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Asian Architecture - Telegraph Poles House Case Study Report

Asian Architecture - Telegraph Poles House Case Study Report

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Asian Architecture - Telegraph Poles House Case Study Report

  1. 1. Abstract Telegraph Poles House in Langkawi act as one of the significant samples of passive design architectures at the modern time in Malaysia. Based on the findings of Traditional Malay House, it was designed to adapt the weather in tropical climate, which greatly suit to the climate condition of Southeast Asia. Telegraph Poles House was built on the hills in Langkawi Island. It become one of the case study for tropical climate countries to study the effectiveness of how passive design to attain thermal comfort. To achieve thermal comfort, the objectives of this study paper is to research about how Telegraph Poles House can be achieve the thermal comfort by several natural factors. By analyzing some passive design of the building to understand three natural factors such as air temperature, radiant temperature and humidity and also vernacular architecture of Telegraph Poles House. Even though Telegraph Poles House is a modern building, it included some similarity of design as the traditional Malay Houses. Telegraph Poles House is extremely well designed to suit the warm and humid Malaysian climate and for the multifunctional use of space. Some of the significant design features are included in Telegraph poles House such as stilts design and overhang roof structure. On the other hand, building material is another important components to achieve thermal comfort too. Telegraph Poles House used recycled materials, which are reclaimed timbers and steels. It is because wood is most certainly a finite resources in the island. The telegraph poles itself prove to be particularly useful material of the house. The old telegraph poles were become the structural column by putting wooden poles next to each other on raised steel base. With a direct dependence on nature for its resources and embodying a deep knowledge of ecological balances, the telegraph house is efficiently designed to suit the local climatic requirements using various ventilation and solar-control devices, and low-thermal-capacity building materials. Besides being well adapted to the environment, it is flexible and varied to suit the needs of the users.
  2. 2. Objectives Topic: Adaption of Passive Design and Reclaimed Materials to Achieve Thermal Comfortin TropicalClimate in Telegraph Poles House in Langkawi. Question: 1. What are the elements of site context surrounding the Telegraph Poles house and how does it affect the passive design to achieve thermal comfort of the building. 2. What is the most significant characteristic passive design in Telegraph Poles House Langkawi. 3. How does the building layout affect the passive design in Telegraph Poles House Langkawi in tropical climate, 4. What are the building materials that is used in Telegraph Poles House? Why do the architect using reclaimed timber instead of modern concrete to whole buildings.
  3. 3. Chapter 2 Adaption of climate control 2.1 Malaysian climate and topography Malaysia is located near to equator in southeast of the Asian continent, which is one of tropical countries. The weather of Malaysia is hot and humid throughout the whole year. The average temperature of Malaysia is around 27 °c which from 22°c to 32°c. The rain for the year, West Malaysia gets up to 2500mm and East Malaysia thrives in 5080mm. Since Malaysia is a hot and humid weather, it provides good condition to grow strong vegetation. There are four-fifth of area covered by rainforest. Hence, Malaysia produces lots of good wood materials, and wood materials become one of the main building materials in buildings constructions. Figure 2.1.1google map with wind direction indicated. The monsoon of Malaysia always come at beginning and end of the year. The Northeast wind direction come at September to November. By the coming monsoon at the end of the year, is the most frequently period that will raining and wind the most.
  4. 4. Topography is always the most impact influences to the climate because it can either absorb or block the weather and temperature and moisture within that landscape. The telegraph poles house is located at the hill top in Pulau Langkawi. It is surrounded by full of forest by sea side. The sea breeze provide great ventilation to the building. Follow by the contour of the hill to cooler the hot air and transfer it into the telegraph poles house. The Orientation of the telegraph poles house is face to southeast maximize the sun path from east in the morning. Other than that, it face for religious purpose. Telegraph poles is surround by lot of vegetation. It create a great natural ventilation to the building. The microclimate provide cooling system to the site also. Figure 2.1.4 Site context Figure 2.1.2Site plan with wind direction. Figure 2.1.3 Sectional diagram with sea breeze.
  5. 5. ` 2.2 Thermal comfort requirement There are 3 control point of the climatic factors need to be considered also in order to achieve thermal comfort. The 3 climatic factors are sun, rain and wind. However, we are not able to control the climatic factors as we can. However we can control some of the thermal comfort requirement by 3 environment factors. There are several environmental factors that will influences temperature and humidity in order to achieve thermal comfort. Air temperature is the most common factor to indicate. To achieve thermal comfort, air temperature, humidity and radiant temperature are the critical point to control and maintain. Figure 2.1.7 Coastal Widely open space, salty sea breeze flew inside, create moisture to the surrounding. Figure 2.1.6 Huge Mountain RangeFigure 2.1.5 Tropical Rainforest Rainforest consists warm temperature and moisture atmosphere and bring cooling effect to the microclimate. Located most of the area in Malaysia. Closer to the sun, absorb most of the solar radiation. Mountainous areas consists extreme weather because it acts as a barrier to wind direction and air movement.
  6. 6. 2.3 Vernacular Architecture – Traditional Malay House How to control and achieve thermal comfort by passive design? By analysis the structure of traditional Malay Houses, there are some special design elements for itself to adapt the extreme weather of Malaysia. The traditional Malay House can divide into 3 layers of zoning which are top zone, middle zone and bottom zone. Three zones provide 3 different ways of methods to get good ventilation to Malay house. Top zone which is roof structure provide big roof space to allow air flow in or out from the roof zone. Attap roofing provide good insulation against heat gain. Middle zone which also cross ventilation at body level is the living space for people to have activities. It provide good sun shading effectively because of the roof eaves structure. Open floor plan to allow cross ventilation. Openings are provide to control the air flow and ventilation at body level. The bottom zone are raised up by the stilts design to catches winds of higher velocity. The building materials are low thermal capacity is to keep the house cool. Figure 2.3.1 Traditional Malay House Zoning Diagram
  7. 7. Traditional Malay house are usually designed by the user’s themselves according to their needs. By designing to achieve thermal comfort, they also embedded the element of their own cultural aspect and heritage element. There are 3 three significant design features in traditional Malay house which are stilt design, huge openings and overhang roof. On the other side, the construction of Tranditional house are using passive design matter also. The structural joints are pre-cut hole and grooves, effectively make it as a prefabricated house. Figure 2.3.2 Traditional Malay House Significant Features.
  8. 8. Chapter 3 Passive Design Features of Telegraph House 3.1 Stilt Design Every Traditional Malay House has almost the same stilt design. The ground floor is lift up by raising on stilts to avoid the flood at that early age. Other than that, it also serve as a natural ventilation for the bottom. Telegraph Poles House is designed as same features as traditional Malay house too. On the first floor, there are little of active design such as fan and no air conditioning because the open floor plan has facilities natural ventilation. On the other hand, the bottom also serve as a space for storage usage. The open ground floor plan of the Telegraph Poles House allow the cross ventilation by minimise the wall and partition. The living area is widely open for public and only the kitchen are enclosed by using sliding doors to avoid wild animal to get inside.The telegraph poles acts as a stilts and also structural support column that raised up the whole floor level. Figure 3.1.2 Living Area of Telegraph Poles House. Figure 3.1.1 Sectional diagram showing stilts design and air flow.
  9. 9. 3.2 Huge Openings In Traditional Malay House, there are a lots of openings such as louvered windows and doors are created surround every corner. It is not just for decoration purpose, but also a method to control the air flow. In order to allow more air flow passage in to the interior part, more openings are created. Tebar Layar on the roof is also part of opening to allow air passage through over the roof. Figure 3.2.1 Open Floor Space of Telegraph Poles House. Figure 3.2.1 1st Floor plan diagram showing cross ventilation.
  10. 10. 3.3 Roof Structue The most recognized feature that people will know is definitely the roof of Malay House. The large overhang roof is designed follow by the traditional malay house which is steep and wide overhang that functioned to limited the dazzling sunlight for shading and tropical raining. Besides that, the overhang roof is ventilated by the provision of ventilation joints and panels in its structure. It helps to cool the whole house by allow the hot air from interior exhaust to exterior because there is no any ceiling panels installed on top. Figure 3.3.1 Large Overhang Roof Shading Figure 3.3.1Sectional diagram showing ventilation and shading device.
  11. 11. 3.4 Orientation of Building layoutand site context Telegraph Poles was built and rotated its position according to the direction of wind flow. Hence, good angle of position can enhance the natural cooling system and also minimize the extreme sun path and high temperature of solar radiation. Telegraph Poles House is surrounded by vegetation on the hill top. It create a natural cooling system of micro-climate to the building in terms to provide natural ventilation. Figure 3.4.1 Site Plan diagram surrounded by vegetation on hilltop.
  12. 12. The layout planning looks like the organization with longitude house on stilts from ground floor to the upper floor. Figure 3.4.2 First Floor Plan Figure 3.4.3 Ground Floor Plan The first floor plan is bedroom, so is only halfway opened because of privacy. The Ground floor plan is public area, it consists kitchen and living area and swimming pool. Hence it provide a parallel full view to the sea horizontally.
  13. 13. Chapter 4 Reclaimed Materialof Telegraph Poles House Telegraph Poles House design evolve variety of similarity passive design with traditional Malay house even include the building material preferences. The whole house is constructed by reclaimed wood and with a little of concrete for slab. Malay house are tend to use line weight building materials to construct. Wood materials is line weight materials and it provide low thermal capacity compare with concrete and it can maintain the heat from day until night. Wood material is the most common building materials to build houses in Malaysia. However, good quality of wood materials is limited resources especially in Pulau Langkawi. Hence, the architect choose to use reclaimed wood, largely pulled from old telegraph poles that had been used in early period. There are four of utility poles are remained to make a structural column. The wood material is pretty safe because of weathering enhance treatment by nature. In order to prevent wood materials are rotted of eaten by termite, the bottom of each telegraph poles are provide a steel plate to lift up for a bit from the ground. Figure 4.1.1 Utility Poles being reused as reclaimed structural column of Telegraph Poles House
  14. 14. Reclaimed Wood Other than the structural columns are used by reclaimed wood, the roof structure is also constructed by wood materials. The reclaimed wood materials were from the old airport hotel in Penang. The whole building construction used little of nail and nuts, WHBC architects used the traditional way of building style as Malay house construction which just provide precut holes and grooves to fit timber together. Figure 4.1.1 Wood Joints with limited Nails. Figure 4.1.1 Telegraph poles as a column connected to Ceiling. Traditional scarf joints as a stair case with Steel Hanging to top are used to join two slabs as one together, creating an openness feature of traditional Malay house‘s beauties. It also serve as a beam structure for the framework that can support the roof. Figure 4.1.1 Wooden Staircase with Steel Hanging
  15. 15. Concrete The concrete material is only used for the ground floor slab to show contrast between two floors. Concrete is a cold materials so it will extreme hot or cold according to the weathering. The reason that why WHBC architect do not build up the whole housing to be just wood materials is because ground slab is connected to the foundation. In order to strengthen the whole building, and prevent timber for rotten by termitte. Figure 4.1.1 Concrete slab for Ground Floor Slab Figure 4.1.1 Kitchen on Ground Floor Figure 4.1.1 Kitchen on Ground Floor
  16. 16. Conclusion To sum up, after completed analysis this case study, Telegraph Poles House acts an fully ventilation housing. The adaption of passive design and reclaimed material has successfully implement to the building. The openings has fully implement to the climatic concern and contextual response. In addition, the openings are also organized to suit the parellel seaviews.The building layout differenciate the privacy between two floor slabs.No matter it is floor slab or roof structure, it fully allow the cross ventilation and air flow to come inside. For today, Telegraph Poles House has done a great outcome with thermal comfort and also fulfill the needs of clients and also respond to the site context. The elements and passive design features should be considered to include in the modern architecture today.

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