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Mega Trends Report 2008


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Mega Trends Report 2008

  1. 1. 2008 Research Study Update Career Industry Mega Trends: More of What You and Your Clients Need to Know Résumé Writing, Paperless Applications & the Internet Advancements in Background Investigation & Privacy Résumé & Application Fraud New Trends in Networking: Social Networking New Trends in Employment Discrimination 2008 © Career Directors International <>
  2. 2. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Special thanks to the following individuals for their contributions to this study: CDI Research Committee members who performed research and writing: Nona Pratz, CARW, CPRW, Types Write and CDI Director of Research Dr. G. Jay Christensen, CECC, CFRW, Management Professor Emeritus, California State University, Northridge Judy Ware, CIJSE, Resumes for Careers Camille Carboneau Roberts, CIJSE, CARW, CFRWC, CPRW, CEIP, AS, CC Computer Services Laura Drew, CEIC, Carolina Career Coach, Inc. Special thanks to the contributions of CDI member: Barbara Safani, FTT Research / Career Solvers CDI members who performed final editing and proof reading: Laura Drew, CEIC, Carolina Career Coach, Inc. Nona Pratz, CARW, CPRW, Types Write Laura DeCarlo, CDI President 2008 © Career Directors International <>
  3. 3. 2 TABLE OF CONTENTS I. Introduction………………………………………………………………………...........2 Nona Pratz, Types Write, Director of Research Committee II. Résumé Writing, Paperless Applications & the Internet…………………………….3 Nona Pratz, Types Write Background Investigations & Privacy ................................................................. 10 III. Judy Ware, Résumés for Careers IV. Résumé & Application Fraud…………………………………………………………14 Dr. G. Jay Christensen, Management Professor Emeritus, California State University, Northridge V. New Trends in Networking: Social Networking……………………………………..19 Camille Carboneau Roberts, CC Computer Services VI. New Trends in Employment Discrimination…………………………………………25 Laura Drew, Carolina Career Coach, Inc. Barbara Safani, FTT Research / Career Solvers VIII. Author / Editor Biographies…………………………………………………………...33 2008 © Career Directors International <>
  4. 4. 2 INTRODUCTION Since the release of the “2006-2007 CDI Career Industry Mega Trends: What You and Your Clients Need to Know,” in May 2007, and the “2007 Research Study Update,” unveiled at the 6th Annual CDI Conference in October 2007, career professionals have shown a continuing interest in newly-emerging career industry trends. Hence, the Research Committee of Career Directors International is not only proud to release another updated segment of its continuing “Mega Trends” reports, but has added a new section entitled, “New Trends in Employment Discrimination,” incorporating all the discrimination issues that face job seekers in today’s job market. Each section within the report contains up-to-date industry trends, statistics, tools, and suggestions for career professionals, job seekers, and also provides additional resources to assist in Web site research relating to the various topics. This Research Study Update is comprised of five exciting topics, which include: I. The latest statistics regarding online résumé and job postings, as well as various job seeker developments and trends (Résumé Writing, Paperless Applications & the Internet). II. How to protect one’s online reputation; using “Google” can hurt a job seeker’s employability; how online networking sites can be utilized as potential references (Background Investigations & Privacy). III. How “morality disengagement” and “tuning” will eventually catch up with the job seeker (Résumé Application Fraud). IV. How to stay current with the ever-changing “Social Networking” trends (New Trends in Networking: Social Networking). V. In this new section of the Mega Trends reports, discussion is given regarding criteria employers are now using to make hiring decisions (New Trends in Employment Discrimination). Note: This report does not constitute legal advice and should not be relied upon as legal advice. If you have a legal issue, or wish to obtain legal advice, you should consult an attorney concerning your particular situation and facts. Nothing presented in this report establishes or should be construed as establishing an attorney-client or confidential relationship between you and CDI. This report is provided only as general information, which may or may not reflect the most current legal developments or be complete. 2008 © Career Directors International <>
  5. 5. 3 RÉSUMÉ WRITING, PAPERLESS APPLICATIONS & THE INTERNET Update: October 2008 Section prepared by: Nona Pratz Edited by: Laura Drew I. Overview As career professionals, there are many topics that must be continuously reviewed, in order to stay ahead of new and emerging changes within the résumé industry, especially with regards to Internet technology. New buzzwords are popping up almost daily within this ”video” era, and career professionals must stay abreast of these trends, as well as the various online tools available that can give job seekers the competitive edge. A. Video Résumés: the video résumé was becoming an emerging trend when the 2006-2007 CDI Career Industry Mega Trends was released in October 2007. Since then, there have been numerous articles, blogs, sites, how to’s, and even educational courses for a Bachelor’s degree in video production being marketed for career-related opportunities. Video résumés and interactive videos are discussed in Section A. B. Job Seeker Statistics: the latest employment trend statistics regarding job seekers are discussed in Section B. C. Miscellaneous Résumé Sourcing Survey: interesting results from Recruiting Trends’ Résumé Sourcing Survey of 2007 regarding online résumés are discussed in Section C. II. RELEVANCY TO CAREER PROFESSIONALS A. Video Résumés. Numerous changes have occurred since the publication of the 2006-2007 CDI Career Industry Mega Trends in May 2007 and the 2007 Research Study Update of October 2007. The latest statistics by, taken from a survey of 300 human resources and business managers in December of 2007, indicated that 83 percent were willing to view a video, 63 percent immediately responded yes, 37 percent initially said no, maybe, or don’t know, and 55 percent said they would likely view a video after reviewing a satisfactory hard copy résumé. These same respondents were also asked how long a résumé video should be. The results were: • 1 minute or less (54 percent) • 1-2 minutes (24 percent) • 2-4 minutes (18 percent) • 4+ minutes (4 percent) There is still much discussion regarding discrimination in the area of video résumés; however, Colleen Aylward, of, states in the article, “A Thumbs Up for Video Résumés, this is being resolved by Web sites offering employers the tools to utilize an “apples-to-apples basis with other job seekers in the hiring process by providing more due diligence.” This includes areas / space for items such as: • test results from assessments and skills tests; • letters of references or endorsements from co-workers and managers, and • Reference checking; and • Background checking. 2008 © Career Directors International <>
  6. 6. 4 A “human element” may also be added to this “platform” by adding additional information, such as: • links to any social networks, Websites, blogs, etc. • Zoominfo – providing references to anything that was ever quoted online or on paper; • MySpace, Facebook, etc., - introducing employers to friends, hobbies, etc. Together, all of these sections cover just about everything a hiring manager needs, in one platform, in order to make the decision of who will be placed in the interview pile. There are many of these Internet résumé format sites and just a few them are listed in the Additional Resources at the end of this section. This video concept works both ways. offers a service to employers called Video Brand Builder that lets employers post a 60-second or 90-second video of their workplace featuring their work environment and services / products they offer to attract applicants. Recruitment videos are nothing new and staffing companies, in particular, utilize this technology as a marketing tool with great success. Interactive Video. Technology now allows employers to quot;interact” with job seekers by submitting questions when they post job openings to various job sites. In turn, the job seeker appears on an interactive video to answer questions the employer posted to the site. There are still many pros and cons regarding the issue of video résumés. Many HR professionals still like having the hard copy of a résumé in front of them to review side-by-side copies of job seekers, in order to compare job skills and qualifications. But right now, ATS (application tracking systems) are being incorporated into the Internet-based résumés, and the videos soon will have the scanning and comparability features just as the hard-copy résumés. Educational institutions are advertising Bachelor’s degrees in video production to boost their enrollment. This is an excellent career opportunity for graduates seeking a career in videography, and the colleges now have a “niche” with this new venue in résumé videos. B. Job Seeker Statistics. Statistics obtained from a network of more than 15,000 general, local, and niche online communities regarding online job postings and online résumé postings are listed below. ( A more in-depth report can be found at: %201QTR%202008.pdf. Online Job Postings: Online Résumé Postings: 1. Information Technology – 14.08% 1. Clerical & Administrative -21.46% 2. Sales and Sales Management – 12.66% 2. Customer Service – 9.49% 3. Healthcare & Medical – 12.12% 3. Accounting & Finance – 7.87% Job Seeker Experience Level Ending Job seeker Length of Job Search Ending Quarter 2007 to Ending 1st Quarter 2008 Quarter 2007 to Ending 1st Quarter 2008 Job seeker Experience Level for Top 3 Job seeker Experience Level for Top 3 2008 © Career Directors International <>
  7. 7. 5 Industries for Online Job Postings Industries for Résumé Postings Diversity Breakdown by Gender Executive Breakdown by Gender Age Breakdown Top Tiles for Executive Job seekers Geographic Distribution of Candidates C. Miscellaneous Résumé Sourcing Survey. Jim Stroud, self-proclaimed “Searchologist,” began to do a search on “software engineers,” but it turned out to be a search on how many résumés there were on the Internet. It was a random sampling, and he used the three most popular search engines: Google, Yahoo, and Live. The full story can be found at: research_corner/522-1.html. Below are some of his findings. Yahoo! had the highest number of résumés online with 43% Google came in second with 40% Live held 17% 2008 © Career Directors International <>
  8. 8. 6 Most Popular File Formats for Résumés in General: 1. HTML 2. HTM 3. PDF 4. DOC Most Top-Level Domains for Résumés: 1. .com 2. .net 3. .edu 4. .org Most Popular Industry Keywords Mentioned on Résumés: 1. “chemical” – on Google, then Live, then Yahoo! 2. “cigarette” – on Google, then Yahoo!, then Live 3. “consumer goods” – on Google, then Live, then Yahoo! 4. “copper” – Google, then Live, then Yahoo! Top 5 Industries by Résumés Sourced on Live* 1. Marketing 2. Advertising 3. Financial 4. Medical 5. Publishing Top 5 Industries by Résumés Sourced on Google* 1. Mortgage 2. Marketing 3. Cigarette 4. Financial 5. Medical Top 5 Industries by Résumés Sourced on Yahoo!* 1. Marketing 2. Medical 3. Healthcare 4. Financial 5. Publishing *Industries surveyed are based on the list of keywords cited in the “Keywords Mentioned on Résumés.” III. RELEVANCY TO JOB SEEKERS Job seekers today have more to think about than just preparing a résumé. To be educated in the job market, job seekers need career professionals to guide them through the complexity of technology that comes with developing a job search campaign. No longer can one sit in front of a computer, simply type up a “résumé,” press send, and wait for the phone to ring. There are too many obstacles to overcome, too many forks in the road, and too much wasted time that could be productively spent, if a career professional were contacted from the very beginning. 2008 © Career Directors International <>
  9. 9. 7 IV. STRATEGIES FOR CAREER PROFESSIONALS Career professionals must stay abreast of all industry statistics and latest technology, in order to provide the highest quality of services to job seekers. Knowing job market trends is key to providing job seekers with career guidance and job search assistance. Utilizing Internet tools to retrieve information on career topics is imperative. Below are suggestions on how career professionals can stay up to date on current trends: 1. Use Google, Yahoo! and any other popular search engines to find career information. There are many sites that provide statistics on job and career-related information within geographical areas. Use Google Alert for frequent or routine searches. 2. Become certified within the Internet job search field, such as CDI’s Certified Internet Job Search Expert certification. This will ensure that you have the knowledge and expertise required to assist job seekers with their job search campaigns. 3. Career professionals need to be knowledgeable not only in résumé writing, but also in other areas encompassing the job search, such as career assessment tools; creating / writing social networking profiles, i.e., LinkedIn, Facebook; reference and background checking processes; interviewing skills; and salary negotiation. It is not necessary to be an “expert” in every one of these components of the job search, but career professionals do need to be acquainted with every component within the job search process. 4. Be sure to have all the tools necessary to provide job seekers with everything needed for a successful job search from career coaching to accepting the job offer. If a specific service is not offered, subcontract or refer the job seeker to a career professional for that specific service. With the use of video résumés, new buzzwords in the industry have surfaced; some of them include: Video Intro – video résumé; also trade name VINTRO by Interactive Video – employer / job seeker “interact” through video, usually a Q&A type session Audio File – 60-second “audio” recording file embedded within the profile page of a Web résumé. Video Tag – different from video résumé in that the job seeker talks about him/herself rather than elaborating on accomplishments on the résumé. A video tag also will allow a password for certain people to be allowed access to a résumé video (this is still being developed by, ( Platform – A place (usually a Web site) where a job seeker has all of his / her career assets on one screen, in one place, at one time, and the hiring manager can retrieve this information by visiting the site name, usually: “” at any time, to view the job seeker’s credentials for a position. Green Screen Technology – job seekers stand in front of a screen that looks as if they were in an office or some other area besides in front of “green screen.” V. STRATEGIES FOR JOB SEEKERS Job seekers will need to heed the advice of career professionals before venturing out into the employment arena. There is so much more than “just a résumé” to be prepared by “someone.” A career professional will be able to assist the job seeker with career decisions and strategies, as well as take the confusion out of the entire process of developing a successful job search campaign. It should be suggested to the job seeker to read material available regarding social networking sites that explains how to utilize these sites for job search purposes. Job seekers also need to be reminded that anything entered on the Internet is fair game for anyone to find. Therefore, writing within these social networks including, blogs, or anything appearing on the Internet, can be and probably will be “Googled,” by a prospective employer, either now or later. 2008 © Career Directors International <>
  10. 10. 8 VI. CONCLUSION / RECOMMENDATIONS Like it or not, video résumés are here to stay. They are not as they were when they first appeared several years ago. They have been perfected to incorporate a “package” to include the complete picture of a job seeker on the Internet with assessments, social networking profiles, video résumés and interview, reference and background checks, as well as links to Websites, blogs, and endorsements by co-workers. Career professionals need to educate job seekers with all the emerging technology for obtaining a job, if the job seeker is to be competitive in today’s job market. No longer is just a hard-copy résumé enough to secure a position, but job seekers need to be educated as to what is available to them regarding the job search process from taking action on social networking sites all the way through the interview. Before beginning a résumé package that will include a video résumé, since the video résumé is still rather new to the career industry, it is recommended to call the human resources representative of the company and inquiry about their policy regarding video résumés. VII. ADDITIONAL RESOURCES A few Web sites that offer complete “platforms”: For the latest statistics in career industry trends: 2008 © Career Directors International <>
  11. 11. 9 BIBLIOGRAPHY Aylward, Colleen. “A Thumbs Up for Video Resumes.” 02 Apr. 2008. 02 Apr. 2008. <>.”Career Trend Analysis Report.” 01 Jun. 2008. < %201QTR%202008.pdf>. Education Portal. “Bachelor of Video Production: Degree Overview.” 3 Mar. 2008. 04 Apr. 2008. <http://education->. Gordon, Julie. “Lights, Camera, Action? May 2008. 22 Apr. 2008. 25 Apr. 2008. Can only be accessed by subscribers (and one time by Googled info) < EA3C0CCE4943&n>. Stroud, Jim. “The 2007 Resume Sourcing Survey, an Excerpt.” 2007. 30 Jun. 2008. <>. “Survey of Video Resume Reviewers.” PR-USA.Net. 29 Jan. 2008. <>. 2008 © Career Directors International <>
  12. 12. 10 BACKGROUND INVESTIGATIONS & PRIVACY Update: October 2008 Section prepared by: Judy Ware Edited by: Nona Pratz and Laura Drew I. Overview The CDI Mega Trends 2006-2007 report, Background Investigations & Privacy, focuses on how employers can check online for information about job seekers and find a variety of information, professional, as well as personal, regarding prospective employees. The hiring process is lengthy and expensive; successfully recruiting and filling an open position can cost about $4,000 ( In the event that the job seeker does not work out for the company, firing the employee can result in negligent jury awards in excess of $500,000 ( Therefore, companies seriously consider all avenues to gather information by which to make the best hiring decisions. In a survey of human resource professionals, 85% reported that their organization hired outside agencies to conduct background investigations on prospective employees; almost 50% of the respondents to's Human Resources Guide survey checked candidates utilizing or similar search engines by simply entering the candidate’s name and seeing what information comes up on the screen (Doyle, 2008). The problem with using this method to find “digital dirt” on a job seeker before the individual actually comes in for an interview has become one of a legal issue. Some say this crosses a fine line of discrimination; however, one can also say whatever is found on the Internet is fair game. II. RELEVANCY TO CAREER PROFESSIONALS Internet access to public records has gone from a simple Google search showing career involvement and extracurricular interests to revealing criminal activities. Career professionals may need to consider redacting personal information just as the legal court system has recently initiated in regards to access to personal data identifiers. According to the policy of the Judicial Conference of the United States and the E-Government Act of 2002 (44 U.S.C. §§ 3601-3606), unprotected personal data is considered public record and is, therefore, accessible to anyone who does an Internet search. As suggested in the policy interpretation of the E-Government Act of 2002 (CM/ECF), in public documents, it is wise to redact information to show only partial identifying numbers and names when entering personal information on Internet accessible records. Consider leaving off the client’s full address and only showing city and state, when uploading a résumé to an Internet site. Likewise, with references, partial information can be included with a statement, “complete contact information available upon request.” It is yet to be determined if career professionals need to take such stringent measures to protect job seekers and reference information, but for now, it needs to be considered on a case-by-case basis. Information needs to be handled with care, and, as Gregg Freeman, associate general counsel at HireRight says, “It’s a question of using the right records in the right way” (Heller 2008). Criminal records are now more accessible as the Internet provides access to civil records. Employers, in an attempt to diminish workplace violence or sexual harassment litigation, as well as the homeland security issues surrounding immigrant workers, are trying to hire the right person the first time around. At the executive- level hiring and search firm Christian & Timbers “found exaggerated or completely false information in 23% of a sample of 7,000 executive resumes” (Heller 2008). Les Rosen, president of Employment Screening Resources, recommends making a hiring decision based upon relevancy of the information found in civil records as a “valid predictor of job performance” (Heller 2008). 2008 © Career Directors International <>
  13. 13. 11 III. RELEVANCY TO JOB SEEKERS Protecting one’s online reputation is accomplished through diligent methods. It is imperative that job seekers be aware of how important it is to utilize the Internet in a courteous and professional manner at all times, even on the most popular social networking sites, such as, YouTube or MySpace. Job seekers must be made aware that it might be funny to post a derogatory picture of someone, or of one’s self, on these sites now, but in the near future, when it is time to campaign for that all-important job, that same photo will come back to haunt this very same job seeker. The impact of the information a perspective employer brings up on a person is based upon the relevancy of information, as well as how recent the information appeared. This means outdated information, from a fast-paced technological standpoint, is easily replaced by newer, more relevant postings. (It has not been determined yet at what point current news becomes old news, realizing, of course, that most cyber bytes cannot be eliminated.) The point being, a job seeker needs to keep a positive, current image, proactively determining how he/she is portrayed online. IV. STRATEGIES FOR CAREER PROFESSIONALS Career professionals need to consult with job seekers and make them aware of their rights as anecdotal evidence, such as information that can be found through a Google search, legally cannot be used against a job applicant (though often times is). Inaccuracies in reporting have appeared in the news more frequently, mainly in same-name mistaken identities. Different states have their own laws on how criminal information is reported, filed, and accessed. Efforts have been taken to make background information sources more reliable by establishing professional standards. In April 2008, the National Association of Professional Background Screeners (NAPBS) presented a certification and accreditation process at their annual conference giving more credibility to professional screening services and increasing consumer privacy protection (Wells 2008). Their services include client education and communication, as well as strengthening data retrieval systems, to the benefit of organizations and job searchers alike. V. STRATEGIES FOR JOB SEEKERS Many companies are now considering online networking sites as potential references. Companies like Microsoft, Target, Netflix, and Ebay, check out prospective employees on sites like LinkedIn, as well as Facebook, and Myspace. References receive considerable attention and should be chosen carefully, with pre-approval to be used by job seekers. Many employers consider LinkedIn as a reference in advance, as well as using it to check listed references. Other areas employers, or their recruiters, can access personal information about a job seeker are through emails, blogs, and forum/bulletin board posts. It is critical to maintain a professional image online, checking and updating identifying information frequently. Job searchers can check public records to see what prospective employers would find on them. To check personal/public records go to Records. There are several steps job seekers need to take before a job search begins to ensure their online identity is in good order. These include: 1. A job seeker is encouraged to enter a name in “” to see what comes up in cyberspace regarding their name. 2. It is recommended that a separate Web site or email account be established and be limited to the job seeker’s job search profile, thereby controlling accessible, confidential information. 3. Use a different user name and password for the job search and career networking sites you use. 4. Consider using networking sites like LinkedIn and JibberJobber to manage a professional image, to promote work experience, and to organize the job search process. Include only professional and academic information on these sites. In the event that information surfaces about a job seeker that is detrimental to his/her career status, the many positive bytes found through online networking can outweigh the negative. 2008 © Career Directors International <>
  14. 14. 12 5. All references should be current; before submitting a résumé, call and update the contact information of references. Avoid including a remote reference, known as an off-balance reference: someone so removed from the job seeker relationally that they would not give a good reference, either through lack of recent contact or lack of reliable content for a good reference. Consider the contribution a reference would give a prospective employer. Be selective and list only genuine references. Plan and strategize which references would give recommendations most relevant to the target position. VI. CONCLUSIONS Public accessibility to a job seeker’s private information has broadened significantly, and the job seeker needs to be aware of their rights and responsibilities, in regards to background investigations for employment purposes. The career professional can offer an addendum which the job seeker can present in the event of disputable results of a background investigation. Job seekers should always maintain their online image with careful attention to casual posting knowing that anything online can be seen by prospective employers and recruiters. Career professionals, as well as job seekers, need to be vigilant in where and how they post résumés and references redacting the information suitable for posting online. The scales tend to dip in favor of the employer, when it comes to scrutinizing candidates for the job, but, armed with knowledge the job seeker can be more prepared with a response to overcome any concerns that may cause the employer doubt. 2008 © Career Directors International <>
  15. 15. 13 BIBLIOGRAPHY Doyle, Allison. “Job Search Internet Checklist: What Employers Can Find Out About You Online.” 01 Apr. 2008. 20, Jun. 2008. < a/privacy.htm>. “Easy Backgrounds: Employee Background Check.” 21 Jul. 2006. 20 Jun. 2008. <>. Heller, Matthew. “Special Report: Background Checking—Digging Deeper.” 03 Mar. 2008. 20 Jun. 2008. <>. Wells, Susan J. “Ground Rules on Background Checks.” HR Magazine Feb. 2008. 20 Jun. 2008. <>. CM/ECF Administrative Procedures for the Southern District of Florida. “Privacy Policy Regarding Public Access To Case Records Effective October 12, 2006.” 20 Jun. 2008. <>. 2008 © Career Directors International <>
  16. 16. 14 RÉSUMÉ & APPLICATION FRAUD Update: October 2008 Section prepared by: Dr. G. Jay Christensen, Professor Emeritus California State University, Northridge Edited by: Nona Pratz and Laura Drew I. OVERVIEW A. New Terminology Regarding Deceptive Résumés New terms are occurring under this section, including “morality disengagement” and “tuning.” Tuning facts are difficult to detect, and “at least 30 percent of résumés contain factual errors” (, Northeast Human Resources Association, January 9, 2008, p. 1, and William Downing, “Tips for Combating Résumé Fraud,” p. 1). When you “tune” on a résumé, you tend to turn a phrase, swap an inserted word, or insert a word or two (, January 9, 2008, p. 1). One can also notice the level of fraud incidents in many walks of life turning the spotlight on what Mark N. Wexler, Professor of Applied Ethics, Segal Graduate School of Business at Simon Fraser University, Vancouver, British Columbia, calls morality disengagement, especially with senior executives. (Wexler, “Successful Résumé Fraud: Conjectures on the Origins of Amorality in the Workplace, p. 138). Sixteen percent of executive résumés contain false academic claims or material omissions, based on the Liar’s Index of Jude M. Werra & Associates, Brookfield, Wisconsin (McCool, “Executives: Making It by Faking It,” p. 1.). Still, Wexler discovered in his 2006 research, senior executives achieving $10,000 or more (Canadian dollars) being fired after a first position for faking their résumés. He maintains from 11 in-depth interviews (chosen for first faking their résumé) that senior executives doing their job do not worry about whether they inadvertently faked portions of their résumés. These executives rationalize using other excuses, such as their bosses were not firing people who had committed much more heinous acts (e.g. distorting data and padding expenses). They morally disengage from their personal responsibility. Perhaps, it is simply that companies have more resources at their disposal to make the backgrounds of job seekers more transparent, but the issue of résumé fraud is reaching epidemic proportions. Further, a whole industry is evolving from the need for background checks and searches to make sure job seekers are telling the truth (Wexler, “Successful Résumé Fraud: Conjectures on the Origins of Amorality in the Workplace, p. 138). It should also be noted that education is no longer the least checked item on a résumé (Burrough, “Don’t Lie on Your Résumé,” p. 1). Type of career also makes no difference—making the news in recent months and years for résumé fraud have been high-level CEOs, notable university deans (latest: a dean of admissions at MIT), a recognized California poet laureate, a food chef for a major food network, selected Wikipedia contributors, sports writers, federal officials, city USOC Olympic Committee official, and star athletic coaches (latest: Notre Dame and University of Louisiana at Lafayette). Never mind the number of college graduates who think, as long as they don’t get caught, no harm, no foul, in faking degrees, credentials, or courses. A perfect, recent example of “morality disengagement” would be Chef Robert Irvine’s spiced-up résumé where it says he received a knighthood, baked Princess Di’s wedding cake, prepared food for President Bush’s six presidents’ dinners, and graduated with a B.S. from the University of Leeds, England. All portions of that part of the résumé have been discounted, and Chef Irvine is no longer welcomed on the Food Network for future episodes of the highly-popular show, “Dinner Impossible.” Further, he still owes a bill for over $100,000 for two restaurants never opened in the St. Petersburg/Tampa area of Florida. An alert blogger from the St. Petersburg Times noticed the discrepancies in Mr. Irvine’s resume and his faked credentials. 2008 © Career Directors International <>
  17. 17. 15 Let us go back to 1992 and the Port of New York Authority and New Jersey in a study headed by Ronald Pinnare (Wexler, “Successful Résumé Fraud: Conjectures on the Origins of Amorality in the Workplace, p. 138). The Authority decided to offer a position where a prospective employee needed mastery of the Sontag Connector. The Sontag Connector did not exist; however, the Authority was swamped with 170 applicants (Wexler, “Successful Résumé Fraud: Conjectures on the Origins of Amorality in the Workplace, p. 138). Further, Wexler reported that 55 applicants claimed to be certified or licensed in Sontag. Résumé doctoring was proven to the Port Authority. B. Degree Mills Perpetuate Problem in Résumé Fraud The problem with degree mills is that they are not easy to authenticate. USA Today reported in 2003 that over 400 diploma mills and 300 counterfeit diploma Web sites exist (Armour, “Diploma Mills Insert Degree of Fraud into Job Market,” p. 1). These bogus mills are hard to detect because they are no longer mom- and-pop stores, but they are professional criminal mills run sometimes out of state prisons (Armour, “Diploma Mills Insert Degree of Fraud into Job Market,” p. 2). Also, distance learning has entered the picture, because legitimate colleges and universities are offering online degrees. It should be noted that many states, including Oregon, have lists of degree mills. Robin Schlinger, CARW, CFRW, in a recent e-mail, offered the following Wikipedia site for checking unaccredited institutions: (Schlinger, “CDIChat Re: Fake Degrees,” p. 1). Bogus degrees can be purchased on the Internet, and that is a fact. II. STRATEGIES FOR CAREER PROFESSIONAL/RÉSUMÉ WRITERS Career professionals have several resources available to check whether job seekers did, in fact, receive a degree from a reputable institution. An excellent source for verification of student degrees is Based on a recent Web posting (, career professionals can learn a great deal about ways to spot a false degree or a bogus diploma mill. Furthermore, a four-question test can be taken to help identify a bogus institution. The following list provides suggestions that will make career professionals more savvy spotters of bogus diploma mills and fake degrees: 1. First, look for whether the school is accredited by a reputable accrediting agency. 2. Check with licensing boards and professional associations about what the program delivers. 3. Go beyond classified advertisements to see if the right programs and courses are listed. 4. Call or write the attorney general of the state in question or the Better Business Bureau. 5 Find out whether the school is connected to an established, reputable parent company. 6. Check about whether credits can be transferred. 7. Check on numerous links whether the institution or college is legitimate. 8. Ask the candidate for proof of the school’s existence with accreditation and proof of the degree (Federal Trade Commission, “Avoid Fake-Degree Burns by Researching Academic Credentials, p. 1). 9. Realize that just because it says .”edu” after an educational institution does not mean it is legitimate. Diploma mills and illegitimate institutions use this designation with impunity (Oregon Student Assistance Commission Office of Degree Authorization, “Diploma Mills,” p. 2). These sites are especially helpful for learning more about diploma mills and bogus degrees: Identification of degree mill: (University of Illinois). 2008 © Career Directors International <>
  18. 18. 16 Complete list of accredited institutions: (Office of Postsecondary Education, U.S. Department of Education). Explanation of four kinds of bogus degrees (Out-of Sequence; Quickie, Sound-Alike Names; and Degrees from Schools in Locations Different from the Applicant’s Job of Home): III. STRATEGIES FOR JOB SEEKERS With constant checking by bloggers and well-meaning individuals, job seekers are warned someone will find out what “tuning” has created: a fraudulent résumé. Witness the food chef who was found out by an alert blogger from the The Petersburg Times. No one is immune from Internet checking. IV. CONCLUSION In the original 2006-2007 CDI Career Industry Mega Trends: What You and Your Clients Need to Know, it was reported that at least 52 percent of job seekers admit to lying on their résumés and said they would do it again. New statistics found on a survey taken from poll ( on March 6, 2008 revealed that out of 120 surveyed people, 70% said they never lied on their resume, 21% said they lied about only minor details, and only 9% said they would do it again. Diploma mills are difficult to detect. Job seekers can spend upwards of $3,000 or more to obtain all types of degrees, including doctorates. They should be wary of sites that look like legitimate universities or colleges. Simply purchasing a degree without doing the coursework should be a red flag that is something is wrong. Career service professionals should warn applicants that paying little attention to the educational section of a résumé and faking degrees or putting down diploma mills may be found out. Many recruiters and prospective employers are sharp readers and may easily spot diploma mills. Individuals have already been indicted—and more to come—for promoting degree mills and faked diplomas. Checking will continue to increase. 2008 © Career Directors International <>
  19. 19. 17 BIBLIOGRAPHY Argetsinger, Amy and Roberts, Roxanne. “Chef Robert Irvine, Peppered in Controversy.” 28 Feb. 2008. 29 Feb. 2008 < content/ article/2008/02/28/A>. Armour, Stephanie. “Diploma Mills Insert Degree of Fraud into Job Market.” USA 28 Sept. 2003. 09 Jan. 2008. < degrees_x.htm>. Burrough, D. J. “Don’t Lie on Your Résumé.” The Arizona Republic 13 Nov. 2002. 09 Jan. 2008. < Résumé/2002-11-13-résumé-fib_x.htm>. Downing, William. “Tips for Combating Résumé Fraud.” 09 Jan. 2008. < >. “Exactly How Widespread Is Fraud and Lying on Resumes?” Fake Resume: How Common Is Resume Fraud? 20 July 2006. 08 Mar. 2008. < >. Federal Trade Commission. “Avoid Fake-Degree Burns by Researching Academic Credentials.” Jan. 2005, Last Modified 12 Jun. 2007. 08 Mar. 2008. <>. Marquet, Christopher T., CEO. “Résumé Fraud: The Top 10 Lies.” 09 Jan. 2008. <>. McConnell, Charles R. “Watching Out for Résumé Fraud.” 28 Sept. 2004. 29 Mar. 2006 <>. McCool, Joseph Daniel. “Executives: Making It by Faking It.” 04 Oct. 2007. 08 Mar. 2008. < >. Montgomery, Ben. “TV Chef Spiced Up His Past Exploits: Robert Irvine Plans to Bring Fine Dining to St. Petersburg, But His Tales Have Soured Relationships.” St. Petersburg Times. 17 Feb. 2008. 08 Mar. 2008. <>. “Schiavo Case: Oh, Oh, Schiavo—Another State Criminalizes Lying On Résumé.” Northcountry gazette .com 5 Mar. 2006. North Country Gazette. 09 Jan. 2008. < articles/030506ResumeLying.html>. Oregon Student Assistance Commission Office of Degree Authorization. “Diploma Mills.” 25 Jun. 2004. 22 Mar. 2008. <>. Orion Management International Ltd.—Professional Investigations. “Résumé Fraud.” 09 Jan. 2008. <ésumé.htm>. Schlinger, Robin. “CDI Chat Re: Fake Degrees.” E-mail correspondence. 17 Mar. 2008. 2008 © Career Directors International <>
  20. 20. 18 Schneider, Karen Bush. “Résumé Fraud: Little White Lies Aren’t So Little Anymore.” Lansing Business Monthly Jun. 2006. 09 Jan. 2008. <>. Walzer, Philip. “Job Seekers Caught in the Act of Résumé Fraud.” The Virginia Pilot 04 May 2007. 09 Jan. 2008. <>. Wexler, Mark N. “Successful Résumé Fraud: Conjectures on the Origins of Amorality In the Workplace.” Journal of Human Values 2006; 12; 137-52. 01 Mar. 2008. 22 Mar. 2008. <>. 2008 © Career Directors International <>
  21. 21. 19 NEW TRENDS IN NETWORKING: ONLINE SOCIAL NETWORKING Update: October 2008 Section prepared by: Camille Carboneau Roberts Edited by: Nona Pratz and Laura Drew I. OVERVIEW Social networking Web sites are rapidly becoming a super trend in the careers industry and has already affected many career professionals, job seekers, and employers. Online networking has impacted the traditional face-to-face networking. In fact, social networking has been a blessing in disguise for those who did not feel comfortable with face-to-face networking. Email is the original social network! Who you connect with via email is your real social network. However, establishing and managing personal and professional relationships using social networking Web sites are increasing ways professionals can network. Social networking is here to stay and it will continue to advance with technology. Social networking Web sites have become the “next big thing” in technology. Companies like Microsoft, Google, and IBM are developing applications to make it possible for anyone to start their own social networks! II. RELEVANCY TO CAREER PROFESSIONALS / RÉSUMÉ WRITERS Career professionals should maintain a continual interest in learning more about, and keeping up with, social networking trends for two following reasons: first, to possibly increase revenue for business growth; and second, to help educate or keep up with clients in utilizing online social networking for job searching, building relationships, and discovering opportunities that they would not otherwise know about. For example, there is instant, 24/7 access to over 53 million active users on Facebook with very little investment. Just a little time is all it takes to create a business profile. As of June 2008, Facebook has an average of 250,000 new users join its site every day. About 34% of its users work as professionals, sales, executives, educators, or are in technical careers. The fastest growing demographic on Facebook consists of users aged 25 and older. Even though Facebook started in the student demographic, it has quickly grown out of this target. If one has a product or service, chances are that at least a few of those 53 million active users (which spend about 20 minutes a day on the site) are prospective customers of that particular business. 53-Million-Facebook-Users-For-Free.aspx The opportunities that online social networking provides job seekers alone are worth learning about and becoming a regular user. Most, but not all, job seekers today are savvy with technology and would expect their career coach, résumé writer, head hunter, or recruiter to be competent in technology. The Internet has revolutionized the way job seekers find jobs. In fact, one technique career professionals can use to leverage their Internet prowess is by sharing links to relevant social networking sites with job seekers who may not know about them. Career professionals can take it a step further and even help job seekers by writing profiles for these sites, specifically for the professional Web sites such as LinkedIn. In fact, once the résumé is complete, some of that information could easily be utilized on a professional social networking site, and this may generate another source of revenue. III. RELEVANCY TO JOB SEEKERS It is evident that the job seekers who keep up with technology will be more successful than those who do not. Many employers are finding that online social networking is an excellent way to attract and find talent. That is evident by the myriad of businesses using and developing online social networking themselves. For example, iGoogle made an announcement on April 21, 2008 “that could prove to be not only important to the evolution of OpenSocial and iGoogle, but also to the social networking sector itself. Google announced a new developer sandbox for iGoogle that includes support for their OpenSocial 2008 © Career Directors International <>
  22. 22. 20 application programming interfaces (APIs). Essentially, Google is working toward turning their start page (home page) property into a social network, though they have not overtly said so. Google's move makes this officially the start of a trend in start (home) pages to get more social.” social_networks.php To recap, among the most popular online social networking sites, is still a perfect place to ask questions to experts within a variety of industries. is becoming more popular among those aged 30-40 years, a good place to promote events, and currently has more tools available than LinkedIn. is perfect for providing tutorials and step-by-step demos. is a site where you can share documents and have them rated by a large audience. It may even help to establish one’s self as a guru. allows live chat and webinars. IV. STRATEGIES FOR CAREER PROFESSIONALS AND RÉSUMÉ WRITERS Career professionals and résumé writers need to educate job seekers on the importance of using good judgment and caution when posting personal and private information on social networking sites. It is imperative to explain to the job seeker that employers may search for candidates on these sites before considering them for interviews. Be sure to discuss the following: • Create strategic professional profiles on each of the social networking sites then start using the site for professional networking by participating in forums and blogs. • Never post anything derogatory that could be construed as inappropriate by an employer on the social networking Web site. • Enroll in webinars and teleclasses to learn more about social networking sites. • Set up a Google Alert or Windows Live Search Alert to keep abreast of the trends. • Help the client to be personable and likeable on the social networking site. • Discuss strategies with colleagues in online forums. The benefits of social networking include: • Using the Web site to conveniently and quickly find an expert or locate implicit knowledge. • Visualizing and understanding communication paths within an organization. • Supercharging meeting preparation and facilitation. • Increasing the value and extending the shelf life of live conferences or webinars. • Sharing knowledge of all types and with a variety of people at all skill levels. • Preparing for demographic changes that affect businesses and communications. • Creating a connection and relationship with prospective clients. IV. STRATEGIES FOR JOB SEEKERS Career professionals must educate job seekers on the proper etiquette of social networking sites. Be sure to discuss the pros and cons and ensure the job seeker is comfortable with posting a profile. Items to discuss follow: • For some job seekers, social networking may be more difficult than meeting in person. For some, it could be much easier. • Job seekers who participate in online social networking can use the initial “anonymity” to reduce that first impression stress, the sweaty palms, and the nervous twitch. • Be aware that it is difficult to remove information once it is posted online so think about what will be posted. • Strategize what will be said to the professional before making contact. • Be prepared by having questions and answers ready ahead of time. • Have the résumé ready to email to the contact, as well as any other related information from the research performed. • Respond to requests immediately, or at least at the agreed time stated to respond. 2008 © Career Directors International <>
  23. 23. 21 VI. HUMAN RESOURCE SURVEY FINDINGS Since one of the main purposes of social networks is to share information and improve the flow of information, some human resources departments are utilizing this tool in a variety of ways. Social networking sites are proving to be a vehicle for employers to search for the right job candidate. In fact, one example includes recruiters using to broadcast their job openings to the professional network. As of March 21, 2008, “more than 20 million professionals are registered on LinkedIn, including executives from all 500 of the Fortune 500 companies, as well as a wide range of household names in technology, financial services, media, consumer packaged goods, entertainment, and numerous other industries. LinkedIn is backed by world-class investors, including Sequoia Capital, Greylock, the European Founders Fund, and Bessemer Venture Partners.” ( press_releases_032108). Business owners can conveniently search for candidates on their own by using keywords relevant to the position then perusing an individual’s profile. In an article posted on the Internet by Jennifer C. Berkshire, she cites Lou Adler, president of the Adler Group, an Irvine, California-based training and consulting firm that helps companies design recruiting technology. Ms. Berkshire writes: “While Adler doesn’t think HR professionals should avoid virtual networking, he’s a fan of networking sites—he recommends that companies think hard about where their technology dollars and energy are going. ’Spend your technology dollars on making recruiters more productive and making it easier for your candidates to contact you and submit resumes,’ he says. Look to social networking technology as a way to support and enhance—not replace—traditional recruiting methods.’” Mr. Daniel J. Brass has performed significant research and has a plethora of examples of analysis of social networks. He discusses social networking effects on career development, recruitment, selection, performance appraisals, training, turnover, and conflict. He concludes that the networks focus on relationships rather than the attributes of the “actors.” He states that those who see increased acceleration of change in the environment, increased uncertainty, and increased information processing requirements, have suggested the emergence of a new organizational form—the network organization. The article can be found at The following is the Abstract from his paper posted online: “This paper applies a social network perspective to the study of human resources management. Complementing the traditional focus on individual attributes, the social network perspective focuses on the relationships among actors rather than the actors themselves. The perspective assumes that actors (whether they be individuals, groups, or organizations) are embedded within a network of interrelationships with other actors. It is this intersection of relationships that defines an actor’s position in the social structure, and provides opportunities and constraints on behavior. A brief introduction to social networks is provided, and research focusing on the antecedents and consequences of networks is reviewed. The social network framework is applied to human resources management topics such as recruitment, selection, socialization, training, performance appraisal, career development, and turnover. Other research topics, such as job satisfaction, performance, power, and conflict, are included, and directions for future research are suggested. Conclusions focus on network organizations and future human resources management practices.” VII. CONCLUSIONS / RECOMMENDATIONS It is important to remember that social networking Web sites are an excellent way to meet and connect, but social networking is about building trust and relationships. Utilizing online social networking has become a trend that will continue to affect how people do business, employers find talent, job seekers find jobs, and people meet and socialize. 2008 © Career Directors International <>
  24. 24. 22 More companies will continue using online social networking as a form of intra-social networking to collaborate with a wide variety of skilled personnel on multiple projects, which could lead to faster production, increased communication, and higher quality collaboration, because the “project” will not be limited alone to those on the project team. Social networking sites provide a platform where anyone can participate. VIII. ADDITIONAL RESOURCES Top Ten Social Networking Sites Mobile Web Trends and Products: Bringing social networking to all businesses: A contrarian view of Social Networking:™ and Akken™ Integrate Social Networking with Powerful Staffing and Recruiting Software: The following are excerpts of resources published in Business Communications Headline News and can be used to learn more about social networking: Video: Social Networking in Plain English An Executive Briefing on Social Networking and-Associations.pdf Online Video: Web 2.0 Niche Social Networking Social Networking for the Boomers Social Networking LinkedIn: A Social Network for Business People Using LinkedIn for Employment 2008 © Career Directors International <>
  25. 25. 23 Video: A Business Social Network Example--LinkedIn The Business Value of Social Networking Applications socialnetworkingbehavior.pdf 2008 © Career Directors International <>
  26. 26. 24 BIBLIOGRAPHY “Now Any Business Can Tap 53 Million Facebook Users (For free).” Nov. 2007. Hubs Internet Marketing Blog. 21 Mar. 2008. < Any-Business-Can-Tap-53-Million-Facebook-Users-For-Free.aspx>. Catone, Josh. “Start Pages: The Next Social Networks.” 21 Apr. 2008. 06 May 2008. <>. Brass, Daniel, J. “A Social Network Perspective On Human Resources Management.” Research in Personnel and Human resources Management. Volume 13. Pages 39-79. 1995 21 Apr. 2008. <>. Berkshire, Jennifer.C. “’Social Network’ Recruiting: Software and Online Services Help Recruiters Mine Their Contacts for Candidates and Referrals.” HR Magazine. Apr. 2005. 20 Apr. 2008. <>. “Companies are Now Part of LinkedIn Network”. 21 Mar. 2008. 21 Mar. 2008. <>. 2008 © Career Directors International <>
  27. 27. 25 NEW TRENDS IN EMPLOYMENT DISCRIMINATION Section prepared by: Laura Drew and Barbara Safani Edited by: Nona Pratz I. OVERVIEW Most industrialized nations have some form of employment anti-discrimination protection. Countries with the most extensive anti-discrimination laws include, but are not limited to, Canada, the United States, Australia, and the European Union (for a list of EU countries, see Additional Resources at the end of this section). These countries make it illegal for employers to discriminate on the basis of: • Age • Creed • Disability • Gender • Military Duty • National Origin • Pregnancy • Race • Religion • Sexual Orientation • Genetic Testing Result (Currently only done in the US) (The United States Congress passed legislation making it illegal for employers to discriminate based on genetic test results. The EEOC has not updated their Website, since the bill was just passed in April 2008. It is illegal to discriminate for the reasons listed above; however, employers are using other criteria when making employability decisions. Today, employers are becoming increasingly discerning about who they hire and why they fire. Employers are discriminating based on health issues, such as obesity, smoking, cholesterol and blood pressure. Discrimination is also occurring in the areas of personal appearance, which include visible tattoos, body piercings, and hairstyles. Finally, social networking practices, such as Facebook and MySpace pages, as well as personal blog entries are also being used to sway employers regarding hiring potential jobseekers. Outlined below are examples of how employers are “Legally Discriminating” against job seekers and employees. In an effort to curtail the rising costs associated with health insurance, employee sick leave, and loss of productivity, employers are refusing employment or are terminating employment based on physical fitness and personal health habits. According to the National Business Group on Health, employers ranked smoking and obesity as their greatest employee health issues. A. Obesity In January 2007, MSNBC reported that obese employees are feeling discriminated against because of their weight. “In a recent Yale University survey, of about 2,000 overweight women, 53 percent of those polled said co-workers stigmatized them, and 43 percent said their employers stigmatized them. Being stigmatized translated into not being hired, being passed over for promotions, losing a job, or being teased or harassed because of their weight.” Fox News reported, in November 2007, that a U.K wife was refused immigration to New Zealand because she was overweight. Immigrants to New Zealand are required to “undergo a complete medical examination, which includes body size measures, like ‘waist circumference’.” If they are deemed overweight, immigrants are refused admittance into the country.,2933,312056,00.html 2008 © Career Directors International <>
  28. 28. 26 According to a July 2006 report on Eyewitness News Channel 7 in New York, Michael Frank lost his job in a Long Island school in 2004 for being fat. The superintendent said his obesity “was not conducive to learning and he was too big and sloppy to be a school leader.” In 2002, Steven Pasanski was named employee of the year and promoted to manager. A year later he was fired because he was “overweight and sweat too much.” In July 2005, Pasanski was awarded $284,000 in a wrongful discharge case against Continental Rental, Inc. B. Smoking According to Time magazine, The European Commission ruled that “refusing to hire smokers did not breach European anti-discrimination laws.” In December 2005, the World Health Organization, based in Geneva, Switzerland, “launched a hiring ban on smokers.” article/0,9171,1226062,00.html Another Time magazine article reported that Florida Westgate Resorts banned smoking, would not hire smokers, and fired employees that smoked. CEO Kevin Siegel said “the policy is cost effective and, since it went into effect, health insurance claims have gone down significantly, making insurance more affordable for employees.” MSNBC reported that four employees of Weyco, Inc., were fired for refusing to take a test to determine if they smoke cigarettes. “The health benefits administrator based in Okemos, Michigan, adopted a policy that allows employees to be fired if they smoke, even if the smoking happens after business hours or at home. Company founder Howard Weyers has said the anti-smoking rule was designed to shield the firm from high health care costs.” The Cleveland Clinic, according to The Shrink Podcast, “has openly admitted that if pre-employment screening finds nicotine in a potential employees system they will immediately be denied employment.” obesity-and-blood-test-results/ C. Cholesterol, Blood Pressure, etc. Also from The Shrink Podcast, Clarian Health has stated that “if tests show the employee has abnormal levels of cholesterol, blood pressure and a growing list of other tests they will be charged $5 on each paycheck for each occurrence of those criteria.” obesity-and-blood-test-results/ D. Personal Appearance Employers, especially in the United States, are also deciding employability based on personal appearance, such as hairstyle, body piercings, and visible tattoos. In October, 2006, Atlanta news station WSBTV reported that a third grade school teacher was fired because her employer did not approve her new hairstyle. 2008 © Career Directors International <>
  29. 29. 27 According to, two Virginia Corrections Officers, one a former White House employee, were fired for “extreme” hairstyles. The employer admitted that the hairstyle did not interfere with job performance or safety, but the women were fired nonetheless. Three state park custodians sued for wrongful termination after being fired for having visible tattoos. A US District Judge in Kentucky ruled that “workers did not have a constitutional right to visible tattoos.” E. Social Networking Practices With social networking sites like MySpace and Facebook, and the increasing popularity of blogs, jobseekers and employees are being judged on more than their résumés or work performance. “An October Career survey found at least one in four hiring managers used search engines to research job applicants. One in 10 used social-networking sites to screen candidates.” Facebook Facebook warns: “People post content on the site at their own risk.” James Brenna, a U.K employee, learned that lesson the hard way after a coworker reported his derogatory comments about the company to upper management. He was fired immediately. In early 2007, Penn State columnist, Zach Good, was fired after students objected to remarks he made on his Facebook page. In retaliation, the students started a Facebook campaign to “Fire Zach Good from the Daily Collegian.” Days later, the editor-in-chief, admitted being swayed by the Facebook campaign and fired the writer. comments.html MySpace A Florida Middle school teacher was fired after school officials read his MySpace page. Though officials admit that there was nothing pornographic on the site, they felt it was inappropriate for a teacher to state the he “was looking for friends and someone to date.” In 2007, a Texas disc jockey was fired for sexual content on his MySpace page that was deemed “inappropriate and inconsistentquot; with the station’s policies. A substitute judge in Las Vegas lost his job after prosecutors read disparaging remarks about particular lawyers posted on the judge’s MySpace page. The judge defended his remarks saying that he was trying to provoke conversation. Prosecutors contend that the MySpace page proved the judge’s bias against prosecuting attorneys. Fox News reported that former Wal-Mart cashier, David Noorwedier, was fired for “joking on his MySpace page that the average IQ would increase if a bomb were dropped on the company's stores.”,2933,276592,00.html 2008 © Career Directors International <>
  30. 30. 28 Blogging In the CBS News article, “Fired for Blogging,” a woman was fired after posting about the office Christmas party. In 2008, CNN producer, Chez Pazienza, was fired for blogging on both his own personal blog and then later for The Huffington Post. In his blogging, he never referred to CNN or gave his real name. Mark Jen, a former Google employee, was fired in February 2008, for posting his opinions about life at the company. II. RELEVANCY TO CAREER PROFESSIONAL / RÉSUMÉ WRITERS Career professionals need to advise jobseekers that discriminating hiring and firing practices do exist in some organizations and that employment decisions based on a candidate’s lifestyle choices may be on the rise. III. RELEVANCY TO JOB SEEKERS Once job seekers are made aware that some companies do follow these discriminating practices, they can better target appropriate companies to match their lifestyle choices or make a conscious decision to alter some of their habits, if they are to be considered as a candidate for the specific company they want to pursue. IV. STRATEGIES FOR CAREER PROFESSIONALS / RÉSUMÉ WRITERS As a career professional, it is imperative to be current on interviewing trends, hiring practices, and laws impacting the arenas of both illegal and discrimination. By being informed, a career professional can better guide job seekers through the ever-treacherous maze that is job hunting. V. STRATEGIES FOR JOB SEEKERS Ideally, career professionals should assist job seekers in seeking out companies with a corporate culture that is best suited to their circumstances. When this is not possible, job seekers must either seek employment elsewhere or overcome these obstacles in the job interview. Obesity Employers who discriminate based on weight tend to justify it because overweight workers are viewed as sloppy and lazy, thus are unmotivated and will cost companies in productivity. An obese job seeker can also be viewed as unhealthy, thus potentially meaning more sick time and higher insurance costs to the company. If a job seeker feels their weight may be an issue, it is important to have strategies to address employer concerns. Smoking If you are a smoker, find out the company’s smoking policy before the job interview. Connecticut, Minnesota, Montana, South Dakota, Wisconsin, North Carolina, New Jersey, New York, and Oregon are among the 29 states that prohibit employers from discriminating against those who use 2008 © Career Directors International <>
  31. 31. 29 tobacco products outside of the workplace. “Your Rights in the Workplace,” by Barbara Kate Repa lists every state’s smoking laws. 0imT19XjtEC&pg=PA231&lpg=PA231&dq=which+states+that+prohibit+employers+from+discriminating+a gainst+those+who+use+tobacco+products+outside+the+workplace&source=web&ots=wK7B28jAIJ&sig=y Yj2GrGN0NlPLLhbcL3cax1T3Po&hl=en#PPA233,M1 Cholesterol, Blood Pressure, etc. “It’s only a small percentage of employers throughout the U.S. that are taking these questionable measures to force their employees to do what they deem healthy.” obesity-and-blood-test-results/ Personal Appearance Find out the company’s policy on tattoos, body piercings, and hairstyles. Altering appearances for an interview may be advisable in some cases, but keep in mind an employer may not allow an employee to revert back once the job seeker is hired. Also, keep in mind that employers may demand changes to current employees’ appearance. According to, “when asked whether their opinion of someone would be lowered by that person's visible tattoos or body piercings, 42 percent of managers said they would lower their opinions of someone based on his or her tattoos or body piercings; 58 percent said they'd be less likely to offer a job to a tattooed or pierced applicant.” Social Networking Practices Job seekers should NEVER put anything on the Internet that they would not be comfortable having their grandmother see or read about them. Employers are increasingly using the Internet to get information on job seekers. A trustworthy online image is as important as good references or a good résumé. VI. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS Job seekers can be better prepared for interviews by learning the importance of uncovering the corporate culture of the organizations before they apply for a position. By showing job seekers the importance of cultural fit, job seekers can more realistically target companies that match their professional and personal needs and avoid companies where the fit is not compatible. While some would argue that a propensity towards certain lifestyle choices should not be a deciding factor for employment and that such actions are discriminatory, many factors exist that would make it difficult to prove that the job seeker was discriminated against. 2008 © Career Directors International <>
  32. 32. 30 VIII. ADDITIONAL RESOURCES Countries of the European Union ( as of August 2008: EU27 Member States: Candidate Countries: • Austria • • Croatia Lithuania • Belgium • • Former Yugoslav Republic of Luxembourg • Bulgaria • Macedonia Malta • Turkey • Cyprus • The • Czech Republic Netherlands • • Denmark Poland • • Estonia Portugal • • Finland Romania • • France Slovakia • • Germany Slovenia • • Greece Spain • • Hungary Sweden • • Ireland United • Italy Kingdom • Latvia 2008 © Career Directors International <>
  33. 33. 31 BIBLIOGRAPHY BIBLIOGRAPHY Associated Press. “Fired for Smoking?” 26 Jan. 2005. 08 May 2008. <>. Associated Pres. “Senate Passes Genetic Discrimination Ban.” 24 Apr. 2008. 08 May 2008. <>. Associated Press. “Substitute Judge in North Las Vegas Loses Job Over MySpace Blog.” 13 Aug. 2007. 08 May 2008. < news/tech/20070813-0852-nv-myspacejudge.html>. Associated Press. “Wal-Mart Cashier Says He Was Fired Over MySpace Bomb Joke.” 31 May 2007. 08 May 2008. <,2933,276592,00.html>. Chan, Sewell. “CNN Producer Says He Was Fired for Blogging”. 14 Feb. 2008. 08 May 2008. < blogging/>. Chen, Hans. “Tattoo Survey Results: Vault Explains It All For You.” 2001. 08 May 2008. <>. Cullen, Lisa Takeuchi. “No Smoking at Work. Or at Home.” 9 Nov. 2007. <http://time->. “Fla. Teacher Fired Over MySpace Page.” WJXT-TV News. 25 Jan. 2007. 08 May 2008. <>. “Fired For Blogging”. CBS News. 7 Mar. 2005. 08 May 2008. <>. Go, Alison. “Columnist Says He Was Fired for Facebook Comments.” The Paper Trail. 27 Feb. 2007. 12 Aug. 2008. < he-was-fired-for-facebook-comments.html>. Gross, Edie. “Hairstyles Bring Disciplinary Action.” Fredericksburg Times. 2 Jul. 2007. 08 May 2008. <>. Hansen, Evan. “Google Blogger Has Left the Building.” 8 Feb. 2005. 08 May 2008. <>. Harmon, Crystal..”Bad Axe, MI Man Fired for Being Fat Wins Lawsuit.” 07 Jun. 2005. 08 May 2008. <>. Iverson, Jeffrey T. “Snubbing Smokers at Work.” 13 Aug. 2006. 12 Aug. 2008. <,9171,1226062,00.html>. Knight Ridder/Tribune Business News. “Kentucky State Park Workers Lose Lawsuit Over Dress Code.” Sept. 2004. 08 May 2008. <>. Neate, Rupert. “Waitrose Worker Fired for Facebook Slur.” 26 Jun. 2008. 12 Aug. 2008. <>. 2008 © Career Directors International <>
  34. 34. 32 “New Zealand Denies Immigration to U.K. Wife Because She’s Too Fat.” Daily Mail. 17 Nov. 2007. 12 Aug. 2008. <,2933,312056,00.html>. Morris, Peter. “Employees Fired and Fined for Smoking, Obesity, and Blood Test Results.” 27 Sept. 2007. 08 May, 2008. < smoking-obesity-and-blood-test-results/>. Perez, Charles. “Fired for Being Fat?” 7 Jul. 2006. 08 May 2008. <>. Repa, Barbara Kate, Your Rights in the Workplace, 8th Edition. NOLO Publishing, 2007. Google Book Search. Jul. 2007. 08 May 2008. < at+prohibit+employers+from+discriminating+against+those+who+use+tobacco+products+outside +the+workplace&source=web&ots=wK7B28jAIJ&sig=yYj2GrGN0NlPLLhbcL3cax1T3Po&hl=en#P PA233,M1>. Tahmincioglu, Eve. “Fat Chance: It’s Not Easy for Obese Workers.” 26 Jan. 2007. 08 May 2008. <>. “Teacher Says She Was Fired Over Her Hairstyle.” WSBTV News. 26 Oct. 2006 08. May 2008. <>. Yates, Phillip. “The Boss is Checking Your MySpace Page.” Amarillo News. 28 Jan. 2007. 08 May 2008. <>. 2008 © Career Directors International <>
  35. 35. 33 AUTHOR / EDITOR BIOGRAPHIES LAURA DECARLO, BA, MCD, CERW, CECC, CCMC, CCM, CEIC, IJCTC, CIJSE, CWPP, 360REACH CDI President Laura DeCarlo is the President of Career Directors International, the premier educational and credentialing organization for career professionals. She has 16 years of expertise in résumé writing, career coaching and career management as Principal of A Competitive Edge Career Service, LLC. She has been a pioneer for the careers industry, guiding the development of industry education, outreach, research, credentialing and recognition programs. She is the résumé expert for 45+ national and international professional associations, author of Interview Pocket RX and Interviewing: The Gold Standard, co-author of Job Search Bloopers, and has been published in 15+ resume compendiums. She has further distinguished herself with seven prestigious résumé writing and job placement awards, and 12 industry certifications from Certified Expert Résumé Writer to Master Career Director. She holds a dual BA in Creative / Technical Writing and has completed extensive HR, Training, and Counseling graduate studies. Additionally, DeCarlo has directed nationwide career transition programs for the US Treasury, presented nationally at over 10 association conferences, and managed an award-winning college placement program. She has been quoted in Forbes (IMPRESS), Florida Today, Working Mother, and the Wall Street Journal, and appeared on NBC 7/39 News in San Diego. NONA PRATZ, CARW, CPRW CDI Director of Research Nona Pratz established Types Write, located in Metairie, LA, just outside of New Orleans, in 1985. She is a member of Career Directors International and serves as Director of Research. Nona is double credentialed holding a CARW from CDI and a CPRW from Professional Association of Résumé Writers & Career Coaches, and is a candidate for the CCRE. Nona was nominated for the TORI Awards’ Best Creative Résumé, she is a published author for ResumeMaker Professional 2008 and contributor to “Job Search Bloopers” by Laura DeCarlo and Susan Guarneri. As director of the research committee, a premier group within CDI, Nona works closely with colleagues to identify and analyze cutting-edge trends affecting CDI members. She is part of on-going extensive “Super Trend” projects, encompassing career-related topics, which entail vast amounts of fact-finding analyses affecting the careers industry. She has been part of a panel presentation at the CDI conferences in San Antonio in 2008 and in Seattle in 2009 discussing new trends regarding career professionals and how to stay abreast of newly emerging technology within the industry. LAURA DREW, CEIC Laura Drew is a Certified Employment Interview Consultant (CEIC) and a candidate for Certified Internet Job Search Consultant (CIJSE). She is a member of the North Carolina Association of Personal and Business Coaches (NCAPB) and has been a member of Career Directors International (CDI) since 2006. As a member of CDI, Laura serves on the Awards, Education, and Research Committees. With over 20 years experience volunteering with non-profit organizations and her many years in corporate America, Laura has experience in all facets of human resources. As a Career Coach, Workshop Leader, and Teleclass Instructor, Laura specializes in Interview Strategies with a special interest in Compensation Trends, Resume Effectiveness, Job Transitioning, Work / Life Balance, and Workplace Discrimination. 2008 © Career Directors International <>
  36. 36. 34 DR. G. JAY CHRISTENSEN, Ed.D., CECC, CFRW Dr. Jay taught 38 years at California State University, Northridge (CSUN), and completed at least 45 years in the teaching profession. During his time at Northridge, he taught Analysis of Communications for Business, University 100 for Academic First-Year Experience, Administrative Office Management, Office Systems Analysis, Word Processing Management (which he created), Seminar in Forms Management (15-week Extended Education, and Seminar in Word Processing Management (15-week Extended). Dr. Christensen also served on the University Faculty Senate and the University Library Committee as well as numerous college and department committees. Jay participated in research efforts about background music for accounting skills and lab assignments as well as Visual Display Terminal Health Hazards and their effects on word processing. Dr. Jay also prepared two surveys for the Business Forms Management Association, Los Angeles Chapter, and a major survey for the Association of Information Systems Professionals (AISP). He completed his certificates for CECC (Certified Electronic Career Coach), CFRW (Certified Federal Resume Writer), and the four of the five requirements for CAM/AMS (Certified Administrative Manager. He is a candidate for CIJSE credential. Dr. Christensen has given numerous presentations for the Association for Business Communication at regional and national/international conventions. He recently presented a seminar on resumes, cover letters, and career etiquette at the Student Finance Association, CSUN. Dr. Jay also presented at PRWRA’s (forerunner of CDI) Atlanta Conference on the subject of “Electronic Resumes.” Jay has also written for numerous business education and business communication publications as well as created the PRWRA HireViews monthly column for educators. He continues his interest in educating business people by recent consulting as a four-hour seminar for a mortgage brokerage company, L.A., on listening, business letters, e-mail/memos, report writing, and effective presentations. CAMILLE CARBONEAU ROBERTS, CFRW/C, CPRW, CEIP, CARW, CIJSE Camille Carboneau Roberts is a Career and Business Strategist who has 21 years of expertise in helping people get jobs in the Federal government, transitioning Military to the corporate or Federal sectors, and helping government employees with promotions to the Senior Executive Service level. Camille started CC Computer Services & Training in 1989. In addition to this, her background includes working nine years for the prime contractor to the Department of Energy at the Idaho National Laboratory. She held positions in a variety of departments including Electronic and Technical Publications, Spent Fuel Processing, and in Human Resources. She has earned many credentials including: Certified Federal Résumé Writer/Coach (CFRW/C), Certified Professional Résumé Writer (CPRW), Certified Employment Interview Professional (CEIP), Certified Advanced Résumé Writer (CARW), and Certified Internet Job Search Expert (CIJSE). Camille is active in several professional organizations including Career Directors International (Research Committee, Conference Committee), Professional Association of Résumé Writers & Career Coaches (Certification Committee), Career Masters Institute, and the Association of Online Résumé and Career Professionals. Her work has been featured in 202 Great Résumés, 2500 Keywords to Get You Hired, 101 Best Résumés to Sell Yourself, Best Résumés for Grads, Best Résumés for College Students and New Grads, RésuméMaker Deluxe, Job Search Bloopers, and No-Nonsense Job Interviews: How to Impress Prospective Employers and Ace Any Interview. Camille has also been nominated for three TORI Awards (Toast of the Résumé Industry). She also won the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Woman-Owned Business Award and was 2008 © Career Directors International <>
  37. 37. 35 recognized for being an Outstanding Supplier to the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. Her website is JUDY WARE, BA, CIJSE Judy Ware is a professional writer who owns and operates Résumés for Careers located just out of Camas, Washington. She is a member of Career Directors International (CDI), and a member of the CDI Research Committee and has recently attained her Certified Internet Job Search Expert credential. Judy has a Bachelors degree in Human Development and a Professional Writer Certificate from Washington State University. BARBARA SAFANI, MA, BA, CERW, CPRW, NCRW, CCM Barbara Safani, owner of Career Solvers, has over twelve years of experience in career management, recruiting, and executive coaching. Barbara partners with both Fortune 100 companies and individuals to deliver targeted programs focusing on resume development, job search strategies, on-line identity, networking, interviewing, and salary negotiation skills. Barbara has appeared as a career expert on CNN, ABC, FOX, and ROBTV and her career advice has been featured in The Washington Post and MSNBC online. She regularly contributes career- relevant content to The Ladders, Kennedy Executive Agent, iHispano, and Career Hub. Barbara holds a Master of Arts degree in Organizational Psychology from Columbia University and a Bachelor of Arts degree in Psychology from the State University of New York at Albany. She is certified by Career Directors International, the Career Management Alliance, the National Resume Writers' Association, and the Professional Association of Resume Writers, a distinction only a handful of resume writers world-wide have achieved. She is the author of Happy About My Resume: 50 Tips for Building a Better Document to Secure a Brighter Future and her work is featured in over two dozen career publications. Barbara is also a 14-time nominee in the TORI (Toast of the Resume Industry) annual awards sponsored by Career Directors International. Prior to starting her consultancy, Barbara was a Human Resources Executive for a Fortune 100 company where she led management development, recruiting, and employee relations initiatives. 2008 © Career Directors International <>