Muslim Contributions in Astronomy


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Muslim Contributions in Astronomy

  1. 1. Astronomy
  2. 2. Al-Quran: By Sun , Muslims Calculate times for Prayer By Moon, Muslims determined a lunar calendar
  3. 3. Abbasid Caliphate (750 - 1258) Astronomy started among the Muslims during this period Caliph Harūn (763-809)
  4. 4. The Darul Hikima (House of Wisdom) founded by Mamun-ur-Rashid in Baghdad housed some of the most eminent scholars of Astronomy Caliph Mamun ar Rashid (786-833 A.D) House of wisdom Baghdad (8th Century)
  5. 5. The Arabs were the first to build observatories During the reign of Mamun
  6. 6. Abu Abdullah Muhammad ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi (Persia 780 –850A.D) • Mathematician • Astronomer • Geographer Statue in Tehran
  7. 7. Khwarizmi successfully determined the size & circumference earth
  8. 8. Used for computational purposes Eliminates the need for calculations in measurements Khwarizimi invented Quadrant
  9. 9. Sine Quadrant was invented by Khwarizimi Used for accurate timekeeping by the Sun and Stars, and could be observed from any latitude Sine Quadrant
  10. 10. Ibrahim al-Fazari (b. 796) was the first Muslim in 8th century A.D to construct an “Astrolabe”
  11. 11. Al Battani (born in Turkey in 858– died in 929 A.D) accurately determined the solar year as being 365 days, 5 hours, 46 minutes and 24 seconds
  12. 12. Abul Hasan Mesudi ( b. 896, Baghdad, d. 956, Cairo, Egypt ) AL-Mesudi invented Telescope
  13. 13. Abul Wafa ( 939 - 998 khorasan ) Introduced the use of the secant as well as the tangent into astronomical observations Tangent Secant Abu Wafa (Khorasan)
  14. 14. Al-Biruni (973 -1048 A.D Ghazni) First to conduct experiment related to astronomy He established the fact by experimentation that that everything attracts toward the center of the earth
  15. 15. Al Biruni famous diagram showing different phases of moon indicates the moon revolving around earth and the earth revolving around the sun
  16. 16. Abu Rayhan al-Biruni He invented Planisphere • The earliest star chart • An early analog computer • “Qanun-i-Masoodi” discusses Planisphere
  17. 17. . Al-Biruni’s mechanical lunar solar calendar computer fixed-wired knowledge processing machine
  18. 18. Abu Ishaq Ibrahim al-Zarqali Astronomer Mathematician (Andalus,1029 – 1087)
  19. 19. AL-Zarqali invented The Equatorium A mechanical device for finding the longitudes and positions of the Moon, Sun, and planets without calculation using a geometrical model The Equatorium
  20. 20. Al-Zarqali constructed an improved type of Astrolabe (a saJilza)
  21. 21. Nizamul Mulk Tusi (vazir of Malik Shah Saljuqi) In 1074-75 A.D established an observatory at Rayy or Neshapur
  22. 22. Al-Tusi made the most significant work in developing the model of planetary system of his time. He wrote a major astronomical treatise called, Al-Tadhkira Fi 'Ilm Al-Hay'a
  23. 23. Al Tusi made an observatory under the guidance of Omar Khayyam where astronomical observations were made Omer Khayyam (1048—1123, Iran) Calendar : Al-Tarikh Jalali.
  24. 24. Ibn al-Razaz al-Jazari (1136 Mathematician Mechanical Engineer Astronomer – 1206)
  25. 25. Al-Jazari invented the largest astronomical clock, "castle clock", which is considered to be the first programmable analog computer Features • Displayed the zodiac and the solar and lunar orbits • Another innovative feature of the clock was a pointer which traveled across the top of a gateway and caused automatic doors to open every hour
  26. 26. Ulugh Beg (1394 - 1449) Founder of a large Islamic observatory in Samarqand, honored on this Soviet stamp observatory in Samarqand (1428-1429)
  27. 27. Ibn Masud al-Kashi (1380 -1429 Iran) Invented “plate of conjuntions” Conjunction means two celestial bodies appear near one another Planetary conjunction in the sky
  28. 28. Ibn al-Shatir invented the astrolabe clock in 14th century Syria.