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Ce 451 design of commercial building in jubail industrial city

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Civil Engineering - Senior Design Project.
Structural analysis & Design.

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Ce 451 design of commercial building in jubail industrial city

  1. 1. Department of Civil Engineering CE 451 Design Project Design of Commercial Building in Jubail Industrial City Students Team Ahmed Ali Al-Ibrahim 32110038 Ali Asa’ad Al-Jaziri 32110140 Sha`aban 1437 May 2016
  2. 2. I DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING CERTIFICATE OF COMPLETION The project titled “Design of Commercial Building in Jubail Industrial City”, submitted in partial fulfillment for the award of Bachelor of Science degree in Civil Engineering is a record of true work carried out by; 1. Ahmed Ali Al-Ibrahim, 32110038 2. Ali Asa’ad Al-Jaziri, 32110140 Under the guidance and supervision of; 1. Dr. syed Khaleeq Ahmad 2. Mr. Thavasu Mony Dhasan The project has been presented to and approved by the Project Examination Committee. Dr. Mohammed Abdullahi Mu’azu Chairperson, Civil Engineering Department Signature: Date:
  3. 3. II Acknowledgement First, we are extremely grateful to Almighty, Allah who bestowed us the understanding and perseverance to make this accomplishment possible. We have taken efforts in this project. However, it would not have been possible without the kind support and help of Civil Engineering faculty members and JUC. We would like to extend our sincere thanks to all of them. We are highly indebted to Dr. Syed Khaleeq Ahmad and Mr. Thavasu Mony Dhasan for their guidance and constant supervision as well as for providing necessary information regarding the project and also for their support in completing the project. We would like to express our gratitude towards our parents and all members of JUC for their kind co-operation, for giving us such attention and time and encouragement which help us in completion of this project. Our thanks and appreciations also go to our colleagues in developing the project and people who have willingly helped us out with their abilities.
  4. 4. III Project Abstract The purpose of this Major Qualifying Project was to analyze and design a structural system for an illustrative commercial building in Jubail Industrial City. The design process included an architectural layout, structural framing options using Reinforced concrete. The architectural layout has been designed by AutoCAD SketchUP softwares. The work was completed in compliance with the ACI 318 CODE and ASCE CODE. The structural design and analysis has been done by using Robot Structural Analysis Professional (RSAP). In this Major Qualifying Project the group designed a two-story commercial building in Jubail Industrial City. Upon completing the project the group satisfied the requirements necessary for Design. The project team analyzed structural design and also investigated the design and construction of slabs, beams, columns and foundation. All of the structural members were designed in accordance with ACI 318 CODE, ASCE CODE. The challenges the group faced involve several realistic constraints including constructability, ethics, and health and safety. The group referred to the Engineering Code of Ethics to ensure acceptable practices were being applied. This included referencing any research or design material used throughout the project. The building was designed in accordance IBC and SBC building code standards for structural design and fire safety.
  5. 5. IV Table of Contents AKNOWLEDGEMENT………………………………...…………….…………………….……………. II ROJECT ABSTRACT …………………...……...…………………………….……………………….... III TABLE OF CONTENTS ………………………………………………...……...…………….………… IV LIST OF FIGURES ………………………….………………………………………………………….. VI LIST OF TABLES ………………………………………………………….……………...…..…….... VIII 1. INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................................... 1 1.1 PROJECT STATEMENT .................................................................................................................... 1 1.2 PROBLEM STATEMENT................................................................................................................... 2 2. BACKGROUND.................................................................................................................................. 3 2.1 BUILDING PURPOSE ....................................................................................................................... 3 2.2 LOCATION AND ZONING................................................................................................................. 3 3. LITERATURE REVIEW ................................................................................................................... 5 3.1 STRUCTURAL DESIGN .................................................................................................................... 5 3.1.1 Reinforced Concrete ................................................................................................................. 5 3.1.2 Structural Members .................................................................................................................. 7 3.1.2.1 Slab ................................................................................................................................................. 7 3.1.2.1.1 Types of Slabs............................................................................................................................ 8 3.1.2.2 Beam............................................................................................................................................. 10 3.1.2.2.1 Types of Beams........................................................................................................................ 11 3.1.2.3 Column.......................................................................................................................................... 12 3.1.2.3.1 Types of columns ..................................................................................................................... 12 3.1.3 Structural Principles – Loads...................................................................................................15 3.1.4 Building Code Requirement for Structural Concrete (ACI318) ..............................................16 3.1.5 Design Method of Reinforced Concrete Structure...................................................................17 3.1.5.1 The Working Stress Design (WSD) .............................................................................................. 17 3.1.5.2 The Ultimate Stress Design (USD) ............................................................................................... 17 3.1.5.3 Actual vs. Ultimate Strength ......................................................................................................... 18 3.1.6 Autodesk® Robot™ Structural Analysis Professional software .............................................20 3.2 FOUNDATION DESIGN ...................................................................................................................21 3.2.1 Types of Footing......................................................................................................................23 3.3 STRUCTURAL PLANNING...............................................................................................................24 4. METHODLOGY ................................................................................................................................34 4.1 PRE-DESIGN PHASE ......................................................................................................................34 4.2 SCHEMATIC DESIGN PHASE ..........................................................................................................35 5. STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS AND DESIGN....................................................................................36 5.1 INTRODUCTION .............................................................................................................................36 5.2 PRELIMINARY DESIGN INFORMATION...........................................................................................37 5.2.1 Building Layout.......................................................................................................................37 5.2.2 Structural Materials Priorities..................................................................................................39 5.2.3 Building Loads ........................................................................................................................39 5.2.3.1 Dead Load..................................................................................................................................... 39 5.2.3.2 Live Load...................................................................................................................................... 40
  6. 6. V 5.3 STRUCTURAL DESIGN ...................................................................................................................41 5.3.1 Framing....................................................................................................................................41 5.3.2 Loading....................................................................................................................................44 5.3.3 Design of Slabs........................................................................................................................46 5.3.3.1 Slab Software Design.................................................................................................................... 46 5.3.3.2 Slab Manually Design................................................................................................................... 53 5.3.4 Design of Beams......................................................................................................................57 5.3.4.1 Beam Software Design.................................................................................................................. 57 5.3.4.2 Beam Manually Design................................................................................................................. 71 5.3.5 Design of Columns ..................................................................................................................73 5.3.5.1 Column Software Design .............................................................................................................. 73 5.3.5.2 Column Manually Design ............................................................................................................. 88 5.3.6 Design of Footing ....................................................................................................................89 5.3.6.1 Footing Software Design............................................................................................................... 89 5.3.6.2 Footing Manually Design.............................................................................................................. 98 5.3.7 Diagrams and Figures from RSAP ........................................................................................100 6. CONCLUSION AND RECCOMENDATION ...............................................................................112 6.1 CONCLUSION ..............................................................................................................................112 6.2 RECOMMENDATION ....................................................................................................................113 7. REFERENCES .................................................................................................................................114
  7. 7. VI List of Figures FIG (2.1): GPS LOCATION ............................................................................................................................... 4 FIG (2.2): LIVE IMAGE OF THE LOCATION IN AL-FANATEER ........................................................................... 4 FIG (3.1): POSITION OF BARS IN A REINFORCED CONCRETE BEAM.................................................................. 6 FIG (3.2): REINFORCED CONCRETE CROSS SECTION AND RESISTIVE FORCES ................................................. 6 FIG (3.3): ONE-WAY SLAB DESIGN CONCEPT.................................................................................................. 7 FIG (3.4): TYPICAL TYPES OF SLABS ............................................................................................................... 9 FIG (3.5): REINFORCED RECTANGULAR BEAM .............................................................................................. 10 FIG (3.6): COMMON SHAPES OF CONCRETE BEAM ........................................................................................ 11 FIG (3.7): COLUMN TYPES............................................................................................................................. 12 FIG (3.8): THE COLUMN TYPES DEPENDING ON APPLIED LOAD.................................................................... 13 FIG (3.9): ECCENTRIC LOADED CONDITIONS................................................................................................. 14 FIG (3.10): COMPARISON OF WORKING STRESS DESIGN METHOD AND STRENGTH DESIGN METHOD........... 19 FIG (3.11): LOAD TRANSFERRING AND DISTRIBUTION TO FOUNDATION ....................................................... 22 FIG (3.12): FOOTING TYPES........................................................................................................................... 24 FIG (3.13): GROUND FLOOR PLAN................................................................................................................. 25 FIG (3.14): FIRST FLOOR PLAN...................................................................................................................... 26 FIG (3.15): ROOF FLOOR PLAN...................................................................................................................... 27 FIG (3.16): FRONT SIDE VIEW ....................................................................................................................... 28 FIG (3.17): RIGHT SIDE VIEW........................................................................................................................ 28 FIG (3.18): LEFT SIDE VIEW.......................................................................................................................... 29 FIG (3.19): 3D VIEW ..................................................................................................................................... 29 FIG (5.1): SCHEME COLUMNS AND BEAMS LAYOUT...................................................................................... 38 FIG (5.2): 3D MODELING OF SCHEME LAYOUT ............................................................................................. 41 FIG (5.3): FRONT VIEW OF SCHEME LAYOUT ................................................................................................ 41 FIG (5.4-A): SPECIFIED SECTIONS SIZES OF SCHEME LAYOUT....................................................................... 42 FIG (5.4-B): SPECIFIED SECTIONS SIZES OF SCHEME LAYOUT ....................................................................... 42 FIG (5.5): TOP VIEW OF SPECIFIED SECTIONS LAYOUT ................................................................................. 43 FIG (5.6): SPECIFIED SECTIONS SIZES OF SCHEME LAYOUT AFTER ADDING SLABS....................................... 43 FIG (5.7): STRUCTURAL FRAMING WITH DEAD LOAD ................................................................................... 44 FIG (5.8): STRUCTURAL FRAMING WITH LIVE LOAD ..................................................................................... 44 FIG (5.9): STRUCTURAL FRAMING WITH COMBINATION LOAD...................................................................... 45 FIG (5.10): SLAB FORM WORK...................................................................................................................... 47 FIG (5.11): BOTTOM SLAB REINFORCEMENT................................................................................................. 48 FIG (5.12): TOP SLAB REINFORCEMENT ........................................................................................................ 49 FIG (5.13): REINFORCEMENT DEGREE OF SLAB MAP .................................................................................... 52 FIG (5.14): SLABS DISTRIBUTION .................................................................................................................. 53 FIG (5.15): BEAMS DISTRIBUTION................................................................................................................. 57 FIG (5.16-A): BEAMS DESIGN........................................................................................................................ 59 FIG (5.16-B): BEAMS DESIGN ........................................................................................................................ 60 FIG (5.16-C): BEAMS DESIGN ........................................................................................................................ 61 FIG (5.16-D): BEAMS DESIGN........................................................................................................................ 62 FIG (5.16-E): BEAMS DESIGN ........................................................................................................................ 63 FIG (5.16-F): BEAMS DESIGN ........................................................................................................................ 64 FIG (5.16-G): BEAMS DESIGN........................................................................................................................ 65 FIG (5.16-H): BEAMS DESIGN........................................................................................................................ 66 FIG (5.16-I): BEAMS DESIGN ......................................................................................................................... 67 FIG (5.16-J): BEAMS DESIGN......................................................................................................................... 68
  8. 8. VII FIG (5.16-K): BEAMS DESIGN........................................................................................................................ 69 FIG (5.16-L): BEAMS DESIGN ........................................................................................................................ 70 FIG (5.17): COLUMNS DISTRIBUTIONS........................................................................................................... 73 FIG (5.18-A): COLUMNS DESIGN ................................................................................................................... 75 FIG (5.18-B): COLUMNS DESIGN ................................................................................................................... 76 FIG (5.18-C): COLUMNS DESIGN ................................................................................................................... 77 FIG (5.18-D): COLUMNS DESIGN ................................................................................................................... 78 FIG (5.18-E): COLUMNS DESIGN.................................................................................................................... 79 FIG (5.18-F): COLUMNS DESIGN.................................................................................................................... 80 FIG (5.18-G): COLUMNS DESIGN ................................................................................................................... 81 FIG (5.18-H): COLUMNS DESIGN ................................................................................................................... 82 FIG (5.18-I): COLUMNS DESIGN..................................................................................................................... 83 FIG (5.18-J): COLUMNS DESIGN .................................................................................................................... 84 FIG (5.18-K): COLUMNS DESIGN ................................................................................................................... 85 FIG (5.18-L): COLUMNS DESIGN.................................................................................................................... 86 FIG (5.18-M): COLUMNS DESIGN................................................................................................................... 87 FIG (5.19): FOUNDATION DISTRIBUTION ....................................................................................................... 89 FIG (5.20-A): FOOTING DESIGN ..................................................................................................................... 91 FIG (5.20-B): FOOTING DESIGN ..................................................................................................................... 92 FIG (5.20-C): FOOTING DESIGN ..................................................................................................................... 93 FIG (5.20-D): FOOTING DESIGN ..................................................................................................................... 94 FIG (5.20-E): FOOTING DESIGN ..................................................................................................................... 95 FIG (5.20-F): FOOTING DESIGN...................................................................................................................... 96 FIG (5.20-G): FOOTING DESIGN ..................................................................................................................... 97 FIG (5.21): 3D VIEW OF DESIGNED BEAM................................................................................................... 100 FIG (5.22): 3D VIEW OF DESIGNED COLUMN .............................................................................................. 100 FIG (5.23): 3D VIEW OF DESIGNED FOOTING .............................................................................................. 101 FIG (5.24): FRONT VIEW OF DESIGNED FOOTING ........................................................................................ 101 FIG (5.25): 3D VIEW OF BENDING MOMENT MAP ....................................................................................... 102 FIG (5.26): TOP VIEW OF BENDING MOMENT MAP ..................................................................................... 103 FIG (5.27): 3D VIEW OF SHEAR FORCE MAP ............................................................................................... 104 FIG (5.28): TOP VIEW OF SHEAR FORCE MAP.............................................................................................. 105 FIG (5.29): 3D VIEW OF DISPLACEMENT MAP............................................................................................. 106 FIG (5.30): TOP VIEW OF DISPLACEMENT MAP ........................................................................................... 107 FIG (5.31): 3D VIEW OF BENDING MOMENT DIAGRAM............................................................................... 108 FIG (5.32): FRONT VIEW OF BENDING MOMENT DIAGRAM......................................................................... 109 FIG (5.33): 3D VIEW OF SHEAR FORCE DIAGRAM ....................................................................................... 110 FIG (5.34): FRONT VIEW OF SHEAR FORCE DIAGRAM ................................................................................. 111
  9. 9. VIII List of Tables TABLE (3.1): LOAD FACTOR COMBINATIONS FOR DETERMINING REQUIRED STRENGTH ............ 18 TABLE (3.2): UNITS SIZE DIMENSIONS OF USED STRAIGHT STAIRCASE....................................... 30 TABLE (3.3): UNITS SIZE DIMENSIONS OF USED SPIRAL STAIRCASE............................................ 30 TABLE (3.4): UNITS SIZE DIMENSIONS OF USED DOORS............................................................... 31 TABLE (3.5): UNITS SIZE AREA OF THE ROOF ............................................................................... 31 TABLE (3.6): UNITS SIZE AREA OF THE USED ROOMS IN GROUND FLOOR................................... 32 TABLE (3.7): UNITS SIZE AREA OF THE USED ROOMS IN FIRST FLOOR ........................................ 33 TABLE (5.1): MINIMUM UNIFORMLY DISTRIBUTED LIVE LOAD FOR THE BUILDING.................... 40 TABLE (5.2-A): SLAB REINFORCEMENT........................................................................................ 50 TABLE (5.2-B): SLAB REINFORCEMENT ........................................................................................ 50 TABLE (5.2-C): SLAB REINFORCEMENT......................................................................................... 51 TABLE (5.3): TYPE OF BEAMS ....................................................................................................... 58 TABLE (5.4): TYPE OF COLUMNS................................................................................................... 74 TABLE (5.5): TYPE OF FOUNDATION ............................................................................................. 90
  10. 10. 1 1. INTRODUCTION Buildings form a major part of the public scope and provide edges to streets and public spaces. A high quality building design is an important component of attractive streetscapes and site development. Building design must consider the site context, proposed uses, and the major components of the building and subtle details which create character and magnificence. A commercial building is a building that is used for a commercial uses. Types can include office building, convenience stores or shopping malls, etc. In urban locations, a commercial building often combined functions, such as a stores in the ground floor, with offices in the other floors. Usually, local authorities maintain strict regulations on commercial zoning, and have the authority to designate any zoned area as such a business must be located in a commercial area or area zoned at least partially for commerce. Commercial building represent a large portion of new construction projects in the Kingdom. Commercial building designed for consumer interaction and sales often represent unique structural and architectural design challenges due to the emphasis on aesthetic and performance. The team used the project to demonstrate fundamental knowledge of civil engineering gained from under graduate courses at JUC. Topics not covered in the under graduate curriculum were researched and explored. 1.1 Project Statement The project team’s goals to design an architectural plan and structural system that is cost effective, safe, accommodating to the proposed use. The architectural layout and floor plan were established based on the building’s projected commercial use. The floor plan and building layout were designed in accordance with Neufert Architect Data and International Building Code. The team then designed a structural framing system. All principal structural members were designed; slabs, beams, columns and foundation elements. The building has been analyzed and designed using software program (Autodesk® Robot™ Structural Analysis Professional software). Both live loads and dead loads were considered according to ACI 318.
  11. 11. 2 The building is two story and includes stores, offices and facilities corporatism and public service facilities. The first floor where the stores and service facilities are located, there are sixteen stores which have external entrances, lobby and reception, mosque, dining hall and two bathrooms. Also, there are two main gates to the building from front and back which the front gate facing the street and the back gate facing the parking area. For security and safety compliance, the building is equipped with four emergency exits in the sub-sides. The second floor will have offices, conference hall, meeting room, HR room, copy room, mail rooms and storages. 1.2 Problem Statement Jubail Industrial City is witnessing economically, commercially and industrially significant growth, and these factors are important factors to attract people to live and work in the city. So, the team decided that the project is the establishment of a commercial building in the city center in Al- Fanateer neighborhood. Specifically the project will be located on Al-Sheraa’ road next to Burger King Fast Food Restaurant. This site was chosen to support the commercial activity in the region, an area of large land which will provide a large number of parking lots, the occurrence of the building in front of the Corniche and this is an attraction and finally because this site is located between the vital installations such as (SABIC, a number of banks and companies, Galaria mall and Al- Fanateer mall. etc.) and this will greatly help to attract a company to trade role second in all required facilities equipped building. The project team has considered the design constraints; economy and community service.
  12. 12. 3 2. BACKGROUND This background discusses the building purpose and facilities in the building and showing the location of the project. 2.1 Building Purpose In order to begin the building design process the team had to determine the general purpose of the building. The building is capable of accommodating several different purpose. The design plan includes an open lobby at its entrances which serves as space for consumers and a front desk or cash register. Also, there are many shops that can be exploited as restaurants or cafes and others. The building also provides office space with several different size offices for various ranking employees. Architectural references such as, Neufert Architect Data, provided general floor dimensions and layout of various aspects of commercial building which were used in the building design process. 2.2 Location and Zoning In order to realistically design the building and adapt to real constraints, an actual site was identified within Al-Fanateer City Centre area where the GPS coordinates of the location is (27°07'57.6"N 49°34'10.5"E). The group required access to site drawings. The Figures below shows the GPS location of the project and image of the project site.
  13. 13. 4 Fig (2.1): GPS Location Fig (2.2): Live Image of the Location in Al-Fanateer
  14. 14. 5 3. LITERATURE REVIEW This chapter discusses the research base that contributed to the development of this project. The below sections represent the information collected regarding the various elements of the building and the structural and analysis processes of those elements. 3.1 Structural Design The structural design of the building was a major focus of the project. When designing the concrete structural framing elements the group followed the provisions of the SBC 2007; Saudi Building Code and IBC 2015; International Building Code. The building code provides design values for floor loadings based on room functionality. It also defines other design loads including wind, rain, and earthquake. To establish the most effective design it was necessary to compare different framing schemes and corresponding costs. Individual members were designed to use as little material as possible while handling design loads and meeting code restrictions. Member sizes throughout the building were also designed to be as repetitive as possible while using standard dimensions. The group referred to the appropriate and ACI (Building Code Requirements for Reinforced Concrete (ACI 318-11)) specifications for material properties and design criteria. 3.1.1 Reinforced Concrete The most common materials needed to build a structure are: Wood, steel, and reinforced concrete. Lightweight materials such as aluminum and plastics are also becoming more common in use. Reinforced concrete is unique in that two materials, reinforcing steel and concrete, are used together; thus the principles governing the structural design in reinforced concrete differ in many ways from those involving design in one material.
  15. 15. 6 Concrete in which steel is embedded in such a manner that the two materials act together in resisting forces. The reinforcing steel rods, bars, or mesh absorbs the tensile, shear, and sometimes the compressive stresses in a concrete structure. Plain concrete does not easily withstand tensile and shear stresses caused by wind, earthquakes, vibrations, and other forces and is therefore unsuitable in most structural applications. In reinforced concrete, the tensile strength of steel and the compressive strength of concrete work together to allow the member to sustain these stresses over considerable spans. Fig (3.1): Position of Bars in a Reinforced Concrete Beam Fig (3.2): Reinforced Concrete Cross Section and Resistive Forces
  16. 16. 7 3.1.2 Structural Members 3.1.2.1 Slab The slab provides a horizontal surface and is usually supported by columns, beams or walls. Slabs can be categorized into two main types: one-way slabs and two-way slabs. One-way slab is the most basic and common type of slab. One-way slabs are supported by two opposite sides and bending occurs in one direction only. Two-way slabs are supported on four sides and bending occurs in two directions. One-way slabs are designed as rectangular beams placed side by side. Fig (3.3): One-way Slab Design Concept However, slabs supported by four sides may be assumed as one-way slab when the ratio of lengths to width of two perpendicular sides exceeds 2. Although while such slabs transfer their loading in four directions, nearly all load is transferred in the short direction.
  17. 17. 8 Two-way slabs carry the load to two directions, and the bending moment in each direction is less than the bending moment of one-way slabs. Also two-way slabs have less deflection than one-way slabs. Compared to one-way slabs, Calculation of two-way slabs is more complex. 3.1.2.1.1 Types of Slabs  One-way slabs 1. One-way Beam and slab / One-way flat slab: These slabs are supported on two opposite sides and all bending moment and deflections are resisted in the short direction. A slab supported on four sides with length to width ratio greater than two, should be designed as one-way slab. 2. One-way joist floor system: This type of slab, also called ribbed slab, is supported by reinforced concrete ribs or joists. The ribs are usually tapered and uniformly spaced and supported on girders that rest on columns.  Two-way slab 1. Two-way beam and slab: If the slab is supported by beams on all four sides, the loads are transferred to all four beams, assuming rebar in both directions. 2. Two-way flat slab: A flat slab usually does not have beams or girders but is supported by drop panels or column capitals directly. All loads are transferred to the supporting column, with punching shear resisted by drop panels. 3. Two-way waffle slab: This type of slab consists of a floor slab with a length-to-width ratio less than 2, supported by waffles in two directions.
  18. 18. 9 Fig (3.4): Typical Types of Slabs
  19. 19. 10 3.1.2.2 Beam Beams can be described as members that are mainly subjected to flexure and it is essential to focus on the analysis of bending moment, shear, and deflection. When the bending moment acts on the beam, bending strain is produced. The resisting moment is developed by internal stresses. Under positive moment, compressive strains are produced in the top of beam and tensile strains in the bottom. Concrete is a poor material for tensile strength and it is not suitable for flexure member by itself. The tension side of the beam would fail before compression side failure when beam is subjected to a bending moment without the reinforcement. For this reason, steel reinforcement is placed on the tension side. The steel reinforcement resists all tensile bending stress because tensile strength of concrete is zero when cracks develop. In the Ultimate Strength Design (USD), a rectangular stress block is assumed. As shown Fig (3.5), the dimensions of the compression force is the product of beam width, depth and length of compressive stress block. The design of beam is initiated by the calculation of moment strengths controlled by concrete and steel. Fig (3.5): Reinforced Rectangular Beam
  20. 20. 11 3.1.2.2.1 Types of Beams Fig (3.6) shows the most common shapes of concrete beams: single reinforced rectangular beams, doubly reinforced rectangular beams, T-shape beams, spandrel beams, and joists. In cast–in-place construction, the single reinforced rectangular beam is uncommon. The T-shape and L-shape beams are typical types of beam because the beams are built monolithically with the slab. When slab and beams are poured together, the slab on the beam serves as the flange of a T-beam and the supporting beam below slab is the stem or web. For positive applied bending moment, the bottom of section produces the tension and the slab acts as compression flange. But negative bending on a rectangular beam puts the stem in compression and the flange is ineffective in tension. Joists consist of spaced ribs and a top flange. Fig (3.6): Common Shapes of Concrete Beam
  21. 21. 12 3.1.2.3 Column Columns support primarily axial load but usually also some bending moments. The combination of axial load and bending moment defines the characteristic of column and calculation method. A column subjected to large axial force and minor moment is designed mainly for axial load and the moment has little effect. A column subjected to significant bending moment is designed for the combined effect. The ACI Code assumes a minimal bending moment in its design procedure, although the column is subjected to compression force only. Compression force may cause lateral bursting because of the low-tension stress resistance. To resist shear, ties or spirals are used as column reinforcement to confine vertical bars. The complexity and many variables make hand calculations tedious which makes the computer-aided design very useful. 3.1.2.3.1 Types of columns Reinforced concrete columns are categorized into five main types; rectangular tied column, rectangular spiral column, round tied column, round spiral column, and columns of other geometry (Hexagonal, L-shaped, T-Shaped, etc). Fig (3.7): Column Types
  22. 22. 13 Fig (3.7) shows the rectangular tied and round spiral concrete column. Tied columns have horizontal ties to enclose and hold in place longitudinal bars. Ties are commonly No. 3 or No.4 steel bars. Tie spacing should be calculated with ACI Code. Spiral columns have reinforced longitudinal bars that are enclosed by continuous steel spiral. The spiral is made up of either large diameter steel wire or steel rod and formed in the shape of helix. The spiral columns are slightly stronger than tied columns. The columns are also categorized into three types by the applied load types; the column with small eccentricity, the column with large eccentricity (also called eccentric column) and biaxial bending column. Fig (3.8) shows the different column types depending on applied load. Fig (3.8): The Column Types Depending on Applied Load
  23. 23. 14  Eccentricity is usually defined by location: • Interior columns usually have. • Exterior columns usually have large eccentricity. • Corner column usually has biaxial eccentricity. But eccentricity is not always decided by location of columns. Even interior columns can be subjected by biaxial bending moment under some load conditions Fig (3.9) shows some examples of eccentric load conditions. Fig (3.9): Eccentric Loaded Conditions
  24. 24. 15 3.1.3 Structural Principles – Loads The structure of a building is the part which is responsible for maintaining the shape of the building under the influence of the forces to which it is subjected. A building must be designed to safely withstand the most severe combination of forces or loads likely to be applied during its lifetime. The loads that are to be assumed while designing a structure are usually specified in the design codes. The primary loads which the structure must resist are described below:  Dead Load Dead load on a structure is the result of the weight of the permanent components such as beams, floor slabs, columns and walls. These components will produce the same constant 'dead' load during the lifespan of the building. Dead loads are exerted in the vertical plane. Dead load = volume of member x unit weight of materials Volume of beam 10.0 x 0.6 x 0.3 = 1.8 m3 Unit weight of reinforced concrete = 24 kN/m3 Therefore, dead load of beam = volume x unit weight = 1.8 m3 x 24 kN/m3 = 43.2 kN  Live Load All unfixed items in a building such as people and furniture result in a 'live' load on the structure. Live loads are exerted in the vertical plane. Live loads are variable as they depend on usage and capacity. Area of floor = 6.0 m x 4.0 m = 24 m2 Live load rating of a house = 1.5 kPa Therefore, live load of floor = 24 m2 x 1.5 kPa = 36 kN
  25. 25. 16 3.1.4 Building Code Requirement for Structural Concrete (ACI318) Many countries have building codes to define material properties, quality controls, minimum size, etc. for safety constructions. The United States does not have an official government code. However, the Uniform Building Code (UBC) and other model codes are adapted by jurisdictions, such as Cities, or States as governing codes. Material and methods are tested by private or public organizations. They develop, share, and disseminate their result and knowledge for adoption by jurisdictions. The American Concrete Institute (ACI) is leading the development of concrete technology. The ACI has published many references and journals. Building Code Requirement for Structural Concrete (ACI318 Code) is a widely recognized reinforced concrete design and construction guide. Although the ACI Code does not have official power of enforcement, it is generally adapted as authorized code by jurisdictions not only in United States but also many countries. The ACI318 Code provides the design and construction guide of reinforced concrete. ACI has been providing new codes depending on the change of design methods and strength requirement. The “Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete” (ACI 318) covers the materials, design, and construction of structural concrete used in buildings and where applicable in non-building Structures. The Code also covers the strength evaluation of existing concrete structures. Among the subjects covered are: contract documents; inspection; materials; durability requirements; concrete quality, mixing, and placing; formwork; embedded pipes; construction joints; reinforcement details; analysis and design; strength and serviceability; flexural and axial loads; shear and torsion; development and splices of reinforcement; slab systems; walls; footings; precast concrete; composite flexural members; pre-stressed concrete; shells and folded plate members; strength evaluation of existing structures; provisions for seismic design; structural plain concrete.
  26. 26. 17 3.1.5 Design Method of Reinforced Concrete Structure Two major calculating methods of reinforced concrete have been used from early 1900’s to current. The first method is called Working Stress Design (WSD) and the second is called Ultimate Strength Design (USD). Working Stress Design was used as the principal method from early 1900’s until the early 1960’s. Since Ultimate Strength Design method was officially recognized and permitted from ACI 318, the main design method of ACI 318 Code has gradually changed from WSD to USD method. 3.1.5.1 The Working Stress Design (WSD) Traditionally, elastic behavior was used as basis for the design method of reinforced concrete structures. This method is known as Working Stress Design (WSD) and also called the Alternate Design Method or the Elastic Design Method. This design concept is based on the elastic theory that assumes a straight-line stress distribution along the depth of the concrete section. To analyze and design reinforced concrete members, the actual load under working conditions, also called service load condition, is used and allowable stresses are decided depending on the safety factor. For example allowable compressive bending stress is calculated as 0.45 𝑓 ́ 𝑐. If the actual stresses do not exceed the allowable stresses, the structures are considered to be adequate for strength. The WSD method is easier to explain and use than other method but this method is being replaced by the Ultimate Strength Design method. ACI 318 Code treats the WSD method just in a small part. 3.1.5.2 The Ultimate Stress Design (USD) The Ultimate Strength Design method, also called Strength Design Method (SDM), is based on the ultimate strength, when the design member would fail. The USD method provides safety not by allowable stresses as for the ASD method but by factored loads, nominal strength and strength reduction factors ∅, both defined by the ACI code. The load factors are 1.6 for live load and 1.2 for dead load. Other factors are given in Table (3.1).
  27. 27. 18 3.1.5.3 Actual vs. Ultimate Strength The first difference between working stress design method and Strength design method, historically, has been that the old Allowable Stress Design compared actual and allowable stresses while USD compares required strength to actual strengths. The difference between looking at strengths vs. stresses does not present much of a problem since the difference is normally just multiplying or dividing both sides of the limit state inequalities by a section property, depending on which way you are going. In fact, the new ACI 318 Allowable Strength Design (ASD), which replaces the old allowable stress design, has now switched the old stress based terminology to a strength based terminology, virtually eliminating this difference between the philosophies. Table (3.1): Load Factor Combinations for Determining Required Strength
  28. 28. 19 The Figure below illustrates the member strength levels computed by the two methods on a typical mild steel load vs. deformation diagram. The combined force levels (Pa, Ma, Va) for ASD are typically kept below the yield load for the member by computing member load capacity as the nominal strength, Rn, divided by a factor of safety, W, that reduces the capacity to a point below yielding. For USD, the combined force levels (Pu, Mu, Vu) are kept below a computed member load capacity that is the product of the nominal strength, Rn, times a resistance factor, f. When considering member strengths, we always want to keep our final design's actual loads below yielding so as to prevent permanent deformations in our structure. Consequently, if the USD approach is used, then load factors greater than 1.0 must be applied to the applied loads to express them in terms that are safely comparable to the ultimate strength levels. This is accomplished in the load combination equations that consider the probabilities associated with simultaneous occurrence of different types of loads. Fig (3.10): Comparison of Working Stress Design Method and Strength Design Method
  29. 29. 20 3.1.6 Autodesk® Robot™ Structural Analysis Professional software All the structural aspects included slabs, beams, columns and foundation design has been designed and analyzed by using this software program. Autodesk® Robot™ Structural Analysis Professional software is a collaborative, versatile, and faster software application. Purpose-built for building information modelling, Autodesk Robot Structural Analysis Professional calculates even more complex models with powerful finite element auto-meshing, nonlinear algorithms, and a comprehensive collection of design codes to help achieve results in minutes, not hours. Autodesk Robot Structural Analysis Professional offers a smoother, collaborative workflow and interoperability with 3D bidirectional links to Autodesk companion products. The open API (application programming interface) helps to provide a scalable, country-specific analysis solution for large and complex building structures. The software uses Finite Element Method for analysis of structure. The finite element method (FEM) is a powerful technique originally developed for numerical solution of complex problems in structural mechanics, and it remains the method of choice for complex systems. In the FEM, the structural system is modeled by a set of appropriate finite elements interconnected at points called nodes. Elements may have physical properties such as thickness, coefficient of thermal expansion, density, Young's modulus, shear modulus and Poisson's ratio. The origin of finite method can be traced to the matrix analysis of structures where the concept of displacement or stiffness matrix approach was introduced.
  30. 30. 21 3.2 Foundation Design Foundation design is an essential aspect of the overall structural design of a building. Foundations are responsible for transferring all loads from the building to the supporting ground. They are designed in such a way that they have adequate strength to transfer and spread the load so that the soil will not be overstressed in bearing and foundation elements will have acceptable settlement. Improper settlement in the soils can create overstressed members and cause unexpected damage to structural and non-structural elements. Therefore, foundations are designed based on the properties of the underlying soils. Investigating soil properties for a given site is accomplished through many different strategies. The most common strategy is through the use of boring holes. Boring holes are small circular holes that extend deep into the ground and allow soil samples to be extracted. Samples can be tested on site or transported to a lab to determine characteristics such as soil type, color, water content, density, and compressive strength. Samples are taken throughout the boring process which allow for soil layers and depths to be identified. A thorough site investigation involves several boring holes. By combining data from several boring holes engineers are able to create a composite soil profile to use in the foundation design. There are two basic types of foundations: shallow foundations and deep foundations. Deep foundations are the more expensive and complicated of the two and are mostly used for high rise buildings or sites with poor soil conditions. Deep foundations consist of several long piles that extend deep into the ground. Since soil conditions typically improve as depth increases, deep foundations are effective since they bypass poor, shallow soils and transfer the load to deeper and stronger soils. Shallow foundations are the more popular and cost effective foundation type. Within shallow foundations are spread footings and mat foundations. Spread footings involve several individually designed foundations (typically one under each column) while mat foundations involve one large area that covers the entire building floor. Spread footings require less concrete and therefore are the more cost effective type and will be used for this project.
  31. 31. 22 Spread footings are designed with adequate strength to transfer the given load, based on the bearing capacity and settlement of the underlying soil. Bearing pressure is a parameter that defines the pressure between the bottom of the foundation and the contact soil. The SBC 2007; Saudi Building Code provides prescriptive values for the allowable net bearing pressure based on the soil type. For only downward vertical loads, net bearing pressure is easily calculated by dividing the load by the area of the bottom of the foundation. Calculations are more complex when moment or eccentric loads are involved; however, these loads are rarely present in simple building structures. Determining the bearing capacity of the underlying soil can be done using several different methods which vary in complexity and accuracy. A popular and effective method is Terzaghi’s method which requires knowledge of the underlying soil’s cohesion, effective stress, and unit weight. The second foundation design factor is settlement analysis. Excessive soil settlement can disrupt the geometry of a structural frame and create overstressed members. To avoid this, foundations must be designed to limit settlement, typically to 1 or 2 inches. Settlement analysis is based on the vertical effective stress of the underlying soils and the corresponding elastic strain. Two separate strategies for settlement analysis are available based on whether the underlying soils are cohesive or cohesion less. Fig (3.11): Load Transferring and Distribution to Foundation
  32. 32. 23 3.2.1 Types of Footing The most common types of footing are strip footings under walls and single footings under columns. Common footings can be categorized as follow: 1. Individual column footing This footing is also called isolated or single footing. It can be square, rectangular or circular of uniform thickness, stepped, or sloped top. This is one of the most economical types of footing. The most common type of individual column footing is square or rectangular with uniform thickness. 2. Wall footing Wall footings support structural or nonstructural walls. This footing has limited width and a continuous length under the wall. 3. Combined footing They usually support two or three columns not in a row and may be either rectangular or trapezoidal in shape depending on column. If a strap joins two isolated footings, the footing is called a cantilever footing. 4. Mat foundation Mats are large continuous footings, usually placed under the entire building area to support all columns and walls. Mats are used when the soil-bearing capacity is low, column loads are heavy, single footings cannot be used, piles are not used, or differential settlement must be reduced through the entire footing system. 5. Pile footing Pile footings are thick pads used to tie a group of piles together and to support and transmit column loads to the piles.
  33. 33. 24 3.3 Structural Planning The Plan and elevation of the building was drawn and designed by using AutoCAD and SketchUP softwares. All the architectural sizes of the Building done by Neufert Architect Data standard. The Figures on the next pages show the plan views.  AutoCAD is a commercial software application for 2D and 3D.  SketchUP is a 3D modeling computer program for a wide range of drawing applications such as architectural, interior design, civil and mechanical engineering, film, and video game design. Fig (3.12): Footing Types
  34. 34. 25  Ground Floor Fig (3.13): Ground Floor Plan
  35. 35. 26  First Floor Fig (3.14): First Floor Plan
  36. 36. 27  Roof Fig (3.15): Roof Floor Plan
  37. 37. 28  Front Side View  Right Side View Fig (3.16): Front Side View Fig (3.17): Right Side View
  38. 38. 29  Left Side View  3D View Fig (3.18): Left Side View Fig (3.19): 3D View
  39. 39. 30 The Tables below show the sizes and dimensions used in the planning of building. Straight Staircase Unit (cm) Rise 17 Tread 30 Rest Tread 90 Width 200 Spiral Staircase Unit (cm) Rise 17 Tread 30 Rest Tread 90 Width 130 Table (3.2): Units Size Dimensions of Used Straight Staircase Table (3.3): Units Size Dimensions of Used Spiral Staircase
  40. 40. 31 Doors Unit (cm) Height 210 Width 90 Size of The Opened Area of the Roof Unit (m2 ) - 1,861.88 Table (3.4): Units Size Dimensions of Used Doors Table (3.5): Units Size Area of the Roof
  41. 41. 32 Rooms’ Sizes of The Ground Floor Room Name / Unit (m2 ) The Rental Store 6.00 x 8.00 = 48.00 The Mosque 9.80 x 10.00 = 98.00 WC and Shoes Locker 2.00 x 10.00 = 20.00 The Dining Room 8.80 x 10.00 = 88.00 The Kitchen 3.00 x 6.80 = 20.40 The Store 3.00 x 3.00 = 9.00 Bathrooms 2.50 x 4.20 = 10.50 Elevator Trailer 2.50 x 3.00 = 7.50 Ventilation 2.50 x 1.00 = 2.50 Table (3.6): Units Size Area of the Used Rooms in Ground Floor
  42. 42. 33 Rooms’ Sizes of The First Floor Room / Unit (m2 ) Offices Room 1 6.00 x 8.00 = 48.00 Offices Room 2 12.20 x 10.00 = 122.00 Manager Office 12.20 x 8.00 = 97.60 Secretary Office 6.00 x 8.00 = 48.00 Supervision Offices 6.00 x 8.00 = 48.00 MIS & IT Offices 6.00 x 8.00 = 48.00 Conferences Hall (MPH) 12.20 x 10.00 = 122.00 Meeting Room 12.20 x 8.00 = 97.60 Printing & Scanning Room 6.00 x 8.00 = 48.00 HR & Personnel Department 3.14 x (5.00)^2 = 78.50 Elevator Trailer 2.50 x 3.00 = 7.50 Bathrooms 2.50 x 4.20 = 10.50 Ventilation 2.50 x 1.00 = 2.50 Table (3.7): Units Size Area of the Used Rooms in First Floor
  43. 43. 34 4. METHODLOGY The preceding chapter has given background information into the areas of study of the project and has provided a base for defining the various tasks needed to complete each major area of study. The following methodology discusses the approach to complete each task. 4.1 Pre-Design Phase  Project Startup Workshop session combine team members and the advisors to determine project goals, schedule and decision-making process. Discuss known space needs, requirements, philosophy and abstract building character considerations.  Project Work plan and Schedule Prepare detailed work plan and schedule for entire project including tasks, deadlines for reviews / approvals / decisions and contingencies for unanticipated delays or interruptions in schedule.  Data and Document Collection Gather together and obtain all available data, documents and drawings pertinent to the project including prior studies, tests, etc. Establish preliminary building code requirements.  Site Selection This location was chosen after discussing several locations in the city, based on the need of the building and the presence of commercial and population activity. The group researched maps and open site locations at Jubail Industrial City could be used for the proposed building.
  44. 44. 35 4.2 Schematic Design Phase  Geometry Design This section discusses how the group determined the building layout, geometry and creating the basic floor plans of the building. All floor plans and elevations were drawn using SketchUp and AutoCAD. Neufert Architect Data is an architectural guideline resource that contributed to the building geometry.  Determining Loading To start the design process the group first determined the loads acting on the building based on ASCE 7-05; Minimum Design Loads for Building and Other Structures to determine the Minimum uniformly distributed live loads, ,and minimum concentrated live loads, IBC 2015 I- CODES; International Building Code and ACI Building Code.  Structural Design The project group designed a reinforced concrete structural system using the USD approach in accordance with ACI 318-11. It was broken into several areas such as column, beam, girder, slab, foundation design and a design for a large span lobby. Manual Calculations were done for comparing the result of software. All structural aspects were designed using software Robot Structural Analysis Professional (RSAP).
  45. 45. 36 5. STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS AND DESIGN 5.1 Introduction In the design and analysis of reinforced concrete elements, usually facing an unfamiliar problem: "The mechanisms of members consisting of two materials" to exacerbate this problem, one of the materials (concrete) differently in tension than in compression, and can be considered to be either elastic or inelastic, if it is not neglected entirely. Design of members and structures of reinforced concrete is a problem distinct from but closely related to analysis. Strictly speaking, it is almost impossible to exactly analyze a concrete structure, and to design exactly is no less difficult. Fortunately, it is possible to make a few fundamental assumptions which make the design of reinforced concrete quite simple, if not easy. A problem unique to the design of reinforced concrete structures is the need to detail each member throughout. For concrete structures, we must determine not only the area of longitudinal and lateral reinforcement required in each member, but also the way to best arrange and connect the reinforcement to insure acceptable structural performance. This procedure can be made reasonably simple, if not easy.  Design and Analysis Objectives 1- To establish a firm understanding of behavior of reinforced concrete structures, then to develop method used in current practice and to achieve familiarity with codes and specifications governing practical design. 2- To understand the basic performance of concrete and steel as structural materials, and the behavior of reinforced concrete members and structures. If the basic concepts behind code provisions for design are understood, It will be able to: • Approach the design in a more knowledgeable fashion. • Understand and adapt the changes in code provisions better and faster. 3- To be able to design reinforced concrete structures that are: safe, economical and efficient.
  46. 46. 37  Reinforced concrete is one of the principal building materials used in engineered structures because:  Low cost.  Weathering and fire resistance.  Good compressive strength.  Formability. All these criteria make concrete an attractive material for wide range of structural applications such as buildings, dams, reservoirs, tanks, etc. 5.2 Preliminary Design Information Once the building layout was established the group began determining the loadings on the structure and designing the structural system. The design process involved defining layouts and materials in order to identify the most economical design. Individual structural members were also designed manually. The resulting structural design is outlined the following paragraphs. 5.2.1 Building Layout The layout schemes for the building structure were designed based on the judgment of the group and under supervision of project advisors. Fig (5.1) in the next page shows the scheme structural layout. In the figure, the points (×) represent columns while lines represent beams and girders. In the scheme, the columns were placed in areas that would not disrupt open space and would also contribute to an efficient structural design by allowing symmetric beam and girder layouts to be developed. Following column placement, the girders and beams were designed to efficiently transfer the loads from the open bays to the columns. Areas that required special consideration were the area spanning the lobby and the elevator & stairs area. The lobby area presents a relatively large span of 12.2m because it requires an open area, so it cannot put the columns in the middle. For that reason and to support that case, it has been used the Two-way waffle slab.
  47. 47. 38 The second case is the elevator and stairs area, present that the region is narrow where it is critical and difficult to put the columns. So, it was placed a T-shape beam to compensate for the absence of the column. Before framing the structure, the sections sizes for slabs, beams and columns was specified and assumed according to locations and requirements for every member as shown in the Fig (5.1) below.  For slabs: The thickness assumed as 20 cm.  For beams: There are three types assumed of beams, present as lines: 1- (200 × 400) mm2 , present as blue color. 2- (300 × 500) mm2 , present as red color. 3- (300 × 750) mm2 , present as green color.  For columns: There are two types assumed of rectangular tied columns, present as points (×): 1- (300 × 450) mm2 , present as gray color. 2- (300 × 650) mm2 , present as Orange color. Fig (5.1): Scheme Columns and Beams Layout
  48. 48. 39 5.2.2 Structural Materials Priorities 1- Steel Yield Strength.  𝑓𝑦 = 60 𝑘𝑠𝑖 = 413685.437 𝑘𝑁/𝑚2 . 2- Specific Compressive Strength of Reinforced Concrete.  𝑓 ́ 𝑐 = 4 𝑘𝑠𝑖 = 27579.029 𝑘𝑁/𝑚2 . 3- Specific Weight of Reinforced Concrete.  𝛾 𝐶𝑜𝑛 = 25 𝑘𝑁/𝑚3 4- Specific Weight of Masonry Brick.  γ 𝐵𝑟𝑖𝑐𝑘 = 20 𝑘𝑁/𝑚3 . 5- Soil Bearing Capacity.  q 𝑢 = 1.5 𝑘𝑔/𝑐𝑚2 . 5.2.3 Building Loads Design loads for sizing the structural systems and their elements were determined by using, IBC 2015 I- CODES; International Building Code and ACI Building Code. For certain loads were determined by using ASCE 7-05; Minimum Design Loads for Building and Other Structures. Loads that are considered are dead load and live load only, otherwise such as snow load, impact load, earthquake load, etc. are not considered because they are not required in Project cases and conditions. 5.2.3.1 Dead Load The superimposed dead load was determined from the anticipated permanent loads on the structure. Sources for these permanent loads include wall load. In addition to the superimposed dead load, the self-weight of each structural member is also included in the dead load. As the design was completed, the dead load was adjusted accordingly. For example, once the floor design was complete, the weight of the concrete slab was added to the dead load calculation for beam design. The same went for girder design, column design, and eventually foundation design.
  49. 49. 40  Dead Load Calculations  𝐷𝑒𝑎𝑑 𝐿𝑜𝑎𝑑 = 𝑆𝑒𝑙𝑓 𝑊𝑒𝑖𝑔ℎ𝑡 𝑜𝑓 𝑀𝑒𝑚𝑏𝑒𝑟 + 𝑆𝑢𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑚𝑝𝑜𝑠𝑒𝑑 𝐷𝑒𝑎𝑑 𝐿𝑜𝑎𝑑  𝑆𝑒𝑙𝑓 𝑊𝑒𝑖𝑔ℎ𝑡 𝑜𝑓 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑀𝑒𝑚𝑏𝑒𝑟 = 𝑉𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑀𝑒𝑚𝑏𝑒𝑟×𝑈𝑛𝑖𝑡 𝑊𝑒𝑖𝑔ℎ𝑡 𝑜𝑓 𝑀𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑎𝑙 The self-weight of each member was calculated automatically by the software (RSAP).  𝑆𝑢𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑚𝑝𝑜𝑠𝑒𝑑 𝐷𝑒𝑎𝑑 𝐿𝑜𝑎𝑑 = 𝑊𝑎𝑙𝑙 𝐿𝑜𝑎𝑑 𝑊𝑎𝑙𝑙 𝐿𝑜𝑎𝑑 = γ 𝐵𝑟𝑖𝑐𝑘 × ℎ × 𝑏 Where, ℎ = ℎ𝑖𝑔ℎ𝑡 𝑜𝑓 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑤𝑎𝑙𝑙 and 𝑏 = 𝑤𝑖𝑑𝑡ℎ 𝑜𝑓 𝑏𝑒𝑎𝑚 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑏𝑟𝑖𝑐𝑘 𝐺𝑟𝑜𝑢𝑛𝑑 𝐹𝑙𝑜𝑜𝑟 𝑊𝑎𝑙𝑙 𝐿𝑜𝑎𝑑 = 20 × 5 × 0.2 = 20 𝑘𝑁/𝑚 1 𝑠𝑡 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑅𝑜𝑜𝑓 𝐹𝑙𝑜𝑜𝑟 𝑊𝑎𝑙𝑙 𝐿𝑜𝑎𝑑 = 20 × 3 × 0.2 = 12 𝑘𝑁/𝑚 5.2.3.2 Live Load Design live loads for the building interiors were determined from the ASCE 7-05; Minimum Design Loads for Building and Other Structures. Based on the functionality of the spaces. Since the ground floor of the structure is supported by a slab on grade, the ground floor loads were not considered critical factors. While the first floor live loads need to be determined. Since the structure did not have a specific client with defined needs, the specific functions for the building spaces could not be determined with certainty. For example, office use is 2.4 𝑘𝑁/𝑚2 , lobbies and corridors is 4.79 𝑘𝑁/𝑚2 and computer use is 4.79 𝑘𝑁/𝑚2 . In order to provide flexibility for the potential building owner, the building was designed for a 4.79 𝑘𝑁/𝑚2 as a maximum live load. The roof live load was also found to be 0.96 𝑘𝑁/𝑚2 . Occupancy or Use Uniform (kN/m2) Office Use 2.4 Lobbies and Corridors 4.79 Computer Use 4.79 Roof 0.96 Table (5.1): Minimum Uniformly Distributed Live Load for the Building
  50. 50. 41 5.3 Structural Design The sections below discuses design of the concrete structural framing for the scheme of the proposed building. RSAP was used for this analysis because it allows for the completion of a 3D analysis, more modern and easier to use than other soft-wares. The process of structural designs involved framing, loading, slabs design, beams design, columns design and footing design. 5.3.1 Framing Framing process was done by converting the layout scheme of the building which shown in the Fig (5.1) from 2D view to 3D view. This is done by converting AutoCAD format of the layout Scheme by RSAP modeling as shown in the figures below. Fig (5.2): 3D Modeling of Scheme Layout Fig (5.3): Front View of Scheme Layout
  51. 51. 42 Fig (5.4-a): Specified Sections Sizes of Scheme Layout Fig (5.4-b): Specified Sections Sizes of Scheme Layout
  52. 52. 43 The next step is adding a slabs with thickness = 0.2 m. Fig (5.6): Specified Sections Sizes of Scheme Layout after Adding Slabs Fig (5.5): Top View of Specified Sections Layout
  53. 53. 44 5.3.2 Loading Fig (5.7): Structural Framing with Dead Load Fig (5.8): Structural Framing with Live Load
  54. 54. 45 Fig (5.9): Structural Framing with Combination Load
  55. 55. 46 5.3.3 Design of Slabs The first step to concrete design process is design floor slabs capable of transferring loads between the beams. The design was completed following ACI Code procedures. A roof and floor slab was designed on the span length and loading. A Manually design calculation was then used to design one One-way slab. 5.3.3.1 Slab Software Design As shown in the next figure and tables in the next pages the slab designed by a finite element method. FEM is a good choice for analyzing problems over complicated domains (like large area of slabs), when the domain changes (as during a solid state reaction with a moving boundary), when the desired precision varies over the entire domain, or when the solution lacks smoothness.
  56. 56. 47 Fig (5.10): Slab Form Work
  57. 57. 48 Fig (5.11): Bottom Slab Reinforcement
  58. 58. 49 Fig (5.12): Top Slab Reinforcement
  59. 59. 50 Table (5.2-a): Slab Reinforcement Table (5.2-b): Slab Reinforcement
  60. 60. 51 Table (5.2-c): Slab Reinforcement
  61. 61. 52 Fig (5.13): Reinforcement Degree of Slab Map
  62. 62. 53 5.3.3.2 Slab Manually Design  Details: - Sample Calculation of Slab: S-3. For S3, in this case; the beams between the rooms are considered as walls partition not as beams to satisfying the conditions considerations of One-way slab design. - 𝐿 = 24 𝑚, 𝐵 = 8 𝑚, Where; 𝐿 = 𝐿𝑒𝑛𝑔𝑡ℎ 𝑜𝑓 𝑠𝑙𝑎𝑏 and 𝐵 = 𝑤𝑖𝑑𝑡ℎ 𝑜𝑓 𝑠𝑙𝑎𝑏. - 𝑓𝑦 = 60 𝑘𝑠𝑖 = 413685.437 𝑘𝑁/𝑚2 , 𝑓 ́ 𝑐 = 4 𝑘𝑠𝑖 = 27579.029 𝑘𝑁/𝑚2 . - 𝑊𝑎𝑙𝑙 𝐿𝑜𝑎𝑑 = 12 𝑘𝑁 𝑚⁄ = 1.2 𝑘𝑁/𝑚2 . 𝑆𝑒𝑙𝑓 𝑤𝑒𝑖𝑔ℎ𝑡 = 25 × (0.2 × 24 × 8) = 960 𝑘𝑁 = 5 𝑘𝑁/𝑚2 . - ∴ 𝐷𝐿 = 1.2 + 5 = 6.2 𝑘𝑁/𝑚2 , 𝐿𝐿 = 4.79 𝑘𝑁/𝑚2 . Fig (5.14): Slabs Distribution
  63. 63. 54  Calculations: - The design of a slab is usually made by taking a 1- m wide typical strip for calculation purpose rather than the entire slab width. This is known as a one-way slab that acts as a wide beam. 24 8 = 3 > 2. So, it is One-way slab. - Determine required 𝑀 𝑛 𝑈 = 1.2𝐷 + 1.6𝐿 = 1.2(6.2) + 1.6(4.79) = 15.104 𝑘𝑁/𝑚2 of width 𝑀 𝑢 = 15.104(8)2 8 = 120.8 𝑘𝑁. 𝑚 of width - Assuming ∅ = 0.90, Required 𝑀 𝑛 = 120.8 0.90 = 134.22 𝑘𝑁. 𝑚/𝑚 - Since 𝜌 𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 0.3𝜌 𝑏 is desired, using 𝜌 = 0.3(0.0285) = 0.00855, determine the corresponding desired 𝑅 𝑛, 𝑅 𝑛 = 𝜌 𝑓𝑦( 1 − 1 2 𝜌𝑚) Where, 𝑚 = 𝑓𝑦 0.85 𝑓 ́ 𝑐 = 60 0.85 (4) = 17.64 𝑅 𝑛 = 0.00855(413685.437)[1 − 0.5(0.00855)(17.64)] = 3270.28 𝑘𝑁/𝑚2 - Determine required 𝑏𝑑2 from desired 𝑅 𝑛 and select trial slab thickness Required 𝑏𝑑2 = 𝑟𝑒𝑞𝑢𝑖𝑟𝑒𝑑 𝑀 𝑛 𝑅 𝑛 = 134.22 3270.28 = 0.041043 𝑚3 = 41043.036 𝑐𝑚3 - Since a slab is designed by using a 1-m strip, b is 105 cm. Then required d = 20 cm. The required total thickness is obtained by adding on the required clear cover ( 3 4 -in. minimum as per ACI- 7.7.1) and the bar radius. Stirrups are rarely used in slabs so the 3 8 -in. allowance used for beams is not included here. - Total thickness, ℎ = 20 + 2 + 1.3 = 23.3 𝑐𝑚 Try 23.5 cm. - Check weight and revise required 𝑀 𝑛.
  64. 64. 55 𝑤 = 23.5 100 (62) = 14.75 𝑘𝑁/𝑚2 Revised 𝑈 = 1.2(14.75 ) + 1.6(4.79) = 25.148 𝑘𝑁/𝑚2 Revised required 𝑀 𝑛 = 134.22 ( 25.148 15.104 ) = 223.47 𝑘𝑁. 𝑚/𝑚 - Determine the steel to be used. Actual 𝑑 = 23.5 − 2 − 1.3(𝑒𝑠𝑡) = 20.2 𝑐𝑚 Required 𝑅 𝑛 = 𝑅𝑒𝑞𝑢𝑖𝑟𝑒𝑑 𝑀 𝑛 𝑏𝑑2 = 223.47 1.05(0.202)2 = 5215.87 𝑘𝑁/𝑚2 Required 𝐴 𝑠 = 𝜌𝑏𝑑 = 0.00855(105)(20.2) = 18.13 𝑐𝑚2 /𝑚 = 0.856 𝑠𝑞. 𝑖𝑛/𝑓𝑡 Try #7@8 in. spacing, 𝐴 𝑠 = 0.9 𝑠𝑞. 𝑖𝑛/𝑓𝑡 = 19.05 𝑐𝑚2 /𝑚 - Check strength, temperature and shrinkage reinforcement and provide design sketch. 𝐶 = 0.85𝑓 ́ 𝑐 𝑏𝑎 = 0.85(27579.029) 105𝑎 = 2461428.3𝑎 𝑇 = 𝐴 𝑠 𝑓𝑦 = 19.05(413685.437) = 7880707.575 𝑘𝑁 𝑎 = 7880707.575 2461428.3 = 3.2 𝑐𝑚 𝑥 = 𝑎 𝛽1 = 3.2 0.85 = 3.766 𝑐𝑚 𝐴 𝑆,𝑚𝑖𝑛 = ( 3𝑓 ́ 𝑐 𝑓𝑦 𝑏𝑑) 𝜌 = ( 3(4000) 60000 105 × 20.2) 0.00855 = 3.62 𝑐𝑚2 /𝑚 𝐴 𝑆,𝑚𝑖𝑛 ≥ ( 200𝑏𝑑 𝑓𝑦 ) 𝜌 = ( 200(105)(20.2) 413685.437 ) 0.00855 = 0.00876 𝑐𝑚2 /𝑚 So, 𝐴 𝑆,𝑚𝑖𝑛 = 3.62 𝑐𝑚2 /𝑚 is controlled 𝐴 𝑠 = 19.05 𝑐𝑚2 /𝑚 ≥ 3.62 𝑐𝑚2 /𝑚 Ok - 𝑀 𝑛 = 𝐴 𝑠 𝑓𝑦 (𝑑 − 𝑎 2 ) = 7880707.575 (105 − 3.2 2 ) 1 100 = 8148651.633 𝑘𝑁. 𝑚
  65. 65. 56 - The net strain in the tension steel is 𝜖 𝑠 = 𝑑 − 𝑥 𝑥 (0.003) = 105 − 3.766 3.766 (0.003) = 0.0806 > 0.005 - Thus, the section is tension controlled and the ∅ factor is 0.90, as assumed. [∅ 𝑀 𝑛 = 0.9(8148651.633 ) = 7333786.47 𝑘𝑁. 𝑚] > [𝑀 𝑛 = 134.22 𝑘𝑁. 𝑚/𝑚] Ok - Use 20.2 cm. thick slab, with #7@8 in. spacing as main reinforcement.
  66. 66. 57 5.3.4 Design of Beams Beams with equal tributary width and length were grouped together in order to make the design process as time efficient as possible. The loads for each beam were determined by using IBC and SBC as discussed above. A Manually design calculation was then used to design one beam. 5.3.4.1 Beam Software Design By placing the loads into the structural framing, the positive and negative design moments were calculated. From these moment, according to the size of the beam was determined, the area of reinforcing steel required to withstand the design moments was determined. After division of beams on the scheme layout according to their similarity in sections sizes and reinforcement. Found that there are 23 different types of beams. Fig (5.15): Beams Distribution
  67. 67. 58 Table (5.3): Type of Beams
  68. 68. 59 Fig (5.16-a): Beams Design
  69. 69. 60 Fig (5.16-b): Beams Design
  70. 70. 61 Fig (5.16-c): Beams Design
  71. 71. 62 Fig (5.16-d): Beams Design
  72. 72. 63 Fig (5.16-e): Beams Design
  73. 73. 64 Fig (5.16-f): Beams Design
  74. 74. 65 Fig (5.16-g): Beams Design
  75. 75. 66 Fig (5.16-h): Beams Design
  76. 76. 67 Fig (5.16-i): Beams Design
  77. 77. 68 Fig (5.16-j): Beams Design
  78. 78. 69 Fig (5.16-k): Beams Design
  79. 79. 70 Fig (5.16-l): Beams Design
  80. 80. 71 5.3.4.2 Beam Manually Design  Details: - Sample Calculation of Beam 498 of type -11 (B19). - 𝐿 = 8 𝑚, 𝑏 = 30 𝑐𝑚, and 𝑑 = 50 𝑐𝑚 Where; 𝐿 = 𝐿𝑒𝑛𝑔𝑡ℎ 𝑜𝑓 𝑠𝑝𝑎𝑛, 𝑏 = 𝑊𝑖𝑑𝑡ℎ 𝑜𝑓 𝑏𝑒𝑎𝑚 and 𝑑 = 𝐷𝑒𝑝𝑡ℎ 𝑜𝑓 𝑏𝑒𝑎𝑚 - 𝑓𝑦 = 60 𝑘𝑠𝑖 = 413685.437 𝑘𝑁/𝑚2 , 𝑓 ́ 𝑐 = 4 𝑘𝑠𝑖 = 27579.029 𝑘𝑁/𝑚2 . 𝑈 𝑜𝑓 𝑏𝑒𝑎𝑚 = 68.31 𝑘𝑁. (From RSAP) - 𝑀 𝑢 = 61.63 𝑘𝑁. 𝑚. (From RSAP)  Calculations: - Selecting the reinforcing steel 𝜌 𝑟𝑒𝑞𝑑 = 0.85𝑓 ́ 𝑐 𝑓𝑦 (1 − √1 − 2𝑅 𝑛 0.85𝑓 ́ 𝑐 ) 𝑅 𝑛 = 𝑀 𝑢 ∅𝑏𝑑2 = 61.63 0.9 × 0.3 × 0.52 = 913.037 𝑘𝑁/𝑚2 𝜌 𝑟𝑒𝑞𝑑 = 0.85 × 4 60 (1 − √1 − 2 × 913.037 0.85 × 27579.029 ) = 0.00251 𝐴 𝑠 = 𝜌𝑏𝑑 = 0.00251(30)(50) = 3.765 𝑐𝑚2 = 0.583 𝑠𝑞. 𝑖𝑛 Try 4- #4 bars 𝐴 𝑠 = 0.8 𝑠𝑞. 𝑖𝑛 = 5.16 𝑐𝑚2 . - Check the solution using the selected steel 𝜌 = 𝐴 𝑠 𝑏𝑑 = 5.16 30 × 50 = 0.00344 > 𝜌 𝑚𝑖𝑛 = 0.033 𝜌 = 0.033 < 𝜌 𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 0.0180 Section is ductile and ∅ = 0.90 𝑎 = 𝐴 𝑠 𝑓𝑦 0.85𝑓 ́ 𝑐 𝑏 = 3.765 × 413685.437 0.85 × 27579.029 × 30 = 2.214 𝑐𝑚
  81. 81. 72 ∅𝑀 𝑛 = ∅ 𝐴 𝑠 𝑓𝑦 (𝑑 − 𝑎 2 ) = 0.9 × 5.16 × 10−4 × 413685.437 × (0.5 − 0.02214 2 ) = 93.93 𝑘𝑁. 𝑚 So, ∅𝑀 𝑛 > 𝑀 𝑢 = 61.63 𝑘𝑁. 𝑚 - Check shear reinforcement. 𝑉𝑢 = 68.31 𝑘𝑁 ∅𝑉𝑐 = 0.85√𝑓 ́ 𝑐 𝑏𝑑 = 0.85√27579.029(0.3)(0.5) = 21.17 𝑘𝑁 𝑉𝑢 = ∅𝑉𝑐 + ∅𝑉𝑠 ∅𝑉𝑠 = 𝑉𝑢 − ∅𝑉𝑐 = 68.31 − 21.17 = 47.14 𝑘𝑁 𝑉𝑠 = 47.14 0.85 = 55.45 𝑘𝑁 𝑆 𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 30 2 = 15 𝑐𝑚
  82. 82. 73 5.3.5 Design of Columns The next step after designing beams is designing columns. Columns with equal tributary width and length were grouped together in order to make the design process as time efficient as possible. A Manually design calculation was then used to design one Column. 5.3.5.1 Column Software Design After division of columns on the scheme layout according to their similarity in sections sizes and reinforcement. Found that there are 13 different types of columns. Every type has 3 parts (a, b and c) as respectively 1st floor column, ground floor column and footing column. Fig (5.17): Columns Distributions
  83. 83. 74 Table (5.4): Type of Columns
  84. 84. 75 Fig (5.18-a): Columns Design
  85. 85. 76 Fig (5.18-b): Columns Design
  86. 86. 77 Fig (5.18-c): Columns Design
  87. 87. 78 Fig (5.18-d): Columns Design
  88. 88. 79 Fig (5.18-e): Columns Design
  89. 89. 80 Fig (5.18-f): Columns Design
  90. 90. 81 Fig (5.18-g): Columns Design
  91. 91. 82 Fig (5.18-h): Columns Design
  92. 92. 83 Fig (5.18-i): Columns Design
  93. 93. 84 Fig (5.18-j): Columns Design
  94. 94. 85 Fig (5.18-k): Columns Design
  95. 95. 86 Fig (5.18-l): Columns Design
  96. 96. 87 Fig (5.18-m): Columns Design
  97. 97. 88 5.3.5.2 Column Manually Design  Details: - Sample Calculation of Column 419 of type - 1-a (C20). - 𝐿 = 3 𝑚 Where; 𝐿 = 𝐻𝑖𝑔ℎ𝑡 𝑜𝑓 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑐𝑙𝑜𝑢𝑚𝑛. - 𝑓𝑦 = 60 𝑘𝑠𝑖 = 413685.437 𝑘𝑁/𝑚2 , 𝑓 ́ 𝑐 = 4 𝑘𝑠𝑖 = 27579.029 𝑘𝑁/𝑚2 . - Reinforcing in the column is 5%, 𝐴 𝑠𝑡 = 0.05𝐴 𝑔. Where; 𝐴 𝑠𝑡 = 𝑆𝑡𝑒𝑒𝑙 𝑎𝑟𝑒𝑎 and 𝐴 𝑔 = 𝐺𝑟𝑜𝑠𝑠 𝑎𝑟𝑒𝑎. - 𝑃𝑢 = 88.65 𝑘𝑁 (From RSAP). - 𝑀 𝑢 = 118.46 𝑘𝑁. 𝑚 (From RSAP).  Calculations: - Determine the factored axial load. 𝑃𝑢 = 88.65 𝑘𝑁 - Select the column dimension. ∅𝑃𝑛 = ∅0.8[0.85ƒ ́ 𝑐(𝐴 𝑔 − 𝐴 𝑠𝑡) + 𝐹𝑦 𝐴 𝑠𝑡] 88.65 = 0.65 × 0.8[0.85 × 27579.029 (𝐴 𝑔 − 0.05𝐴 𝑔) + 413685.437 × 0.05𝐴 𝑔] 𝐴 𝑔 = 0.0039688 𝑚2 = 39.688 𝑐𝑚2 , Use 30 𝑐𝑚 × 45 𝑐𝑚 = 1350 𝑐𝑚2 - Select the longitudinal steel. 𝐴 𝑠𝑡 = 0.05𝐴 𝑔 = 0.05 × 1350 = 67.5 𝑐𝑚2 /𝑚2 . Use steel 4 ∅ - #16 bars. - Check if the column short or long. 𝐼 = 𝑏ℎ3 12 So, 𝐼 𝑥𝑥 𝑚𝑖𝑛 = 30×453 12 = 227812.5 𝑐𝑚3 𝑟 𝑚𝑖𝑛 = √ 22781205 1350 = 12.9 𝑐𝑚 λ = (α×L) 𝑟 𝑚𝑖𝑛 = 0.5×300 12.9 = 11. < 40 So, it is short column.
  98. 98. 89 5.3.6 Design of Footing After the completion of the design of columns, the last step remained in the structural design, it is design of footing. Footing is the base supports of the structure were assigned as fixed. The group designed individual spread footings for the resulting columns. The group referenced a geotechnical report completed by the RGME Company. The geotechnical report described the soil layers and properties. The soil layer in which the spread footings would be supported by had a bearing capacity of q 𝑢 = 1.5 𝑘𝑔/𝑐𝑚2 . Since the concrete columns resist both axial forces and moment forces, the footings were designed with to resist for vertical pressure and overturning. To avoid overturn failure, the footings are designed so that the entire footing applies downward on the soil and no uplift force is present. A Manually design calculation was then used to design one footing. 5.3.6.1 Footing Software Design Since there is a one footing under each column, the distribution of foundation is very similar to the distribution the columns. So, found that there are 13 different types of foundation as shown in the Figure and table below. Fig (5.19): Foundation Distribution
  99. 99. 90 Table (5.5): Type of Foundation
  100. 100. 91 Fig (5.20-a): Footing Design
  101. 101. 92 Fig (5.20-b): Footing Design
  102. 102. 93 Fig (5.20-c): Footing Design
  103. 103. 94 Fig (5.20-d): Footing Design
  104. 104. 95 Fig (5.20-e): Footing Design
  105. 105. 96 Fig (5.20-f): Footing Design
  106. 106. 97 Fig (5.20-g): Footing Design
  107. 107. 98 5.3.6.2 Footing Manually Design  Details: - Sample Calculation of Footing 19 of type-1 (F10). - 𝐻 = 3 𝑚. Where; 𝐻 = 𝐻𝑒𝑖𝑔ℎ𝑡 𝑜𝑓 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑐𝑙𝑜𝑢𝑚𝑛. - 𝑓𝑦 = 40 𝑘𝑠𝑖 = 275790.29 𝑘𝑁/𝑚2 , 𝑓 ́ 𝑐 = 3 𝑘𝑠𝑖 = 20684.27 𝑘𝑁/𝑚2 . - 𝑞 𝑎 = 150 𝑘𝑁/𝑚2 - 𝐹 = 244.32 𝑘𝑁 - 𝑀 𝑢 = 50 𝑘𝑁. 𝑚  Calculations: - Determine the soil and footing weights. Assume a footing thickness of 35 cm. with a minimum cover of 5 cm. this gives a d value of about 30 cm. - Compute the footing weight and soil weight. 𝐹𝑜𝑜𝑡𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑊𝑒𝑖𝑔ℎ𝑡 = 0.3 × 25 = 7.5 𝑘𝑁/𝑚2 𝑆𝑜𝑖𝑙 𝑊𝑒𝑖𝑔ℎ𝑡 = 0.5 × 12.6 = 6.3 𝑘𝑁/𝑚2 - Effective soil pressure and required area of footing. 𝑞 𝑒 = 150 − (7.5) − (6.3) = 136.2 𝑘𝑁/𝑚2 𝐴 𝑟𝑒𝑞 = 244.32 136.2 = 1.79 𝑚2 - Use footing 1.50 𝑚 × 1.50 𝑚. - Factored bearing pressure for design of concrete. 𝑞 𝑢 = 342.048 1.50 × 1.50 = 152.021 𝑘𝑁/𝑚2
  108. 108. 99 - Depth required to resist punching shear. 𝑏0 = 2(0.3) + 2(0.45) = 1.5 𝑚 𝑉𝑢2 = ((1.50 × 1.50) − ((1.5 − 0.45) × (1.5 − 0.3)) × 152.021 = 150.5 𝑘𝑁 𝑑 = 150.5 0.85×4√20684.27 ×1.5 = 0.205 𝑚 < 0.3 𝑚 Ok 𝑑 = 150.5 0.85 × ( 30 × 0.6 1.5 + 2) × 4√20684.27 × 1.5 = 0.014 𝑚 < 0.3 𝑚 Ok - Depth required to resist One-way shear. 𝑉𝑢1 = 1.50 × 0.675 × 152.021 = 153.92 𝑘𝑁 𝑑 = 153.92 0.85 × 2√20684.27 × 1.50 = 0.25 𝑚 < 0.3 𝑚 - Select the steel area. Use minimum 𝜌 = 0.005 𝐴 𝑠= 𝜌𝑏𝑑 = 0.005 × 1.5 × 0.6 = 0.0045 𝑚2 = 45 𝑐𝑚2 = 6.97 𝑖𝑛2 Use steel 7 ∅ - #9 bars in both directions.
  109. 109. 100 5.3.7 Diagrams and Figures from RSAP Fig (5.21): 3D View of Designed Beam Fig (5.22): 3D View of Designed Column
  110. 110. 101 Fig (5.23): 3D View of Designed Footing Fig (5.24): Front View of Designed Footing
  111. 111. 102 Fig (5.25): 3D View of Bending Moment Map
  112. 112. 103 Fig (5.26): Top View of Bending Moment Map
  113. 113. 104 Fig (5.27): 3D View of Shear Force Map
  114. 114. 105 Fig (5.28): Top View of Shear Force Map
  115. 115. 106 Fig (5.29): 3D View of Displacement Map
  116. 116. 107 Fig (5.30): Top View of Displacement Map
  117. 117. 108 Fig (5.31): 3D View of Bending Moment Diagram
  118. 118. 109 Fig (5.32): Front View of Bending Moment Diagram
  119. 119. 110 Fig (5.33): 3D View of Shear Force Diagram
  120. 120. 111 Fig (5.34): Front View of Shear Force Diagram
  121. 121. 112 6. CONCLUSION AND RECCOMENDATION 6.1 Conclusion This project demonstrated the group’s knowledge of civil engineering while also dealing with a few unique structural engineering design aspects that could be involved in real world applications. The project allowed each group member to demonstrate and put into use the knowledge gained throughout the JUC education process while gaining experience working within a team setting. The project also allowed the group members to accomplish independent study on topics not fully covered in JUC courses. This gave the group members valuable practice and knowledge in educational application and independent study that can be used as the member’s progress into their civil engineering careers. The project allows for future investigation, including but not limited to, construction management and a fully developed cost estimate. Mechanical, electrical, or fire protection majors could also expand on the project by investigating designs for each of their respective areas of expertise. As with any project, the group anticipated problems that arose during the design and analysis process. The group used personal experience and reasoning to guide the group through the problems. With guidance from the project advisors the group completed a thorough analysis and final professional engineering report of the building. There are something else has been gained, it is the knowledge and observance of the principles, skills and steps that is required for engineers. And the most important things to pay attention for the design are safety and cost. The results obtained from RSAP have been compared by manual design and found to be in acceptable range. The design constraints of economy and community service are also achieved. Once this building will be ready it will serve the community in Jubail Industrial city to provide better services and opportunities for business.
  122. 122. 113 6.2 Recommendation This section discuss the group’s final recommendations for the proposed building. It is possible that this project is to be complete and ideally better because lacking for several things. This project included the design of civil engineering, structural and foundation design. It was planned to be the design of the parking area and stairs and pay attention to the environmental aspects of the building that could have an effect. But because lack of time and the difficulty of learning software related thereto have been satisfied with what has been done. The results obtained by RSAP are available. Hence, it can be recommended for use. The commercial building project may be adopted by royal commission for serving the local community.
  123. 123. 114 7. REFERENCES 1- Chu-Kia Wang, Charles G. Salmon and josé A. Pincheira, (2007). "Reinforced Concrete Design,"7th Edition. John Wiley and Sons, Inc. 2- American Concrete Institute (ACI), (20011). "Code and commentary (ACI 318- 11)". ACI. 3- American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE 7-05), (2005). "Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures", 3rd Edition. 4- Conduto, Donald P, (2001). “Foundation Design: Principles and Practices,” 2nd Edition. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. 5- SBC 2007; Saudi building CODE (SBC): Minimum uniformly distributed live loads, and minimum concentrated live loads. 6- Ernst and Peter Neufert, Architect's Data, Third Edition. 7- Rashid Geotechnical & Materials Engineers, 6.0 Geotechnical Design Parameters. 8- IBC 2015; Inter National Building CODE (IBC): Minimum uniformly distributed live loads, and minimum concentrated live loads. 9- Kang-Kyu Choi, (2002). “Reinforced Concrete Structure Design Assistant Tool For Beginners,” 10- Russell C. Hibbeler (2011) Structural Analysis SI, 7th Edition. Person publisher.

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