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  1. 1. ICSE 2008 Proc. 2008, Johor, Malaysia Reliable Fast Detection Anti-collision Technique for RFID System Implemented on Chip Jahariah Sampe, Nonmember, IEEE and Masuri Othman, Member, IEEE Department of Electrical, Electronics and System Faculty of Engineering, Institute of Microengineering and Nanoelectronic, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia 43600 Bangi, Selangor, MALAYSIA Email:jahariah@yahoo.com Abstract The paper presented a proposed Reliable Fast Detection Anti-collision Technique (RFDACT) for Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) system. Our proposed RFDACT is implemented on-chip using Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) technology. The RFDACT consists of two main subsystems; PreFDACT and PostFDACT. The PreFDACT detects any error in the incoming messages. Then, the identification bit (ID) of the error free packet will be fed to the next subsystem. The PostFDACT will identify the tag by using the deterministic fast detection anti-collision technique. The proposed system is designed using Verilog HDL. The system is simulated using Modelsim and synthesized using Xilinx Synthesis Technology. The system has been successfully implemented in hardware using Field Programmable Grid Array (FPGA) VirtexII. The output waveforms from the FPGA are tested on the Tektronix Logic Analyzer for real time verification. Finally the RFDACT system is implemented on chip using 0.18 µm Library, Synopsys Compiler and tools. The hardware verification result shows the proposed system enables to identify the tags at the operating frequency of 180 MHz without error. The system’s chip is consumed 7.578mW powers, occupied 6,041 gates and 0.0375 mm2 area. I. INTRODUCTION THE Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) system consists of three main components; reader, tag and data management software. The reader is to write instructions to and to read data from the tags. The tags are to store data or unique Identification bits (ID) and are basically attached to the objects to be identified. During the data transmission from the tags to the reader, there might be an error. Therefore, a main role of the Data link layer in the data management system is to convert the unreliable physical link between reader and tag into a reliable link. As a result the RFID system employs the Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC) as an error detection scheme. The CRC calculation consists of an iterative process involving Exclusive-ORs and shift register which is executed much faster in hardware compare in software [10-11]. In addition an anti-collision technique is required to coordinate the communication between the reader and the multiple tags. The common deterministic anti-collision techniques are based on the Tree algorithm such as the Binary Tree and the Query Tree algorithms [1-4]. In the Binary Tree algorithm, the identification process will firstly search the smallest tag’s ID until the largest one follows the Binary Tree sequence. Since this algorithm is a deterministic anti-collision technique, the reader will control the communication between the Tags. As a result enable production of the tag with simple, small, low cost and low power features. However the drawback of the Binary Tree algorithm is its identification time is dependent on two parameters; the number of tags simultaneously exists in the interrogation zone and the length of tag’s ID. If either one of these parameters is increased the identification time will increase. Moreover this algorithm also requires the tags to remember the previous instructions from the reader during the communication process. II. RFDACT ARCHITECTURE Based on the Binary Tree anti-collision algorithm, the Reliable Fast Detection Anti-collision Technique (RFDACT) is proposed. 2491-4244-2561-7/08/$20.00 ©2008 IEEE
  2. 2. ICSE 2008 Proc. 2008, Johor, Malaysia The proposed RFDACT is novel in terms of faster identification time by reducing the number of iterations needed to identify one tag. The powered tags are divided into a group of four for every Read cycle in order to reduce the number of iterations during the identification process. In addition, the identification time of the proposed RFDACT does not dependent on the length of the tag’s ID. Instead of sending and receiving the ID bit by bit, the RFDACT will read all the ID bits at once regardless of its length. This is performed by using the word-by-word multiplexing or byte interleaving. Meanwhile, this algorithm also does not require the tags to remember the previous instructions from the reader during the identification process. The reader transmits the read command to the tags and the tags will simultaneously backscatter its’ ID bits. As a result the tag is treated as an address carrying device i.e. the tag only carries its identification bits. Therefore, the memoryless tag which exhibits very low power consumption can be produced [3]. The RFDACT system is based on a Time Division Multiplexing (TDM) operation. Therefore three parameters are used to measure the performance of the system; the maximum data rate (N), the length of ID bits (n) and the number of supported input/output lines (L). The identification time for RFDACT system is same regardless of the length of the tag’s ID and equal to one System clock cycle (T). Therefore, the relationship between the maximum data rate (N), the length of ID bits (n), the access time (tacc) and the number of input/output lines (L) is given by the following equation [12]. acctL n N × = (1) In order to increase the throughput of the primary RFDACT system, the number of input/output lines (channels) should be increased. But from (1), it shows that if the data rate increases, the number of supported lines will be decreased and vice versa. Therefore, to increase the number of lines supported by the system per read cycle without decreasing the maximum data rate, a few primary RFDACT modules should be multiplexed. Fig. 1 shows the block diagram of the RFDACT system, which consist of two main subsystems; PreRFDACT (front end) and PostRFDACT (back end). The PreRFDACT subsystem as shown in Fig. 1(a) is used to detect error in the incoming messages. The CRC-generator module in this subsystem employs the CRC16-CCITT standard using the polynomial generator of X16 + X12 + X5 +1. Output from this subsystem which consist only the ID of the active tags will be fed to the next subsystem. The PostRFDACT subsystem as shown in Fig. 1(b) will identify these tags’ ID by using the Fast Detection anti-collision technique. (a) Pre-RFDACT (b) Post-RFDACT Fig. 1 The subsystems of RFDACT system In the PreRFDACT, the received messages are fed into the CRC-remover module. In this module, the received messages are separated into two; the received packet and the received CRC. Then these packet and CRC will be sent to the CRC-checker module for a verification process. The CRC-checker module will recalculate the CRC of the received packet. Thus, the calculated CRC are compared with the received CRC. If the values are the same means no error, the statusbit is set to its original value i.e. zero. Otherwise or there are errors in the packet, the statusbit is set to two. After that, this updated statusbit is appended to its respective packet. Next the packet with the updated status-bit is fed to the Status-checker module. Finally the Status-checker module will check the incoming packets whether have errors or not. If there are errors, reset the slot of the respective packet to zero value. Otherwise, fill the slot of the packet with its respective ID. Hence, the status-bit will be removed from its packet and : : Data-value0 Status-Checker Data-value3 : CRC Checker0 CRC-Remover CRC Checker3 Packet0 Pakcet3 Active0 Active3Clock Reset Messages Tag clock To monitor (tag_out) Improved Fast-search Read-Killtag Reset Clock Clock Divider Active0 Active3 To upper layer (tag_kill) Select Generator 250
  3. 3. ICSE 2008 Proc. 2008, Johor, Malaysia only the tag’s ID will be output to the PostRFDACT. In the PostRFDACT, the Fast-search module will identify the four tag’s IDs simultaneously in one Read cycle which equal to a Tag clock cycle. The module will firstly identify the smallest ID bits until the largest one follows the Binary Tree with a maximum number of four leaves. Finally, the identified tag will be killed by adding a bit ‘1’ to the most significant bit (MSB) of the tag’s ID [9]. 2.1 RFDACT modules The proposed RFDACT system is designed using Verilog HDL. The PreRFDACT system as shown in Fig. 1(a) consists of Message-generator, CRC-remover and Status-checker modules. Each of these modules consist of a few submodules. Message-generator module consists of Packet-generator and CRC-generator submodules. CRC-remover module consists of four CRC-checker modules. CRC-checker module consists of the CRC generator module and a comparator. Status-checker module consists of four Data-value submodules. All these modules are synchronized to a system clock. The output of this system which consist only the active tags’ ID will become an input to the PostRFDACT system. The PostRFDACT system as shown in Fig. 1(b) consists of Fast-search, Read-killtag, Clock-divider and Select-generator modules. All these modules are also synchronized to a system clock. In this subsystem there are two output ports, the first port is to display the identified tags. The other port is to acknowledge the successful identified tags. III. SIMULATION RESULTS Verilog HDL codes for the RFDACT system have been successfully simulated and verified using the ModelSim XE II/Starter 5.7g tool. The following will discuss the Behavioral simulation waveforms for the selected ports in the RFDACT system as shown in Fig. 2. At the first Read cycle, for the received messages of 000C8584416, 0000550A516, 00010123116, and 0EA6093DF16, the recalculated CRC of these messages are 584416, 50A516, 123116, and 93DF16 respectively. As a result, the calculated CRCs are equal to the received CRCs which is represented by the four bit of the least significant bit (LSB) of the messages. Since there are no errors in the received messages, the statusbit of the packets are set to zero, which are represented by the MSB of the packets; 000C816, 0000516, 0001016 and 0EA6016 respectively. Finally, the ID of these packets will be fed simultaneously to the PostRFDACT system at the positive edge of the Tag clock. (a) Output data from the PreRFDACT modules (b) Output data form the PostRFDACT modules Fig. 2 The Behavioral simulation of RFDACT In the PostFDACT subsystem, the Fast-search module will identify the four active tags simultaneously starting from the smallest value to the largest one. For examples, for the four input tag’s ID of 00C816, 000516, 001016 and EA6016 will be identified as 00516, 001016, 00C816 and EA6016 respectively. Then these identified tags will be fed to the Read-killtag module simultaneously at the negative edge of the Tag clock. Finally, the Read-killtag Module will output the four identified tags serially, one tag at every cycle of the system clock starting from the smallest tag’s ID to the largest one. Moreover, at the same clock cycle, the identified tag will be killed. 251
  4. 4. ICSE 2008 Proc. 2008, Johor, Malaysia IV. IMPLEMENTATION AND VERIFICATION The RFDACT system has been implemented in hardware using the Field Programmable Grid Array (FPGA) model Virtex II Xc2v250. The output waveforms from the FPGA have been displayed using the Tektronix Logic Analyzer model TLA 5201 for real time verification. From the result, it shows that the system still enables to identify the tags at the operating frequency of 180 MHz without errors. This is the maximum operating frequency of the used FPGA model. The following will compare and discuss the FPGA output and its respective Place-Route Simulation output. This is purposely to verify the correctness of the obtained FPGA output. (a) FPGA output using Spectrum Analyzer (b) Place-Route simulation output Fig. 3 Output at the operating frequency of 40 MHz Fig. 3(a) shows the FPGA output at the operating frequency of 40 MHz and the threshold voltage of 1.25V. The figure consists of two portions; the upper and the bottom which represent the low and the high sampling rate waveforms respectively. For each portion the A3 represents the eight MSB of the tag’s ID and the A2 represents the eight LSB of the tag’s ID. Fig. 3(b) is the equivalent Place-Route simulation output of Fig. 3(a). For examples for both outputs, the identified tags at the first Read cycle are 0D5916, 356016, 6B6816 and 8A5016. For the second Read cycle, the identified tags are 0D5A16, 356416, 6B7016 and 8A5C16 etc. From the comparison results, it shows that the RFDACA system is correctly identified the tags at this operating frequency. Since the RFDACT system is successfully implemented in hardware using FPGA with desired performances. Then the system is implemented on chip using ASIC approach. In this approach the system is resynthesized using 0.18µm Library, Synopsys Compiler and tools. In ASIC the most critical step is to determine the design constraint parameters for the synthesis. The chosen constraint parameters should ensure that there is no constraint parameters are violated. The other synthesis results for the system clock period of 3.3 ns are shown on Table 1. This clock period is given a good slack value of 0.41 ns. Table 1 Synthesized output parameters Xilinix Parameters ASIC Parameters Max. Frequency=253MHz Cell area= 0.03753 mm2 Total gate count=6041 Power = 7.578 mW Connection Delay=1.18ns Arrival time=2.31ns Max. pin Delay=5.35ns Slack = 0.41 ns Table 1 shows the output parameters using two synthesis technology; Xilinix and ASIC. The RFDACT system has the maximum operating frequency of 253 MHz and the total gates of 6,041. The average connection delay is 1.18 ns and the maximum pin delay is 5.35 ns. Moreover, the RFDACT is occupied 0.03753 mm2 cell area and consumed 7.578 mW power. The data required time and the data arrival time are 2.72 ns and 2.31ns respectively. V. CONCLUSIONS A proposed Reliable Fast Detection Anti-collision Technique (RFDACT) is presented to achieve a reliable and faster identification of the tags. An error packet is detected at the front end of the system before the tag identification process is carried out. The faster identification process is performed at the back end of the system by using the deterministic anti-collision technique. The RFDACT system has been successfully implemented in hardware using FPGA model Virtex II Xc2v250. The simulation output of the system has been verified in real time using Tektronix Logic Analyzer model TLA 520. 252
  5. 5. ICSE 2008 Proc. 2008, Johor, Malaysia From the verification result, it shows that this hardware implemented system enables to identify the tags at the operating frequency of 180 MHz without error. Then the system is implemented on chip using 0.18 µm Library, Synopsys compiler and tools. The synthesis result shows that the minimum identification time is 3.3 ns. The chip is utilized 6041 gates, occupied 0.03753 mm2 cell area and consumed 7.578 mW power. REFERENCES [1] K. Finkenzeller, and R. Waddington, RFID handbook: fundamental and applications in Contactless Smart Cards and Identification, John Wiley & Sons (2003). [2] F. Zhou, D. Jing, C. Huang and H. Min, “Evaluating and optimizing power consumption of anti-collision protocols for applications in RFID Systems,” Proc. ISLPED’04, International Symposium on Low Power Electronics and Design (2004). [3] C. Law, K. Lee and K. Y. Siu, “Efficient memoryless protocol for tag identification,” Proc. 4th International Workshop on Discrete Algorithms and Methods for Mobile Computing and Communications, pp. 75-84 (2000). [4] J. Myung and W. Lee, “Adaptive Binary Splitting for Efficient RFID Tag Anti-Collision,” IEEE Communication Letters, vol. 10, No.3, pp.144-146 (2006). [5] Shih, D. H, Sun, P. L, Yen, D. C. and Shi-Ming Huang S. M, “Taxonomy and survey of RFID anti-collision protocols,” Computer Communications, Elsevier Science Publishers, Vol. 29, Issue 11, pp. 2150-2166 (2006). [6] S. Sarma, D. Brock and D. Engels, “Radio Frequency Identification and the Electronic Product Code,” IEEE Micro, vol. 21 No. 6, pp.50-54 (2001). [7] Choi, H.S., Cha, J.R. and Kim, J.H., “Improved Bit-by-Bit Binary Tree Algorithm in Ubiquitous ID System”, Proc. of the International Conference on Advances in Multimedia Information Processing, Springer Publisher, LNCS 3332, pp. 696-703, (2004). [8] S. Singh, “Low Cost Object Identification in RFID via Dynamic Markov Chain & Two Time Scale SPSA,” Proc. SAINTW’06, International Symposium on Applications and the Internet Workshops (2006). [9] Jahariah S. and Masuri O., “Fast Detection Anti-collision Algorithm for RFID System Implemented On-chip”, J. of Applied Science 8(7), pp. 1315-1319 (2008) [10] William Stallings, “Digital Data Communication Techniques” in Data and Computer Communications, Macmillan, Inc., pp. 103-112, (1988). [11] Chris Borrelli, IEEE 802.3 Cyclic Redundancy Check, XAPP209 (v1.0), Xilinix Publishers (2001). [12] Edmond Zahedi: Digital data communication. Prentice Hall, pp.171-177 (2002). 253

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