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CAA Pakistan

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CAA Pakistan

  1. 1. 0[Date] Internship Report on Pakistan Civil Aviation Authority Ali Raza Internee at CAA Multan Intl. Airport
  2. 2. Internship Report on CAA Pakistan THE ISLAMIA UNIVERSITY OF BAHAWALPUR ALI RAZA 1 Contents CAA Pakistan  Overview  Function Instrument landing system  Localizer  Glide slope  Marker beacons  Visual information Navigational aids  Equipment control room  DVLS  NDB  VOR  DME & TDME  Control tower Fire section Radar Section  PSR  SSR  COM (PSR + SSR)
  3. 3. Internship Report on CAA Pakistan THE ISLAMIA UNIVERSITY OF BAHAWALPUR ALI RAZA 2 CAA Pakistan_____________________________________________________________________________________ Overview: he civil aviation authority was created in December 1982 to handle all matters related to civil aviation in Pakistan. In order to keep up rapid advancement in the field of aviation, it was felt that an autonomous body was required to bring the country’s aviation infrastructure and facilities as par with international standard. Function: The CAA not only serves as a regulatory body on behalf of the government of Pakistan, its functions include provision of services such as facilitation, air space management, air traffic control, firefighting services, planning, maintenance development of all civil aviation infrastructures in the country. CAA ensures conformity to the standard laid down by the international civil aviation organization (ICAO), regard to flight safety and air traffic control and navigation system. T
  4. 4. Internship Report on CAA Pakistan THE ISLAMIA UNIVERSITY OF BAHAWALPUR ALI RAZA 3 Instrument Landing System (ILS) he instrument landing system is the precise control system which helps and guides the pilot during landing of the aircraft. Components: The CAA categorized the components this way,  Guidance information: The localizer and glide slope.  Range information: The outer marker (OM), middle marker (MM), and inner (IM) marker beacons.  Visual information: Approach lights, touch down and center line lights, runway lights. Localizer: A localizer is one component of an instrument landing system (ILS). The localizer provides runway centerline guidance to aircraft. A localizer is an antenna array normally located beyond the departure end of the runway and generally consists of several pairs of directional antennas. Two T
  5. 5. Internship Report on CAA Pakistan THE ISLAMIA UNIVERSITY OF BAHAWALPUR ALI RAZA 4 signals are transmitted on one of 40 ILS channels. One is modulated at 90 Hz, the other at 150 Hz. These are transmitted from co-located antennas. Each antenna transmits a narrow beam, one slightly to the left of the runway centerline, the other slightly to the right. The localizer receiver on the aircraft measures the difference in the depth of modulation (DDM) of the 90 Hz and 150 Hz signals. Localizer information is displayed on the same indicator as of VOR information. When tracking the localizer the pilot turns towards the needle in the same manner as with VOR navigation. In CAA MULTAN the frequency used in localizer is 110.3 MHz and power is 15 Watts. The localizer signal is normally usable by 18 NM from the field. Glide Slope: A glide slope station is an antenna array sited to one side of the runway touchdown zone. The glideslope is the signal that provides vertical guidance to the aircraft during the ILS approach. The centerline of the glide slope signal is arranged to define glide slope of approximately 3° above horizontal (ground level). The beam is 1.4° deep; 0.7° below the glide slope centerline and 0.7° above the glide slope centerline. Tracking the glide slope is identical to tracking a localizer. The glide slope is normally usable to a distance of 10 NM. IN CAA MULTAN the frequency used in glide slope is 335 MHz and power is 4 Watts.
  6. 6. Internship Report on CAA Pakistan THE ISLAMIA UNIVERSITY OF BAHAWALPUR ALI RAZA 5 Marker beacons:  Blue outer marker: The outer marker may be located between 3.5 to 6.0 NM from the threshold. The outer marker is normally located at 3.9 NM from the threshold, except that where this distance is not practical The modulation is repeated Morse-style dashes of a 400 Hz tone (--) ("M"). The cockpit indicator is a blue lamp that flashes in unison with the received audio code. The purpose of this beacon is to provide height, distance, and equipment functioning checks to aircraft on intermediate and final approach.  Amber middle marker: The middle marker should be located so as to indicate, in low visibility conditions, the missed approach point, and the point that visual contact with the runway is imminent, ideally at a distance of approximately 1,100 m from the threshold. The modulation is repeated alternating Morse-style dots and dashes of a 1.3 kHz tone at the rate of two per second (•-•-) ("Ä" or "AA"). The cockpit indicator is an amber lamp that flashes in unison with the received audio code.  White inner marker: The inner marker, when installed, shall be located so as to indicate in low visibility conditions the imminence of arrival at the runway threshold. This is typically the position of an aircraft on the ILS as it reaches Category II minima. Ideally at a distance of approximately 300 m
  7. 7. Internship Report on CAA Pakistan THE ISLAMIA UNIVERSITY OF BAHAWALPUR ALI RAZA 6 from the threshold. The modulation is repeated Morse- style dots at 3 kHz (••••) ("H"). The cockpit indicator is a white lamp that flashes in unison with the received audio code. Visual information:  Approach lights: These lights are located at end point of the runway. These lights assist the pilot in transitioning from instrument to visual flight, and to align the aircraft visually with the runway centerline. As approach lights counts runway end environment Pilot observation of the approach lighting system allows the pilot to continue descending towards the runway, even if the runway or runway lights cannot be seen.  Runway lights and center line lights: Runway lights are located on both sides of the runway, and centerline lights are on the center line of the large runways, these lights are covered by an unbreakable transparent glass which is not affected by wheels of aircrafts. The intensity of these lights can be controlled by a series circuit.  Precision approach path indicator (PAPI) lights: The PAPI is a light array positioned beside the runway. It normally consists of four equal-spaced light units color-coded to provide a visual indication of an aircraft's position relative to the designated glideslope
  8. 8. Internship Report on CAA Pakistan THE ISLAMIA UNIVERSITY OF BAHAWALPUR ALI RAZA 7 for the runway. An abbreviated system consisting of two light units can be used for some categories of aircraft operations. The international standard for PAPI is published by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). At night the light bars can be seen at ranges of at least twenty miles. Each light unit consists of one or more light sources, red filters and lenses. Each light unit emits a high-intensity beam. The lower segment of the beam is red, and the upper part is white. The pilot will have reached the normal glide path (usually 3 0) when there is an equal number of red and white lights. If an aircraft is beneath the glide path, red lights will outnumber white, if an aircraft is above the glide path, more white lights are visible. Usually called mnemonic. “RED on WHITE you're alright, RED on RED and you're dead.” The intensity of above lights is controlled by constant current regulators. All the runway light circuits are connected in series to ensure the same intensity. Similarly all centerline lights and approach lights are also
  9. 9. Internship Report on CAA Pakistan THE ISLAMIA UNIVERSITY OF BAHAWALPUR ALI RAZA 8 as runway lights. The ratings of constant current regulator is as below. THORN Airfield lighting DIAM 4000 single phase Input = 400 V, 50 Hz, 83 A, Output = 30 kW at 6.6 A, maximum output voltage = 4545 V, output current= 6.6 A, air as dielectric medium and 5 stages of brightnesses. Navigational Aids Equipment control room (ECR): Over view: ECR is the main department of civil aviation, for wireless communication. It deals with the communication regarding air traffic and on board flight information. The dept. is the central part of CAA, which also consist of the control tower regarding the flight approach services (takeoff/landing/taxi). ECR is basically controlling all the radio frequency communication covering the range of entire Pakistan.it deals with the wide range of frequencies and channels which are being used at CAA for fir (flight information region) purpose. Frequencies: Different types of frequencies are used for communication, which are:  HF (High frequency) 3-30 MHz  VHF (Very high frequency) 30-300 MHz  UHF (Ultra high frequency) 300-3000 MHz
  10. 10. Internship Report on CAA Pakistan THE ISLAMIA UNIVERSITY OF BAHAWALPUR ALI RAZA 9 Radio frequencies used by CAA: Communicators Main (MHz) Standby (MHz) Tower controller 119.1 122.6 Radar frequency 123.3 127.3 VHF extended range 128.3 133.2 VHF emergency frequency 121.5 ------ Digital Voice Logging System (DVLS): Digital voice logging system is a recording and archiving system for all the necessary digital communication for official record. It has 40 channels and a hard disk for data storage. Non-directional Beacon (NDB): NDBs are basically a simple radio transmitter which radiates a signal equally in every direction (hence 'non- directional'). This signal is modulated with a Morse code identity signal. This Morse code have information about the identification of station. NDB signals follow the curvature of the Earth, so they can be received at much greater distances at lower altitudes, a major advantage over VOR. However, NDB signals are also affected more by atmospheric conditions, mountainous terrain, coastal refraction and electrical storms, particularly at long range. In Pakistan NDB frequency is from 200 – 525 kHz. At Multan the NDB is of Nautel Company and operates at 387 kHz frequency. Its maximum power is 500 watts. This Symbol denotes an NDB on an
  11. 11. Internship Report on CAA Pakistan THE ISLAMIA UNIVERSITY OF BAHAWALPUR ALI RAZA 10 aeronautical chart. VHF Omni-directional Range (VOR): VOR short for VHF Omni-directional range is a short range radio navigation system for aircraft, enabling aircraft to determine their position and stay on course by receiving radio signals transmitted by a network of fixed ground radio beacon, with a receiver unit. It uses radio frequencies in the VHF band from 108 - 117.95 Mhz. VOR is the standard air navigational system in the world used by both commercial and general aviation. At Multan airport the frequency used by CVOR is 116.7 MHz with 50 watts power. The VOR encodes azimuth (direction from the station) as the phase relationship of a reference and a variable signal. The phase angle by which the AM signal lags the FM subcarrier signal is equal to the direction from the station to the aircraft, in degrees from local magnetic north, and is called “Radial”. The intersection of two radials from different VOR stations on a chart provides the position of the aircraft. Comparison between D- VOR & C-VOR: D-VOR are for hilly areas and C-VOR are for plane areas. Doppler VOR beacons are inherently more accurate than Conventional VORs because they are more immune to reflections from hills and buildings. The variable signal, in a DVOR, is the 30Hz FM signal. In a CVOR it is the 30Hz AM signal. If the AM signal from a CVOR beacon, bounces off a building or hill, the aircraft will see a phase that appears to be at the phase center of the main signal and the reflected signal, and this phase center will move as the beam rotates. In a DVOR
  12. 12. Internship Report on CAA Pakistan THE ISLAMIA UNIVERSITY OF BAHAWALPUR ALI RAZA 11 beacon, the variable signal will, if reflected, seem to be two FM signals of unequal strengths and different phases. Twice per 30Hz cycle, the instantaneous deviation of the two signals will be the same, and the phase locked loop will get (briefly) confused. As the two instantaneous deviations drift apart again, the phase locked loop will follow the signal with the greatest strength, which should be that due to the line-of- sight signal. This will depend on the bandwidth of the output of the phase comparator in the aircraft. Hence some reflections can cause minor problems, but these are usually about an order of magnitude less than in a CVOR beacon. Models of VOR used by CAA are: C-VOR: Wilcox 585BD-VOR: Thomson-CSF 512-C, 512-D Distance measuring equipment (DME and Terminal DME): DMEs are replacing marker beacons. The DME provides more accurate and continuous monitoring of correct progress on the ILS glide slope to the pilot, and does not require an installation outside the airport boundary. Both these devices are used for measuring the airplane distance from the airport and threshold. The difference between them is that: the DME is used to measure the distance from the airport and having long range as compared to TDME, while the TDME is the device used for distance measuring of aircraft from threshold point of the runway.
  13. 13. Internship Report on CAA Pakistan THE ISLAMIA UNIVERSITY OF BAHAWALPUR ALI RAZA 12 The DME is composed of a UHF transceiver (interrogator) in the aircraft and a UHF transceiver (transponder) on the ground. Control Tower: Air traffic control (ATC) is a service provided by ground based controller who directs aircraft on the ground and through controlled airspace. The primary purpose of ATC systems worldwide is to separate aircraft to prevent collisions, to organize and expedite the flow of traffic and to provide information and other support for pilots when able to. In some countries ATC may also play a security or defense role or be run entirely by the military. Center controllers are responsible for climbing the aircraft to their requested altitude while, at the same time, ensuring that the aircraft is properly separated from all other aircraft in the immediate area. As an aircraft reaches the boundary of a center’s control area it is “handed off” or “handed over” to the next area control center. After the hand off, the aircraft is given a frequency change and begins talking to the next controller. This process continues until the aircraft is handed over to the terminal controller (Approach). The control tower communicates with the air craft as well the ground services on the airport. The ground to ground communication is through FM radio transmitter and receiver and its frequency at CAA Multan is 121.8 MHz and ground to air communication is through AM radio transmitter and receiver and its frequency is 119.1 MHz.
  14. 14. Internship Report on CAA Pakistan THE ISLAMIA UNIVERSITY OF BAHAWALPUR ALI RAZA 13 FIRE SECTION OSHKOSH Striker’s Specs:  1500 gallon water tank,  210 gallon foam tank,  1500 lb. dry chemical,  700 HP v8 diesel engine,  250 liter. Fuel tank,  4 cameras,  5kv diesel generator (in case of emergency lights),  Auto transmission,  6 dry batteries,  Top speed 120km, 80km in 40 seconds.
  15. 15. Internship Report on CAA Pakistan THE ISLAMIA UNIVERSITY OF BAHAWALPUR ALI RAZA 14 Radar Section adar (Radio Detection and Ranging) is an object- detection system which uses radio waves to determine the range, altitude, direction, or speed of objects. It can be used to detect aircraft, ships, spacecraft, guided missiles, motor vehicles, weather formations, and terrain. The radar dish or antenna transmits pulses of radio waves or microwaves which bounce off any object in their path. The object returns a tiny part of the wave's energy to a dish or antenna which is usually located at the same site as the transmitter. Radar is used on airport as aircraft anti-collision systems and flight control system. There are three types of radar used for flight control. Primary Surveillance Radar (PSR): Electromagnetic waves reflect (scatter) from any large change in the dielectric constant or diamagnetic constants. This means that a solid object in air or a vacuum, or other significant change in atomic density between the object and what is surrounding it, will usually scatter radar (radio) waves. PSR receive the following data:  Aircraft range  Aircraft Azimuth The average coverage of PSR is 100 nautical miles. R
  16. 16. Internship Report on CAA Pakistan THE ISLAMIA UNIVERSITY OF BAHAWALPUR ALI RAZA 15 Operating frequency: Frequency Range of PSR is 2700 MHz to 2900 MHz and it operates in “S” Band. Secondary Surveillance radar (SSR): SSR is a radar system used in air traffic control (ATC), that not only detects and measures the position of aircraft i.e. range and bearing, but also requests additional information from the aircraft itself such as its identity and altitude. Unlike primary radar systems that measure only the range and bearing of targets by detecting reflected radio signals, SSR relies on targets equipped with a radar transponder that replies to each interrogation signal by transmitting a response containing encoded data. SSR is based on the military identification friend or foe (IFF) technology. The average coverage of SSR is 200 nautical miles. Operating frequency: 1030MHz is used as a carrier frequency of the interrogation, And 1090MHz is used as the carrier frequency of the reply transmission (Transponder).
  17. 17. Internship Report on CAA Pakistan THE ISLAMIA UNIVERSITY OF BAHAWALPUR ALI RAZA 16 COM: This includes Secondary surveillance radar mounted on primary surveillance radar.

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