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Russian Revolution 1905


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The 1905 Russian Revolution

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Russian Revolution 1905

  1. 1. Russian Revolution Sofia Montoya, Juan Stordeur and Victoria Quiroga
  2. 2. Causes
  3. 3. Nicholas II ● His government was weak, didn't want to improve the country. ● He didn't have an heir to the throne (his son was ill). ● He had a poor education = he lacked many qualities required for a good ruler. ● He didn't care about the matters of the government. ● He was easy to manipulate. ● Ministers were badly chosen (did not cooperate = no objective advice). ● Lost prestige after the defeat against Japan and his interests were revealed to the world. ● State Council had no powers (old members).
  4. 4. Economic ● Sergei Witte was one of the officials in Nicholas`s government who supported reforms. He was convinced that rapid industrialization was the solution to the country's economic problems. This led to economic and social consequences which contributed to the causes of the revolution. ● Economic: Increased Taxes, affecting peasants. The country's national debt increased. ● Social Standard of living declined.
  5. 5. Social Causes ● Peasants lived like slaves and earned very little money. ● The Emancipation Reform wasn't able to solve serf situation. ● Too many ethnicities and languages were mixed together in the nation, lacking a sense of identity and nationality. ● Russian Army felt humiliated. ● War with Japan. Humiliating peace in Treaty Portsmouth. ● Working conditions were terrible and trade unionism was banned ● Living conditions were horrendous as developers struggled to deal with the demand for accommodation. ● Nationalists resented other ethnic groups. St Petersburg factory
  6. 6. Political Causes ● Ethnic minorities were greatly oppressed by the policies of Russification ● Jewish people were persecuted by state-sanctioned pogroms ● The influence of Zemstvas (provincial governing bodies) was reduced ● in 1900 officials criticising the government were purged ● middle class industrialists were unhappy that they had no say in how the country was governed ● Increased industrialisation and urbanisation had led to major social and economic problems for workers and peasants The aftermath of a pogrom
  7. 7. Bloody Sunday Minister of the Interior Plehve established a legal trade union. “Assembly of Russian Factory” and Mill Workers, led by a Russian priest, Georgy Gapon. In late 1904, four union members at the Putilov Iron Works Plant in St Petersburg were dismissed. Gapon called for industrial action. Over 100 thousand workers in the city went on strike. Father Gapon organised a petition complaining about working conditions in the city, calling for change. A march took place to deliver the petition to the Tsar. This demonstration of factory workers was brutally put down by Russian soldiers. Up to 200 people were killed by rifle fire and Cossack charges
  8. 8. Developments
  9. 9. October Manifesto (1905) It marked the beginning of the end of the autocratic government established in Russia. The October Manifesto was a document issued by Nicholas II promising political reforms. This was the outcome of several months of riots, political strikes, and violence, discussing the future of the country. The manifesto promised the formation of a State Duma: a national parliament, elected by the people of Russia, to participate in the formulation and passing of laws. It also developed improvements to individual rights and freedoms. The October Manifesto was met with approval by most reformists, particularly liberals and moderate socialists.
  10. 10. Outcome of the Manifesto David Welch, HIstorian “Whether or not you see the October Manifesto as a genuine policy of conciliation, or an attempt to ‘buy off’ the revolutionary movement, it served to split the opposition. It proved too much for conservatives and too little for the Social Democrats, who continued with their agitation… Liberals were also divided between moderates who professed satisfaction with the concessions, and ‘progressives’ (Kadets) who continued to demand further parliamentary reforms.”
  11. 11. State Duma State Duma was one of the promises made in the October Manifesto by Nicholas II and Sergei Witte. It endured from 1905 till the revolution of 1917. There were actually four Dumas in total, the first one was established with 500 deputies, most being from radical left parties. It felt The second one, that lasted around four months, had its majority made of radicals and bolsheviks, their counterparts. The third Duma (1907- 12) was mainly controlled by businessmen, gentry and landowners. The fourth, which lasted 5 years, had very poor political distribution. Duma was a promise from the Tsar that at first satisfied some people, but Nicholas II still held most of the power. All the four versions of Duma show how unstable and little distribution was the power in Russia´s government.
  12. 12. Piotr Stolypin Stolypin was the 3rd prime minister of Russia, from 1906 to 1911. All his time in power was dedicated to stop revolutionary efforts, which clearly failed at last. He had a strong determination to make new, bold reforms. His most influential reform was the Stolypin land reform. This gave peasants the privilege of being able to own land individually. The reform was able to apeace for a while a part of the population. Death Piotr had to face many attempts of assassination that by 1911 would be successful. He was killed when going to Kiev, despite police warning of an assassination plot ahead. It was at the Kiev Opera House where the attempt occurred, and due to heavy injuries, he passed away three days later.
  13. 13. Conclusion The aftermath brought about a short-lived revolution in which the Tsar lost control of large areas of Russia. The revolution failed but it served as a serious warning of what might happen in the future.