huntington 1998), since many Muslims believe the war on terror is essentially a war on Islam, fuelled by the acknowledgement that a codebook of coverage seems to have emerged which stereotypically portrays Islam, Muslims and Arabs as “backward and violent” (Schiffer 2011:211). This racial profiling was exemplified in the Oklahoma City bombings, as CNN reporters referred several times to two Middle Eastern men leaving the scene in a pickup, despite the FBI’s dismissal of the rumour (Barnett and Reynolds 2009). Shane (2011) identified that the Oslo massacre of 2011 echoed the 1995 bombings in Oklahoma City, which targeted a federal building, calling attention to the influence of right- wing activists and anti-Muslim websites. Anders Breivik had closely followed the debate over Islam, lacing his manifesto with quotations from American bloggers who warned of the Islamic threat. The good versus evil dichotomy and ‘with us or against us’ outlook demonises and increases fear of the unknown other (Spencer 2012:19). This research aims to establish whether the labelling of Islam as a violent anti-American religion led to speculations regarding the identity of the perpetrators of the Boston bombings. Methodology In order to examine the representation of America and portrayal of the perpetrators of the Boston marathon bombings in the US news, a critical discourse analysis was carried out on articles in six of America’s highest circulating newspapers and CNN online. A total of ten articles composed the data set, taken from two dates to enable a comparative study. The following research questions were investigated: 1. How is America’s victimhood constructed? 2. How is the identity of the perpetrators constructed? 3. How is terrorism framed? Critical discourse analysis has “sought to show that there is a systematic ideological bias to the media that is traceable to the kind of language we find there” (Matheson 2005:5). A key principal of discourse analysis of news is that:
  5. 5. Alice C Woodward 5 News makes sense within a social context: if it acts at all as a mirror, it reflects preoccupations within that society, and when it constructs a picture of the world, that picture is often very close to what members of that society already know (ibid:15). Thus, critical discourse analysis acts to deconstruct and interpret power relations of society, and expose social inequalities that are formed and reproduced in such texts. The method was therefore utilised to examine the language used to form the narrative of the bombings, and how the two parties involved were constructed. In order to obtain a representative image of the US news, the study incorporated six of America’s highest circulating print newspapers3 : USA Today; New York Times; Los Angeles Times; New York Daily News; New York Post; and San Jose Mercury News. CNN’s online news was also studied to obtain a more representative sample across media types, since it is one of the world’s most popular news sites. The New York Daily News and New York Post are tabloids, while the other print publications are disseminated in broadsheet format. LexisNexis was used to conduct a search of the above titles. ‘Boston’ and ‘bomb’ were entered as the search criteria, firstly for the date of 16th April 2013, the day after the bombings, and secondly for the 20th April 2013, the day after Dzhokhar was captured, with the identity of the suspects having been revealed to the public. Articles were selected that appeared on the front page or as a lead story in the papers, and the first article published on each date on the CNN online was selected. A total of ten articles were included; five from each day. Studying the two dates enabled a comparative analysis of patterns of representation in the US news, to decipher how this differed from when the initial event occurred and the identity of the perpetrators was unknown, and after their names and origin were revealed. Matheson identified that critical discourse analysis is often used to unveil “ideologies at the heart of the culture to which the language belongs” (2005:5), thus facilitating a study of the framing of the perpetrators’ identity. 3 Cision Navigator. 2011. Top 10 U.S. Daily Newspapers. Cision Navigator [Online] 16 February 2011. Available at: http://navigator.cision.com/Top-10-US-Daily-Newspapers.aspx [Accessed: 23rd April 2013]. Circulation figures: USA Today 1,830,594; The New York Times 876,638; Los Angeles Times 600,449; New York Daily News 512,500; New York Post 501,501; San Jose Mercury News 477,592.
  6. 6. Alice C Woodward 6 Findings 16 April 2013 On the day following the bombings, the print news unanimously presented a harrowing narrative of how the events unfolded, making continual references to emphasise how the Boston Marathon, and the date, are steeped in American history. Thus, the patriotic nature of reporting reflected coverage following the September 11 attacks, consistent with Kitch’s (2003:213) finding that following acts of terror the media create a “forum for national mourning”. There was also evidence of racial profiling, despite the lack of information to back up such suppositions. These two prominent themes will be explored in more detail. ISLAMIC CONNECTIONS A number of articles made references that indirectly connected the bombings with Islamic fundamentalism. An article in USA Today carried the headline ‘That post-9/11 quiet? It’s over; As Boston news sweeps America, nation’s worst fears are reawakened’. This opening sentiment draws a connection to the September 11 attacks, making a further twelve references to 9/11 throughout the article. This employs readers’ knowledge schema of the tragedy, underpinning public expectation of who is responsible by echoing a past attack committed by Islamic terrorists. The concept of ‘the enemy within’ seemed evident, particularly in a CNN piece which mentioned an article published in al Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula’s (AQAP) online magazine, Inspire, titled ‘How to Make a Bomb in Your Mom’s Kitchen’, which has purportedly “been downloaded by Islamic militants plotting terrorist attacks in both the United States and the U.K.”. This idea that Muslims living in Western nations present a global threat has been fuelled by the media, yet Shane (2011) has identified that “the intense spotlight on the threat from Islamic militants has unfairly vilified Muslim Americans while dangerously playing down the threat of attacks from other domestic radicals.” This has not prevented news from publicising a xenophobic outlook, evident in an article in the New York Times, which mentioned that investigators were questioning a “Saudi citizen”, who “came under scrutiny because of his injuries, his proximity to the blasts and his nationality”. This acknowledgement of racial profiling inherent in society is reproduced through the media, upholding power structures and maintaining the barrier between ‘us’ and ‘them’.
  7. 7. Alice C Woodward 7 The CNN article goes on to state that al Qaeda’s formula has been “adopted” by extreme right-wing individuals, implying that the source of the damage remains with Islamic extremists, who have “championed ‘do-it-yourself terrorism’ […] urging Muslims in the West to take action”. There appears a façade of objectivity to conceal the underlying belief that this was connected to al Qaeda. The Middle Eastern nations become inextricably fused by a hatred of the West. This discourse of ‘othering’ propagated in the news establishes support and justification for the invasion of Iraq and the War on Terror, which has become a common framework for differentiating “friends” from “enemies” (Barnett and Reynolds 2009:47). The New York Post quoted a chief of emergency services: “This is like a bomb explosion we hear about in Baghdad or Israel or other tragic points in the world”. These “tragic points” have been framed as such in the media, so it is the news that has propagated these negative typecasts of foreign nations. FRAMING AMERICAN PATRIOTISM All of the print articles constructed America through a movie-like narrative, weaving in historic references, sub-plots of heroic individuals, and underlining a collective identity epitomised by these elements of shared history and suffering. Nacos (2002:3) claimed: “never was the news about acts of terrorism as bad and dramatic as it was on September 11, 2001, and thereafter”. America’s victimhood was thus constructed in a highly emotive manner. A descriptive style was evident across articles illustrating what had “begun as a perfect day […] with blue skies and temperatures just shy of 50 degrees” (New York Times), utilising sensory imagery to paint a picture-perfect day, juxtaposing the ensuing devastation. New York Daily News carried the headline ‘BLOODBATH IN BOSTON’, utilising alliteration to create a dramatic headline evocative of war. The article goes on to liken the scene to “a warzone of screaming fans and severed limbs”, evoking images of combat. The vivid imagery of explosions that “tore limbs from bodies, staining the street bright red” is reminiscent of the visual framing of 9/11.
  8. 8. Alice C Woodward 8 The USA Today article states that the blasts were “felt across the nation, shaking and sometimes shattering a fragile hope”. The metaphor of “shattering” an intangible concept weaves a narrative more conventional of fiction, and the word “hope” carries religious connotations, portraying America as a spiritual nation, devastated by the actions of a perceived ‘religion of hate’. The sentence emphasises the impact of the attack on the nation as a whole, citing a psychologist who stated: “we’re all imprinted by what happened 12 years ago”, constructing a collective identity among all Americans, which was common across all of the articles. A subheading in USA Today states: ‘More than just a race’, citing a former City Council member claiming it’s a day when families come together; a “rite of passage” for Boston’s young people, signifying a deeper meaning behind the event. Articles stated how the marathon “drew runners from 50 nations” (Los Angeles Times), with participants attending for the “18th ” or “21st ” time (USA Today), marking the event as emblematic of international integration and tradition. Thus, attacking the marathon becomes not just an isolated event, but symbolic of an attack on American values, and a repudiation of this unity. All of the print articles made historic references to stress the significance of Patriots Day, and the beginning of U.S. Independence, paralleling the reporting in the wake of the September 11 attacks, in which journalists “faced a public expecting a patriotic press” (Barnett and Reynolds 2009:9). The USA Today article referred to Boston as “the Athens of America”, making a historical comparison to the birthplace of the Olympics. The article also cited a political historian–in keeping with the image of the nation the media want to perpetuate– saying “we’ve been a calm island in a sea of trouble”, implying the nation is peaceful; a victim of surrounding evils. Barnett and Reynolds (2009:136) summarised that the lack of political context in American coverage of the September 11 attacks was replaced with “oversimplification of terrorist goals, intense elements of patriotism and national pride, and perhaps most significantly, unwavering support for government”. This appears to hold true in the immediate coverage following the Boston bombings, with the construction of a story-like narrative, unifying the nation with patriotic references to America’s historical significance.
  9. 9. Alice C Woodward 9 20 April 2013 The day following the arrest of Dzhokhar Tsarnaev, news framing of the perpetrators shifted from the ‘Islamic threat’ to ‘the enemy within’, as it was revealed that the brothers had grown up in America. The brothers’ connection to Islam was publicised, however the framework shifted to present America as facing a new danger posed by immigrants who have obtained citizenship. The portrayal of America similarly progressed from historically significant and patriotic to heroic and fighting to protect itself, rallying support for the government’s ‘War on Terror’, corroborating Barnett and Reynolds (2009) assertion that following 9/11, the news media adopted the Bush administration’s ‘War on Terrorism’ framework. THE ENEMY WITHIN All of the articles referred to the suspects’ ethnicity as Chechen immigrants. CNN carried the subheading ‘Immigrant dream to American nightmare’, drawing a distinction between ‘us’ and ‘them’, and inverting the iconic concept of the American dream to denigrate foreign immigrants. This sentiment embodies Altheide’s (2009:xv) assertion that the War on Terror speaks to: “a new era best characterized perhaps as the global migration of dreams and nightmares”. Immigrants take on the role as ‘nightmares’, accepted in to the land of ‘dreams’ but turning on their adoptive Western nation. The Los Angeles Times headline states they ‘appeared alienated from the U.S. despite years in adoptive country’, turning on American values even though the US “had embraced them as refugees”. This personification of the American nation welcoming immigrants accentuates the victimisation of the country, and brands refugees and immigrants as a danger, not figuratively, to American values, but literally, to American lives. New York Daily News stated Tsarnaev was “described by friends and family as a pot-smoking college student who immigrated to the U.S.”. The association of smoking illegal drugs and immigration affixes a stigma to immigrants as not understanding or valuing the American way of life. The San Jose Mercury News described how Tamerlan “bore none of the telltales of an immigrant” and “did not hang with anybody in the school’s Muslim circle”, implying a feigned identity.
  10. 10. Alice C Woodward 10 The juxtaposition of the “baby-faced terror suspect” and “boys next door before going rogue” (New York Daily News) conjure an image of a deceptive disguise, invoking the notion of ‘the enemy within’ referred to in the previous section. The San Jose Mercury News furthered this ideology, stating “they dressed like typical American teenagers, enjoyed playing sports and strived to fit in”. This opening statement elicits fear in the reader, emphasising the normality of the boys, who expressed “little sign of radicalism”, playing up the idea of Muslims living under a façade as all-American kids. Barnett and Reynolds (2009:5) argued that the “nationality of the terrorist […] can impact how terrorist activity is framed”. Thus, the ideology that anyone among ‘us’ could be a terrorist, no longer confined to the identifiable Middle Eastern stereotypes, frames terrorism in a new light, revealing ‘they look just like us’. The New York Post stated that the brothers “were devout Muslims”, while the San Jose Mercury Times article specified that Chechnya, the brothers’ motherland, has become “the focal point for simmering Islamist insurgency”, reinforcing the link to Islam. Three articles referred to one of the brothers caching videos about Russians converting to Islam, and clips of scholars who spoke about “how the religion inspires believers and cleanses them of their sins” (Los Angeles Times). This seems aimed to shock readers and invoke anger at the hypocrisy of a religion which is perceived by the West to absolve mass murder, further homogenising and demonising Islam. AMERICAN HEROES AND EASTERN ENEMIES The war narrative appeared across many articles, as reports referred to “Tamerlan’s last stand”, in which “explosions lit up the night sky, and gunfire tore holes in homes” (New York Daily News); signifying it was not just people affected, but the white picket fences of “typically sleepy Watertown” were torn down. The personification of place characterises the charm of American suburbia, and the destruction wrought by a foreign immigrant. A New York Post article bore the headline ‘Terror in Boston Twisted bond of brothers *Fugitive sib busted after manhunt* Duo had touted jihad, radical cleric’, writing about the Islamic connection as a matter of fact rather than speculation. The ‘twisted bond of brothers’ seems a parodic play on the television war series Band of Brothers, a recurrent theme in the article which describes how the “AK-47-toting brothers” had “fired assault rifles and lobbed pipe bombs and a grenade at pursuing police”, creating a warlike scene.
  11. 11. Alice C Woodward 11 Contrasting to the New York Post, in which the brothers assume the role of soldiers, CNN presented a war tale from the perspective of the police. A police chief is quoted throughout, referring to “our police officer”, expressing a sense of camaraderie among officers, who “tended to their wounded colleague”, adopting a ‘leave no man behind’ war mentality, while the “couple of thousand police officers on the scene” resemble an army. The officer recalls: “he runs out of ammunition – the bad guy”, presenting a goodies versus baddies type narrative, typical of Western movies. However, immigrants have replaced Native Americans as the internal threat that must be extinguished. Schiffer (2011:213) stated that “frames and complex metaphors, such as that of the altruistic hero fighting for human rights and freedom (as in every Western movie), can be exploited for public relations purposes”. This appeared inverted in the articles, with the ‘freedom fighters’ staged as the police, who acted to defend their nation. A number of articles stated the uncertainty surrounding the motive for the attacks, echoing Bush’s rhetorical question: ‘Why do they hate us?’ No articles mentioned a possible political motive behind the bombings; the most transparent assumption was that it was pure Islamic hatred. This echoed Barnett and Reynolds (2009:10) argument that suspected terrorists are profiled, and there is a tendency to “focus on individual impact rather than looking at the broad political context in which terrorism occurs”; evident in the many anecdotal extracts recounting individual experiences of the day, and the impact on families. Conclusion Despite the usual distinction between tabloid and broadsheet newspapers in their narrative techniques, the press seemed to adopt a standardised framework to relay the events, abandoning their watchdog role, as in the aftermath of 9/11 (Barnett and Reynolds 2009). Kitch asserted that “the lasting story of September 11 was not one of terror, death, and destruction, but one of courage, redemption, and patriotic pride” (2003:222). It appears this narrative construction was echoed following the Boston bombings in the framing of America’s history and the heroism of its people in times of crisis.
  12. 12. Alice C Woodward 12 The dramatic narrative in reporting unites the nation; however the shift away from factual reporting in light of such events leads to a fear-inducing form of propaganda underpinning coverage. Spencer (2012) acknowledged that terrorism must be reported, but argued that it could be framed in a particular way so as to alleviate the psychological effects. The Boston Marathon bombings were a tragic occurrence, yet the media propagandising reflected in Kilmeade’s comment: “all terrorists are Muslims” deflects attention away from the threat of domestic terrorism from the far-right. The weaving of a war narrative may shape public perception, amplifying the threat of international terrorism to command support for the ‘War on Terror’, justifying the invasion of Middle Eastern countries. The depiction of Muslims as a homogenous group denies the democratic right of equality, and the ‘enemy within’ framework identified in the study further ostracises Muslims and immigrants so that they become resident aliens in the United States; the East versus West binary opposition endures. WORD COUNT: 3,994
  13. 13. Alice C Woodward 13 Bibliography Altheide, D.L. 2009. Terror Post-9/11 and the Media. Oxford: Peter Lang Publishing Amr, H. and Singer, P.W. 2008. To Win the “War on Terror,” We Must First Win the “War of Ideas”: Here’s How. The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 618(1), pp.212-222 Barnett, B. and Reynolds, A. 2009. Terrorism and the Press: An Uneasy Relationship. Oxford: Peter Lang Publishing Inc. Berrier, J. 2010. Kilmeade “misspoke” about “all Muslims” being “terrorists” – twice. Media Matters for America [Online] 18 October 2010. Available at: http://mediamatters.org/research/2010/10/18/kilmeade-misspoke-about-all-terrorists- being-mu/172077 [Accessed: 20th April 2013] Boehlert, E. 2013. Fox News’ Ugly, Selective War on Terror: Only Acts of Violence by Muslims, Not Far-Right Extremists, Warrant Collective Blame. Media Matters for America [Online] 26 April 2013 Available at: http://mediamatters.org/blog/2013/04/26/fox-news-ugly-selective-war-on-terror/193789 [Accessed: 28 April 2013] Chermak, S.M. and Gruenewald, J. 2006. The Media’s Coverage of Domestic Terrorism. Justice Quarterly 23(4), pp.428-461 Chomsky, N. 2003. Middle East Illusions. Oxford: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers Inc. Eligon, J. and Cooper, M. 2013. Blasts at Boston Marathon Kill 3 and Injure 100. The New York Times 16 April 2013, p.1 Fekete, L. 2012. The Muslim conspiracy theory and the Oslo massacre. Race & Class 53(3), pp.30-47 Ford, B. et al. 2013. Bloodbath in Boston: Terror bombs hit race’s finish line, killing 3. Boy, 8, among the dead – many lose limbs. New York Daily News 16 April 2013, p.2 Gray, M. 2013. Police chief: Boston manhunt began with intense firefight in dark street. CNN online 20 April 2013 Hampson, R. and Raasch, C. 2013. That post-9/11 quiet? It’s over.; As Boston news sweeps America, nation’s worst fears are reawakened. USA Today 16 April 2013, p.1 Honan, E. and Schwartz, L. 2013. Boston bombing suspects wanted to fit in, friends say. San Jose Mercury News 20 April 2013 Hennessy-Fiske, M. Bengali, S. and Gold, M. 2013. The Boston Bombings Investigation; Boston siege is over; Brothers suspected in bombing appeared alienated from the U.S. despite years in adoptive country. Los Angeles Times 20 April 2013, p.1
  14. 14. Alice C Woodward 14 Huntington, S. 1998. The clash of civilisations and the remaking of world order. New York: Simon & Schuster Ibrahim, D. 2010. The Framing of Islam on Network News Following the September 11th Attacks. The International Communication Gazette 71(1), pp.111-125 Kitch, C. 2003. “Mourning in America”: ritual, redemption, and recovery in news narrative after September 11. Journalism Studies 4(2), pp.213-224 Kotz, D. 2013. Injury toll from Marathon bombs reduced to 264. The Boston Globe [Online] 24 April 2013. Available at: http://www.bostonglobe.com/lifestyle/health- wellness/2013/04/23/number-injured-marathon-bombing-revised- downward/NRpaz5mmvGquP7KMA6XsIK/story.html [Accessed: 20th April 2013] Lister, T. and Cruickshank, P. 2013. Boston Marathon bombs have hallmarks of ‘lone wolf’ devices, experts say. CNN online 16 April 2013 Matheson, D. 2005. Media Discourses: Analysing Media Texts. Maidenhead: Open University Press Morales, M. et al. 2013. Cops Seize 2nd Killer 1 fiend busted in boat Bro gunned down on day of Mayhem. New York Daily News 20 April 2013, p.2 Rosario, F. Celona, L. and Mangan, D. 2013. Terror in Boston Twisted bond of brothers *Fugitive sib busted after manhunt* Duo had touted jihad, radical cleric. The New York Post 20 April 2013, p.2 Schiffer, S. 2011. Demonizing Islam before and after 9/11: Anti-Islamic spin – an important factor in pro-war PR? Global Media and Communication 7(3), pp.211-214 Semuels, A. Tangel, A. and Serrano, R.A. 2013. Boston Marathon Explosions; Terror in Boston; At least 3 killed, 140 hurt in twin bombings near marathon finish line; No threat had been suspected. Los Angeles Times 16 April 2013, p.1 Shane, S. 2011. Killings in Norway Spotlight Anti-Muslim Thought in U.S. The New York Times 24 July 2011 Southern Poverty Law Center. 2012. Terror From the Right: Plots, Conspiracies and Racist Rampages Since Oklahoma City. Montgomery, Alabama: Southern Poverty Law Center Spencer, A. 2012. Lessons Learnt: Terrorism and the Media. Swindon, Wiltshire: Arts and Humanities Research Council

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