Table of Contents
v Job Description…3
v Surveying Process…6
v Task Statements…7-9
v Interview Format…16-17
v Critical Incidents…18
v Survey Initiation…19
v Survey Questions…20-23
Jonathan Cowan & Alexis Fawcett
University of Central Florida
INP6058 Job Analysis Project
Information obtained in this
analysis is for academic purposes
Through empirically supported methods for selecting and training superior crew
members, Trader Joe’s customers can be provided with a rewarding, eventful, and
fun shopping experience.
The crew member’s job functions, tasks, and
characteristics were analyzed at the
Gainesville Trader Joe’s location. The
information enclosed in this report can be
used to provide a task-focused job
description and applied towards improving
selection and training practices.
Through observations and interviews with
Trader Joe’s crew members and supervisors,
the analysts developed a list of essential
tasks and characteristics for the crew
member position. The most essential tasks
for the crew member position were:
unloading products from delivery vehicles,
managing time efficiently while accomplish
assigned tasks, transporting product onto
the sales floor, conducting transactions with
customers, and maintaining a positive,
customer service-oriented attitude. Data
regarding the knowledge, skills, abilities, and
other characteristics required for crew
members can be used for selection and
Ideal crew members will demonstrate a
positive, upbeat interpersonal style and have
a team- and customer service-oriented
attitude. Applicants will be able to deal with
potentially upset or dissatisfied customers,
and possess the ability to communicate
effectively. Applicants should be primarily
selected for the abilities that an effective
crew member possesses, and additional
training may not be necessary as these
characteristics should be readily available in
the current labor market.
Training for crew members should focus on
developing job-relevant knowledge and skills
such as knowledge of Trader Joe’s products,
the point-of-sale system, store policies and
procedures, and the use of equipment, tools,
and machinery. Additional training for
abilities such as effective communication,
customer service, and time management
should not be necessary, but can be
implemented at management’s discretion.
Characteristics related to physical job
performance were deemed necessary for the
selection process, however their use in the
hiring process could result in adverse impact
or discrimination against protected
classes. Further job analysis regarding
physical ability requirements is
recommended to determine whether these
factors are essential to job performance,
thus avoiding potential legal liabilities or
discriminatory hiring practices.
Company: Trader Joe’s
Location: Gainesville, Florida
Title: Crew Member
Employment Duration: Part time
Far from Ordinary
If ordinary makes you yawn, then keep reading. Do you possess a sense of adventure? Do you like to make
people smile? Do you like to eat? We have opportunities that will challenge and excite. Who are we? Trader
Joe's, your favorite neighborhood grocery store that originated in Southern California and now operates more
than 440 stores (and growing) from coast to coast. The most important job assignment is delivering a great
customer experience. Our Crew creates a fun, warm and friendly shopping experience by sharing product
knowledge, walking customers to items, answering their questions and offering suggestions.
Everybody does Everything
As part of our Crew, you'll handle a lot! But that's the thing; so does everybody else. What's more, you won't
be stuck in one role here. Here are some of the things you can expect to do:
• Work on a register
• Bag some groceries
• Stock the shelves
• Build a display
• Have fun helping customers
There will never be a dull moment in your day! All you need is a passion for people and a fervor for food. We
can teach you the rest. Physically active, upbeat, positive and fun individuals are the folks we want on our
Crew. A high school graduate with flexibility to work evenings and weekends is strongly preferred.
Passion for Art? Flair for Food? Love of Wine? We Got You Covered!
Many of our Crew Members have special talents that we put to good use around here. If art is your thing, you
can craft imaginative, informative, handmade store signs that promote Trader Joe's products - and make our
customers say, "WOW!" We use a lot of chalk, so if that's a medium you are comfortable with, even better.
Have a passion for people and cooking? Grab an apron and help us plan, prepare and serve bite-sized
portions of our fabulous food to customers while they shop. If you feel at home in the kitchen, and like to talk
food, you will enjoy demonstrating our delicious creations.
Know a thing or two about wine? Share your knowledge and delight our customers by helping to answer
their questions and make recommendations.
We Can't Wait to Meet You!
Sound like a match? Hurry in and apply today. All applications are accepted in-person at the store listed
below. Want a head start? Download a copy of our application, fill it out and bring it with you!
Trader Joe’s grocery store aims to create a “WOW” shopping experience for its
customers every day. Trader Joe’s employees are committed to insuring that every
customer’s shopping is:
“Crew Members” are the heart of the Trader Joe’s team. Rather than confine
employees into specific roles such as cashier, bagger, or stocker, crew members are
able to engage in a variety of roles each shift. Therefore, crew members partake in a
wide array of tasks and embody a diverse set of knowledge, skills, abilities, and other
The job analysts participated in an observation period between conducting interviews
with both a crew member and an assistant manager. The analysts observed multiple
crew members in order to gain a full picture of the position. Following the interviews,
analysts created lists of both tasks and worker characteristics and presented them in a
survey for crew members to rate on multiple levels. Specific explanations on methods
used and results are explained further in the report. Through the analysis, the
analysts determined the most important tasks for crew members are: unloading
products, maintaining and conveying a positive, customer-service oriented attitude
during customer-employee interactions, and receiving payments and computing
transactions for customers.
Selection and training procedures can also be improved through the data collected
from this analysis. Most tasks include interacting with other employees or customers,
therefore social and motivational abilities are important characteristics to select for
during hiring. Knowledge and skills requiring the use of tool or equipment were not
deemed necessary for selection, but should be trained after hiring.
Crew members are a part of every step in the shopping experience at Trader Joe’s.
The company believes in continuous improvement, integrity, and providing customers
with a “WOW” experience. Therefore, it is important to select and train crew
members who will represent this image and uphold these values. The results of this
job analysis will help Trader Joe’s in selecting and training crew members who will
ensure customers have the best possible shopping experience.
Tasks and crew member characteristics were gathered through a 30 minute
observation period and subsequent interviews with a crew member and mate
(assistant manager). The observation and interviews took place on September
30, 2015 from 12:00 to 4:00 PM at the Gainesville, Florida location.
Demographics of interviewees are listed below.
Length of Time in Position: 2 years
Length of Time in this Location: 2 years
Length of Time in Company: 2 years
Average Amount of Hours per Week: 37.5
Ethnic Background: White
Mate (Assistant Manager)
Length of Time in Position: 1 year
Length of Time in this Location: 3 years
Length of Time in Company: 3 years
Average Amount of Hours per Week: 50
Ethnic Background: Black or African American
The greeter and supervisor were informed of the objectives and the academic
nature of the interview. Interview questions can be found on page 16-17.
Both crew member and supervisor were asked to give critical incidents of
unacceptable and outstanding performance from individuals in the crew
member role. These examples can be found on page 18.
Finally, interviewees were asked to choose which of the given statements in a
list best describes the crew member position. The answers can be found on
An online survey was created through the program Qualtrics that asked questions for use in the
Combination Job Analysis Method (C-JAM). This hybrid method looks at both tasks and worker
characteristics (KSAOs) required in a job. The ratings on the scales and pattern of these ratings are used
to develop selection and training methods (Brannick, Levine, & Morgeson, 2007).
6 crew members were asked to participate in the survey through an email invitation. Crew members
were informed that the survey was anonymous and would take about 30 minutes to complete. Two
crew members (33%) completed the survey. The email invitation can be found on page 19.
Job tasks were rated on both task difficulty and criticality using a 7-point scale. The extremes of each
scale are show below. Task importance numbers were determined by adding the scores from both
scales for each task. The questions were:
1. Please rate the following tasks on their difficulty (how much effort is required to complete
(1) Very Easy (7) Very Difficult
2. Please rate the following tasks on their criticality (how severe the consequences are if the task
is not done correctly):
(1) Consequences of error are not at all important
(7) Consequences are extremely important
Using the data analysis program SPSS, the job analysts found the intraclass correlation (ICC) to be .724.
ICC is used to assess the reliability, or the consistency, of the ratings by comparing both rater’s scores.
This score indicates adequate reliability of the task statements.
The use of KSAOs in selection or training was determined by asking the following questions:
1. Is this necessary for newly hired crew members? Yes/No
2. Is it practical to expect this from crew member applicants? Yes/No
3. To what extent is trouble likely if this is ignored in selecting new crew members?
(1) Very little or none (5) To an extremely great extent
4. To what extent do different levels of this characteristic distinguish the superior crew member
from the average crew member
(1) Very little or none (5) To an extremely great extent
The ICC for this scale was .826, indicating that this is a highly reliable measure.
For a KSAO to be required for selection, all of the following requirements must be met:
1. The majority of the raters must have voted that the KSAO is necessary for newly hired
2. The majority of the raters must have voted that the KSAO is practical to expect from
3. The average rating on the trouble likely scale is 1.5 or greater.
For a KSAO to be required for training, all of the following requirements must be met:
1. The majority of the raters must have voted that the KSAO is not necessary for newly hired
2. The average rating on the distinguish superior from average scale is 1.5 or greater.
The following is a list of task statements grouped by job function and ranked
by task importance. Mean and standard deviation values are included.
Working the register Mean SD
Receive payment from customers, compute transaction totals
mentally or through POS, and return appropriate change to
Collect shopping carts from parking lot and return carts to
Review receipt and rectify transaction errors 8.5 0.7
Process refunds and provide refund confirmation to customers 8.0 1.4
Transfer items from cart and scan/manually enter product data
Maintain a clean and orderly work station 6.5 0.7
Bag groceries while being sensitive to customer preferences and
Offer and engage in carry out service for customers when
Stock register display with featured products 5.5 0.7
Weigh produce and enter produce code into POS to determine
Ring bells in accordance with Trader Joe’s bell system policies
Maintain a working knowledge of produce codes and identifying
Stocking Shelves Mean SD
Unload products from delivery vehicles, using a pallet jack if
Manage time efficiently and accomplish assigned tasks within
designated time frames
Transport product onto sales floor using flat carts, handcarts, or
Identify and remove spoiled or post-dated products 9.5 2.1
Retrieve stock from back room and stock shelves, while
concentrating or disbursing stock as needed
Concentrate or disburse product while stocking to cover product
gaps and ensure shelves appear filled
Face and rotate products in accordance with Trader Joe’s policy 8.0 4.2
Proactively review product sections and identify areas that require
Use box cutter to break down boxes and product packaging 6.0 2.8
Deposit broken-down cardboard boxes into cardboard baler 5.0 2.8
Maintain a working knowledge of product location 4.5 2.1
Cleaning the Store Mean SD
Mop and sweep sales floor spills, messes, and debris 7.0 2.8
Maintain restroom hygienic supplies such as hand soap, toilet
paper, and paper towels
Disinfect toilets, sinks, and other soiled restroom surfaces 6.0 1.4
Mop and sweep restroom floors 6.0 1.4
Wipe down restroom mirrors 3.5 0.7
Helping Customers Mean SD
Maintain and convey a positive, customer-service oriented attitude
during customer-employee interactions
Provide customers with the Trader Joe’s “Wow!” experience 9.5 0.7
Attend to customer needs, questions, comments, and concerns 8.5 2.1
Engage and interact with customers when working the register,
stocking product, or circulating the sales floor
Explain product information to customers 6.0 0.0
Access store inventory to verify if an item is in stock 3.5 0.7
To perform tasks, crew members must possess certain KSAOs.
• Knowledge: the existence in memory of a retrievable set of technical facts,
concepts, language and procedures directly relevant to job performance.
• Skills: the developed or trained capacity to perform tasks that call for the use of
tools, equipment, or machinery
• Abilities: the relatively enduring capacity to acquire skills or knowledge, where
the use of tools, equipment, or machinery isn’t required
• Other characteristics: include job-relevant interests, preferences,
temperament, and personality characteristics that indicate how well an employee
is likely to perform.
Listed below are KSAOs created by the job analysts that are applicable to the crew
member position. The job analysts determined these KSAOs through interviews and
surveys of SMEs. The KSAOs that should be used in selection and training are also noted.
Knowledge Selection Training
Knowledge of Trader Joe’s products ✔
Knowledge of product locations in store ✔
Knowledge of point-of-sale system (POS) ✔
Knowledge of produce codes and product identifying
Knowledge of bell system procedures ✔
Knowledge of stocking, facing and product rotation policies ✔
Skills Selection Training
Skill in POS operation ✔
Skill in using a box cutter ✔
Skill in bagging items effectively ✔
Skill in operating pallet jacks, flat carts, and hand carts ✔
Abilities Selection Training
Ability to use arithmetic ✔
Ability to stand or walk for up to 7 ½ hours ✔
Ability to lift up to 50 lbs occasionally (less than 1/3 of the work
Ability to lift up to 10 lbs frequently (greater than 2/3 of the work
Ability to work well with others in a team setting ✔
Ability to self-motivate ✔
Ability to manage time effectively ✔
Ability to regulate emotions when interacting with coworkers or
Ability to communicate and relate with customers ✔
Ability to communicate and assist potential upset or irate
Ability to anticipate customer needs and proactively fulfill them ✔
Ability to read POS display ✔
Ability to independently complete job duties without supervision ✔
Ability to organize and manipulate objects (spatial ability) ✔
Other Characteristics Selection Training
Willingness to deal with upset or dissatisfied customers ✔
Willingness to abide by dress code ✔
Exemplary crewmembers will be customer service-oriented, demonstrate effective
interpersonal skills, and function well in a team setting. Survey respondents indicated that
characteristics usually associated with customer service such as communicating and
relating with customers, anticipating customer needs, and assisting potentially upset or
irate customers, are highly desired. These results suggest that hiring authorities should
focus on the majority of crewmember abilities and other characteristics when selecting
applicants for the position. Results also indicate that many of these characteristics are
reasonable to expect in the general labor market and, whether inherent or acquired
through other job experiences, do not require additional training for the average worker.
Applicants could demonstrate their qualifications through an online personality test,
answering situational questions, and completing a basic math assessment. Those higher
in the personality traits of conscientiousness, agreeableness, and extraversion could be
given preference due to their high correlation with performance in team and
Applicants with prior retail or customer service experience are desirable, as they are likely
to possess similar experiences and required abilities due to the demands of previous
Situational interview questions and a work sample demonstration are also
advised. Interviews could ask applicants to describe examples where they worked in a
team, dealt with interpersonal conflict, or used time management to accomplish a series
of tasks. While answering these prompts, the ideal applicant will communicate their ideas
effectively and demonstrate friendly and appropriate interpersonal skills. Applicants
should be asked why they desire the crewmember position, and their response should
evidence a desire to work in a team setting, a passion for Trader Joe’s products and
culture, and a positive, can-do, customer-oriented attitude.
The work sample demonstration should include position specific tasks such as bagging
groceries, moving products within the store, and stocking shelves in order to satisfy the
exertional and postural requirements endorsed by respondents.
Job incumbents and supervisors opined that postural and exertional abilities such as
standing or walking for up to 7 ½ hours, lifting up to 10 pounds frequently, and lifting up
to 50 pounds occasionally were necessary requirements for job applicants. However, due
to the nature of these abilities, their use as a criterion-measure during the selection
process may inadvertently lead to adverse impact or preclude certain protected classes. A
more comprehensive job analysis is strongly advised in order to avoid potential legal
considerations, establish ability-position validity, and develop reasonable
accommodations for potentially affected applicants.
Survey results indicate that training should focus on crew members job-
relevant knowledge and skills. Initial training in these areas should be
provided to new hires to insure a minimum level of competency, and could be
accomplished through demonstration, verbal instruction, or hands-on
participation by another experienced incumbent or supervisor (in accordance
with company policies and procedures). Role playing scenarios could also be
enacted to practice or reinforce customer service skills.
It is unlikely that further, periodic training on many of these items is
warranted as accumulated job experience will reinforce these
competencies. To illustrate, once satisfactory knowledge is attained in point-
of-sale system operation, bell system procedures, or stocking, facing, and
product rotation policies, further training would not be beneficial unless
there are noted deficits in employee task performance.
Several abilities were also indicated as items for training (ability to read POS
display, ability to independently complete job duties without supervision, and
ability to organize and manipulate objects), however these results may be
due to the small pool of survey respondents. It is likely that these abilities will
improve naturally as incumbents become more familiar with job demands
and tasks, thus making them questionable targets for training interventions.
Training provided by managers or supervisors is advised for the following:
Ø To provide or reinforce product knowledge (notably when introducing
seasonal or special products)
Ø To inform crew members of newly implemented policies or
Ø On a periodic basis to reinforce safety-oriented policies or procedures
Management may also avoid the need for formal training sessions by
proactively addressing problems, incorrect actions, or unsafe behaviors as
they occur during crew member shifts. Crew member performance may also
be improved by clearly setting goals and expectations at the beginning of
shifts. A hands-on learning and coaching style is also advised, as it allows
managers to encourage effective work behaviors while also tailoring feedback
messages to the individual.
The most essential job tasks for the crew member position are as follows:
1. Unload products from delivery vehicles, using a pallet jack if
2. Manage time efficiently and accomplish assigned tasks within
designated time frames
3. Transport product onto sales floor using flat carts, handcarts, or
4. Receive payment from customers, compute transaction totals
mentally or through POS, and return appropriate change to
5. Maintain and convey a positive, customer service-oriented attitude
during customer-employee interactions.
The survey results indicate that product movement and display are of the greatest
importance, and customer service-oriented tasks also hold high priority. This
accounts for and helps explain the versatile functions of the crew member role.
During the selection process, hiring authorities should seek customer service and
teamwork-oriented applicants who demonstrate passion for Trader Joe’s products
and culture. Applicants should also be able and willing to deal with potentially upset
or dissatisfied customers, and communicate effectively with customers and
Training for new crew members should emphasize the development of job-relevant
knowledge and skills. Crew members will also gain competency in these areas as
they accumulate job experience. Training can be provided through hands-on,
demonstration, and verbal instruction methods. Role-playing could also be used to
develop customer service skills. Periodic trainings on safety, policies, and store
procedures may be implemented at the manager’s discretion.
Certain KSAOs endorsed by incumbents and respondents may result in adverse
impact if used as selection criteria. The job analysts strongly advise a more thorough
job analysis be conducted in order to establish the necessity and legality of these
items in selection.
There are several limitations with this analysis that should be taken into
consideration when conducting future job analyses.
While this report is intended for only academic use, the small incumbent
and respondent pool (n =2) limits the inferences that can be drawn
regarding the validity of the analysis. In future analyses, analysts should
strive towards a larger incumbent and respondent pool so that:
(a) Interview and observation data regarding job tasks and
characteristics is as thorough as possible, and;
(b) Final survey results will be subject to less statistical error, and
therefore provide a better representation of the job role as it is actually
The interview format developed by the analysts, while yielding valuable
information, also required considerable time to complete with
incumbents. In order to save time and avoid redundancy in future
analyses, the analysts will make the interview format briefer and more
The survey was sent to 6 crew members, however only 2 completed the
survey. As respondents did not have clear incentives to completing the
survey, this response rate is understandable. In the future, response
rates could be improved through monetary or other incentives (i.e. gift
cards), or with the sanction and direction of the requesting organization.
As noted previously, several of the items in the questionnaire could lead
to legal and ethical dilemmas if used for selection. In the future, analysts
should take extra care in developing and validating such items, and
should not include them in the selection process unless deemed legally
defensible and necessary for average job performance.
• What does a typical day look like?
Work on a register
• Can you describe what kind of tasks you do while
working at the register?
• What KSAOs are required to perform this work function?
• What kind of knowledge is required?
• What types of skills are required to complete tasks?
• What mental or physical abilities are required to perform
Bag some groceries
• What kind of tasks do you do while 'bagging some
• What kinds of abilities are required to perform this work
Stock the shelves
• What kind of tasks do you do while stocking shelves?
• What do you need to do before you stock the shelves?
• What do you do after you stock the shelves?
• What kinds of KSAOs are required to perform this work
Build a display
• Can you describe what you do to successfully build a
• What do you need to do before you build the display?
• What do you need to do once you have finished building
• What kinds of KSAOs are required to perform this work
Have fun helping customers
• Can you describe how you have fun helping customers?
• In what ways do you help customers?
• Do you ever not have fun helping customers?
• How do you deal with that?
• Are there any KSAOs that are required to successfully
perform this work function?
• Some tasks are performed on a non-routine basis, like taking
inventory. Do you perform any non-routine tasks that we have not yet
discussed? What are the steps you take to accomplish the task? What
do you do to prepare for it? What follow-up activities do you do after
• Can you describe for me some critical incidents or situations that
demonstrate either outstanding or poor job performance? For
example, dealing with an angry customer? What led up to the
incident? What did the employee do that was effective/ineffective?
Were the consequences something the employee was in control of?
• If you had to interview candidates for this position, what kind of
information would you need to select the right person?
• If you had to select a person for this position, what activities would
you want to see them perform before hiring or promoting them?
• What kinds of prior work experience, knowledge, skills, or abilities are
essential for performing this job?
• What types of knowledge, skills, or abilities would you most want to
train incumbents to ensure they become or remain effective?
• What skills or abilities should incumbents develop to ensure he or she
will be able to perform the job as it changes in the future?
• What kind of formal education is required for this job?
• What kind of tools or equipment do you use?
• What types of communication skills do you need?
• Are there any other characteristics needed for this job? Is there
anything we may have missed?
Much travel ….. little travel
Predictable Work Schedule ….. Unpredictable Work Schedule
Flexible Work Hours ….. Set Work Hours
Moderate-to-slow pace.... Depends on the shift.... Fast work pace
Frequent high pressure for results.... low pressure for results
Frequent deadlines.... infrequent deadlines
Closely Supervised.... Varying supervision.... Little Supervision
High level of decision making authority..... low to moderate decision making authority
Establish own goals.... goals established by others
Work closely with others ..... work mostly alone
Able to accomplish scheduled tasks .... must continually reprioritize tasks
much record keeping/routine paperwork .... minimal record keeping and paperwork
Work requires attention to detail .... work focused on overall strategy
Work requires little creativity …. Work requires much creativity
Work and environment constantly changing.... Work environmental normally static
The Critical Incident Technique was used to collect examples of specific, direct,
and observable behaviors of both unacceptable and outstanding performance
in the crew member position.
Critical incidents must include:
1. What led up to the behavior
2. The employee behavior itself
3. The consequences of the behavior
The Critical Incident Technique can be useful in identifying traits for selection,
training needs assessment, and training design.
(Brannick, Levine, & Morgeson, 2007)
Listed below are examples of both unacceptable and outstanding performance
given by a crew member.
Example of unacceptable behavior:
During March Madness for basketball, the store will hold a sales contest
to see who can sell the most of a certain product. I ended up selling more
than another crewmember, who ended up getting upset, yelling at me,
and threw my display on the floor. The supervisors heard of this behavior
and decided to write up the disrespectful crew member.
Example of outstanding performance:
Being close to Shands Hospital, we sometimes have patients come
into the store to shop. If I notice a customer is a Shands patient, I will
go out of my way to offer the patient some flowers, free of charge.
This puts a smile on their face and hopefully makes their day a little
Hello crew members!
For a class project, we have to evaluate how difficult and
critical certain tasks and characteristics of the crew member’s
role are. Since you probably know they job better than
anyone else, we would greatly appreciate if you helped us by
completing this survey. The survey will only take about 30
minutes to an hour to finish, but we ask that you carefully
answer each one. Your answers will be kept anonymous and
not shown to any of your coworkers or supervisors. This is
solely for academic use.
All questions must be answered in order to complete the
survey. The first set of questions deals with tasks. You will be
asked to rate each individual task on a 1-7 scale assessing the
difficult and criticality of each. The second section lists
characteristics of the job, which you will be asked to rate.
We know the survey contains a lot of questions, and that it
might not be the most amusing task, but we would greatly
appreciate if you helped us get an A on our project! We
would like to have all responses in by Sunday night. If you
have any questions, feel free to email us!
The link to the survey:
Alexis Fawcett and Jonathan Cowan
The display of survey options was altered from its original format in order to
preserve space. The scales were not presented in a drop-down format, instead
being displayed so that each of the 7 scale options was visible to the rater. This
was done for both task difficulty and criticality.