Chapter 2 – normal flora

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Chapter 2 – normal flora

  1. 1. Miss Rashidah Hj Iberahim MIC341 - Miss Rashidah Hj Iberahim
  2. 2. Content   Skin Flora  Oral Cavity Flora  Intestinal Flora  Urogenital Flora MIC341 - Miss Rashidah Hj Iberahim
  3. 3. Harmful   *microorganism in perianal area enter the urinary tract (UT) causing infection in internal UT Can prevent infection by:  Medical asepsis – personnel and hospital environment should be clean from pathogens  Surgical asepsis – instrument used should be sterile and including the surgical room  What did you implement in daily life? MIC341 - Miss Rashidah Hj Iberahim
  4. 4. Skin Flora  MIC341 - Miss Rashidah Hj Iberahim
  5. 5. Anatomy of the Skin  MIC341 - Miss Rashidah Hj Iberahim
  6. 6. Oils production   Different area consist of different microflora. Example armpits vs forehead.  Moisture area will support larger populations; nutrients from oils and sweat  Those normal flora might have capability to produce oils that known as fatty acid providing an acidic condition of particular area  Initiating host defense against infection in the 1st line stage  But, excess of oils production might resulting an odour of unpleasant smell to the body MIC341 - Miss Rashidah Hj Iberahim
  7. 7. Sweating   Beside oils, the 2nd line of host defends is the sweat that are salty  However, in opposite situation, there are bacteria that able to live in salty area such as Staphylococcus sp.  Majority of the skin flora – Gram +ve : Staphylococcus, Micrococcus and Corynebacterium  Hair follicles inhabitants – mite Demodex folliculorum MIC341 - Miss Rashidah Hj Iberahim
  8. 8. Skin shedding   3rd line defends is regarding the keratin-degrading fungi  It helps in rapid and continuous shedding of skin cells replacing layer by layer  Removing of skin cell together with group of m/org on the skin MIC341 - Miss Rashidah Hj Iberahim
  9. 9. Closing the loop   Producing fatty acids that prevent growth of other m/org  Excretion of lysozyme by sweat glands  Desquamation of epithelial MIC341 - Miss Rashidah Hj Iberahim
  10. 10. Normal flora  Gram positive org.  Staphylococcus sp  Micrococcus  Coryneform bacteria  Demodex folliculorum (opening glands – eyebrows) MIC341 - Miss Rashidah Hj Iberahim
  11. 11. Oral Cavity Flora  MIC341 - Miss Rashidah Hj Iberahim
  12. 12. Anatomy of the oral cavity  MIC341 - Miss Rashidah Hj Iberahim
  13. 13. Mouth   Basically the 1st area expose to m/org – the m/org more than people on earth  Affect the anatomy of mouth – teeth, tongue  Contain saliva use to flush down food and bacteria to the digestive systems below  Level of efficacy of bacteria vary interms of individual capability – physically and chemically  Resulting a tooth decay which are differ between individual MIC341 - Miss Rashidah Hj Iberahim
  14. 14. Ecology of m/org   Currently, there are 400 species indentified colonizing human mouth  There are a lots more unknown m/org that need to be discovered  Colonization of m/org on cell lining cheek, tongue, palate and floor of the mouth resulting bad breath  Major effects on tooth appearance MIC341 - Miss Rashidah Hj Iberahim
  15. 15. Intestinal Flora  MIC341 - Miss Rashidah Hj Iberahim
  16. 16. GI tract   In esophagus – no normal flora – pH of stomach inhibit the colonization  Until the 2/3 of small intestine rarely contain normal flora – except lactobacili and streptococci (transient microbes)  The last 1/3 small intestine, the movement become slower and leads to increasing of microbes colonization MIC341 - Miss Rashidah Hj Iberahim
  17. 17. 1/3 small intestine  The main flora in 1/3 last small intestine –  Gram-negative  Facultitative anaerobe such as enterobacteriaceae (E.coli)  obligate anaerobes (Bacteroides and Clostridium) MIC341 - Miss Rashidah Hj Iberahim
  18. 18. Large intestine   Food remain as long as 60 hrs – long period leads to high microbes colonization and replication  50% of feces = microbes  Mostly Bacteroides  Eating foods of raw material derived from small intestine  By-product = vit K for clotting of blood MIC341 - Miss Rashidah Hj Iberahim
  19. 19. Urogenital Flora  MIC341 - Miss Rashidah Hj Iberahim
  20. 20. Anatomy of female  MIC341 - Miss Rashidah Hj Iberahim
  21. 21. Anatomy of male  MIC341 - Miss Rashidah Hj Iberahim
  22. 22. Urogenital   All parts are sterile except urogenital opening  Urine collection should have ‘clean catch’ technique  E.coli and Lactobacillus are common flora = 100,000 bact/ml of urine  Collection during direct puncture (suprapubic) = sterile sample  Acid pH, high salt and urea concentration leads to high m/org growth  Urine sample should be refrigerated during transportation if delay – high multiplication if stir in RT MIC341 - Miss Rashidah Hj Iberahim
  23. 23. Cont.   Mycobacterium smegmatis (acid fast staining bacili) live in external genitalia of female and male  Esp under penis of uncircumsized male – smegma  If included in the sample, might leads to confusion wt the tuberculosis patient which actually having M. tuberculosis  In male, 1/3 of deep are for genital area don’t have normal flora MIC341 - Miss Rashidah Hj Iberahim
  24. 24. In female..  Due to hormonal changes..  Child-bearing – lactobacili numerous in vagina (eating glycogen)  Glycogen in vaginal cell will be fermented become lactic acid and pH decrease to 4.7  Childhood and after menopause, lactobacili absent coz no glycogen –replaced by streptococci and staphylococci due to alkaline pH in vagina MIC341 - Miss Rashidah Hj Iberahim
  25. 25. Normal flora   Mycobacterium smegmatis  Lactobacillus  E.coli  Staphylococcus  Streptococcus MIC341 - Miss Rashidah Hj Iberahim
  26. 26. To be continue..  Sorry..c u tomorrow nite.. MIC341 - Miss Rashidah Hj Iberahim

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