Human behaviour analysis is being of great interest in the field of artificial intelligence. Specifically, human action recognition deals with the lowest level of semantic interpretation of meaningful human behaviours, as walking, sitting or falling. In the field of ambient-assisted living, the recognition of such actions at home can support several safety and health care services for the independent living of elderly or impaired people at home. In this sense, this thesis aims to provide valuable advances in vision-based human action recognition for ambient-assisted living scenarios. Initially, a taxonomy is proposed in order to classify the different levels of human behaviour analysis and join existing definitions. Then, a human action recognition method is presented, that is based on fusion of multiple cameras and key pose sequence recognition, and performs in real time. By relying on fusion of multiple views, sufficient correlated data can be obtained despite possible occlusions, noise and unfavourable viewing angles. A visual feature is proposed that only relies on the boundary points of the human silhouette, and does not need the actual RGB colour image. Furthermore, several optimisations and extensions of this method are proposed. In this regard, evolutionary algorithms are employed for the selection of scenario-specific configurations. As a result, the robustness and accuracy of the classification are significantly improved.\linebreak In order to support online learning of such parameters, an adaptive and incremental learning technique is introduced. Last but not least, the presented method is also extended to support the recognition of human actions in continuous video streams. Outstanding results have been obtained on several publicly available datasets achieving the desired robustness required by real-world applications. Therefore, this thesis may pave the way for more advanced human behaviour analysis techniques, such as the recognition of complex activities, personal routines and abnormal behaviour detection.