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The following educational video course is designed to spread
awareness and basic understanding of the
Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children
(CSEC)
The material will focus on the impacts and implications for the
child welfare system,
as well as provide a brief review of current federal, state, and local efforts
to address the wide variety of issues associated with trafficking.
Identification, assessment, and auspicious intervention strategies
will also be identified.
The course will provide information about the multi-systems response
to working with victims and addressing demand. The overarching goal
of the course is to educate and foster a deeper awareness of human
trafficking and CSEC throughout the child welfare community.
Following this module, you are encouraged to engage your team
and/or peers in small group discussions and related activities.
“ The sexual abuse and exploitation of
children is one of the most vicious crimes
conceivable, a violation of mankind's most
basic duty to protect the innocent.”
-- James T. Walsh
Commercial Sexual
Exploitation of Children
Alexandra Rupp
SWRK:645 Advocacy Project
California State University, Northridge
Child
Welfare
A Social Justice Issue
Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children
is a Child Welfare concern.
Global Child Trafficking &
Exploitation
Alameda
County
$99,000,000,000
CSEC is a $99 Billion Business
20%Of CSEC are exploited in Alameda County.
1,000-3,000 children
Sexually exploited each year.
Commercial Sexual
Exploitation of Children
CSEC is sexual activity involving a
child in exchange for something of
value, or promise thereof, to the child
or another person or persons.
Child Sexual Abuse
Sexual Exploitation of
Children
Commercial Sexual
Exploitation
Domestic
Minor Sex
Trafficking
12 years oldIs the average age of entry into the commercial sex industry in the
U.S.
1 in 3Teens who runaway will be recruited by a pimp within 48
hours of leaving home and becoming homeless
1.6 millionChildren runaway from home each year
Pathways into CSEC
› Parents selling children
› Kidnapping/violence and force
› Seduction and coercion
› False advertising for “modeling”, “acting”, or
“dancing”
› Internet enticement through chat rooms or profile-
sharing sites
› Peer recruitment- group homes
› Extortion threats create fear of shame or
embarrassment to comply with “on time” request.
Risk Factors
EnvironmentalIndividual Social
Intersection between
CSEC & Child Welfare
Risk Factors
Abuse/Neglect
Prior history of abuse or
neglect and lack of basic
support system, basic
needs
Poverty/Violence
Often from communities
impacted by both poverty
and violence and where
exploitation may be
prevalent
Mental Health Issues
May suffer from trauma
related mental health issues
or developmental/
learning disabilities
Homelessness
2.8 Million youth runaway
in the U.S.. Foster Care
Youth may leave
placement and find
themselves Homeless
1 in 7 youth
Between 10-18 years old will run away
12-17 years old
At more risk of homelessness than adults
75% runaways
Are female.
50-85%Of CSE youth have some child welfare history!
Child Sexual
Abuse
Sexual
Exploitation of
Children
CSEC
Continuum of Sexual Abuse
TVPA
Trafficking Victims Protection
Act
“Ensure just and effective punishment of
traffickers, and to protect their victims”
Three P’s of the TVPA
Protection Prosecution Prevention
“I picked prostitutes as my victims
because I hate most prostitutes and I
did not want to pay them for sex. I
also picked prostitutes as victims
because they were easy to pick up,
without being noticed. I knew they
would not be reported missing right
away, and might never be reported
missing. I picked prostitutes because
I thought I could kill as many of them
as I wanted without getting caught”
7 yearsIs the average life expectancy of CSE child.
Types of
Pimps
❖ Guerilla Pimp
❖ Finesse Pimp
❖ Romeo Pimp
❖ Popcorn Pimp
Pimp Tactics of
Coercion and Control
› Degradation
› Enforcing trivial demands
› Isolation
› Monopolization of perception
› Induced exhaustion
› Occasional indulgences
› Threats
› Demonstrating ‘omnipotence’
A trafficker
knows what to
look for-- So
should We!
Help us make child sex
trafficking and sexual
exploitation visible, so we
can end it!
CSEC Service Needs
● Emergency ,transitional,
long-term housing
● Legal services
● Medical and mental health
services
● Clothing and food
● Court and daily
accompaniment
● Crisis intervention
● Emotional support
● Employment assistance
● Protection/safety planning
● Social service advocacy
● Transportation
● Literacy education (schoo,
GED)
● Assistance in accessing
government benefits
Key Components of an
effective CSEC System
1. screening and identifying victims
2. safety planning for youth, families and staff serving them
3. Collaboration across multiple child-service systems and
agencies including CBOs, FBOs etc.
4. Tracking, collecting and sharing data
5. Trauma informed system of care
6. Appropriate placements trained to serve CSEC
References
Alameda County District Attorney’s Office. (2016). About commercial sexual exploitation. Human Exploitation and
Trafficking Watch. Retrieved from http://www.heatwatch.org/human_trafficking/about_csec
California Department of Social Services. (2014). Commercially sexually exploited children (CSEC) program. All
County Letter 14-62. Retrieved from http://www.dss.cahwnet.gov/lettersnotices/EntRes/getinfo/acl/2014/14-62.pdf.
CalSWEC. (2013). Serving Commercially Sexually Exploited Children (CSEC) Toolkit. Retrieved from
http://calswec.berkeley.edu/toolkits/serving-commercially-sexually-exploited-children-csec-toolkit/recent-legislation
California Alliance to Combat Trafficking and Slavery Task Force. (2007). Human Trafficking in California Final
Report. Retrieved from http://ag.ca.gov/publications/Human_Trafficking_Final_Report.pdf
Lloyd, R., & Orman, A. (2010) Training Manual on the Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children (CSEC). Retrieved
from http://www.kristihouse.org/csec-ccip-training-materials/
National Human Trafficking Resource Center. (2015). Human Trafficking Awareness for Educators. Retrieved from
https://traffickingresourcecenter.org/resources/human-trafficking-awareness-educators
Polaris. (2013). Strengthening child welfare response to trafficking act of 2013 (H.R.1732). Polaris National Policy.
Retrieved from http://hq.salsalabs.com/o/5417/p/dia/action3/common/public/index.sjs?action_KEY=14244
Polaris Project (2012). Understanding the definition of human trafficking: The action-means-purpose model.
Retrieved from http://www.polarisproject.org/resources/resources-by-topic/human-trafficking
References
PCWTA, CalSWEC, CDSS. (2016). Commercial Sexual Exploited Children Awareness: Training Module. Retrieved
from https://calswec-hosting.s3.amazonaws.com/CSEC/CSEC_awareness_eLearning_full/story_html5.html
Walker, K. (2013). Ending the commercial sexual exploitation of children: a call for multi-system collaboration.
California Child Welfare Council. Retrieved from
http://www.youthlaw.org/fileadmin/ncyl/youthlaw/publications/Ending-CSEC-A-Call-for-Multi-System_Collaboration-
in-CA.pdf.
U.S. Department of Justice. (2010). The national strategy for child exploitation prevention and interdiction: A report to
Congress. Retrieved from https://www.justice.gov/psc/docs/natstrategyreport.pdf

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Educating on CSEC for Child Welfare

  • 1. The following educational video course is designed to spread awareness and basic understanding of the Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children (CSEC)
  • 2. The material will focus on the impacts and implications for the child welfare system, as well as provide a brief review of current federal, state, and local efforts to address the wide variety of issues associated with trafficking. Identification, assessment, and auspicious intervention strategies will also be identified.
  • 3. The course will provide information about the multi-systems response to working with victims and addressing demand. The overarching goal of the course is to educate and foster a deeper awareness of human trafficking and CSEC throughout the child welfare community. Following this module, you are encouraged to engage your team and/or peers in small group discussions and related activities.
  • 4. “ The sexual abuse and exploitation of children is one of the most vicious crimes conceivable, a violation of mankind's most basic duty to protect the innocent.” -- James T. Walsh
  • 5. Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children Alexandra Rupp SWRK:645 Advocacy Project California State University, Northridge
  • 6. Child Welfare A Social Justice Issue Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children is a Child Welfare concern.
  • 7. Global Child Trafficking & Exploitation Alameda County
  • 8. $99,000,000,000 CSEC is a $99 Billion Business 20%Of CSEC are exploited in Alameda County. 1,000-3,000 children Sexually exploited each year.
  • 9. Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children CSEC is sexual activity involving a child in exchange for something of value, or promise thereof, to the child or another person or persons. Child Sexual Abuse Sexual Exploitation of Children Commercial Sexual Exploitation Domestic Minor Sex Trafficking
  • 10. 12 years oldIs the average age of entry into the commercial sex industry in the U.S. 1 in 3Teens who runaway will be recruited by a pimp within 48 hours of leaving home and becoming homeless 1.6 millionChildren runaway from home each year
  • 11. Pathways into CSEC › Parents selling children › Kidnapping/violence and force › Seduction and coercion › False advertising for “modeling”, “acting”, or “dancing” › Internet enticement through chat rooms or profile- sharing sites › Peer recruitment- group homes › Extortion threats create fear of shame or embarrassment to comply with “on time” request.
  • 14. Risk Factors Abuse/Neglect Prior history of abuse or neglect and lack of basic support system, basic needs Poverty/Violence Often from communities impacted by both poverty and violence and where exploitation may be prevalent Mental Health Issues May suffer from trauma related mental health issues or developmental/ learning disabilities Homelessness 2.8 Million youth runaway in the U.S.. Foster Care Youth may leave placement and find themselves Homeless 1 in 7 youth Between 10-18 years old will run away 12-17 years old At more risk of homelessness than adults 75% runaways Are female.
  • 15. 50-85%Of CSE youth have some child welfare history!
  • 17. TVPA Trafficking Victims Protection Act “Ensure just and effective punishment of traffickers, and to protect their victims”
  • 18. Three P’s of the TVPA Protection Prosecution Prevention
  • 19. “I picked prostitutes as my victims because I hate most prostitutes and I did not want to pay them for sex. I also picked prostitutes as victims because they were easy to pick up, without being noticed. I knew they would not be reported missing right away, and might never be reported missing. I picked prostitutes because I thought I could kill as many of them as I wanted without getting caught”
  • 20. 7 yearsIs the average life expectancy of CSE child.
  • 21. Types of Pimps ❖ Guerilla Pimp ❖ Finesse Pimp ❖ Romeo Pimp ❖ Popcorn Pimp
  • 22. Pimp Tactics of Coercion and Control › Degradation › Enforcing trivial demands › Isolation › Monopolization of perception › Induced exhaustion › Occasional indulgences › Threats › Demonstrating ‘omnipotence’
  • 23. A trafficker knows what to look for-- So should We! Help us make child sex trafficking and sexual exploitation visible, so we can end it!
  • 24. CSEC Service Needs ● Emergency ,transitional, long-term housing ● Legal services ● Medical and mental health services ● Clothing and food ● Court and daily accompaniment ● Crisis intervention ● Emotional support ● Employment assistance ● Protection/safety planning ● Social service advocacy ● Transportation ● Literacy education (schoo, GED) ● Assistance in accessing government benefits
  • 25. Key Components of an effective CSEC System 1. screening and identifying victims 2. safety planning for youth, families and staff serving them 3. Collaboration across multiple child-service systems and agencies including CBOs, FBOs etc. 4. Tracking, collecting and sharing data 5. Trauma informed system of care 6. Appropriate placements trained to serve CSEC
  • 26.
  • 27. References Alameda County District Attorney’s Office. (2016). About commercial sexual exploitation. Human Exploitation and Trafficking Watch. Retrieved from http://www.heatwatch.org/human_trafficking/about_csec California Department of Social Services. (2014). Commercially sexually exploited children (CSEC) program. All County Letter 14-62. Retrieved from http://www.dss.cahwnet.gov/lettersnotices/EntRes/getinfo/acl/2014/14-62.pdf. CalSWEC. (2013). Serving Commercially Sexually Exploited Children (CSEC) Toolkit. Retrieved from http://calswec.berkeley.edu/toolkits/serving-commercially-sexually-exploited-children-csec-toolkit/recent-legislation California Alliance to Combat Trafficking and Slavery Task Force. (2007). Human Trafficking in California Final Report. Retrieved from http://ag.ca.gov/publications/Human_Trafficking_Final_Report.pdf Lloyd, R., & Orman, A. (2010) Training Manual on the Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children (CSEC). Retrieved from http://www.kristihouse.org/csec-ccip-training-materials/ National Human Trafficking Resource Center. (2015). Human Trafficking Awareness for Educators. Retrieved from https://traffickingresourcecenter.org/resources/human-trafficking-awareness-educators Polaris. (2013). Strengthening child welfare response to trafficking act of 2013 (H.R.1732). Polaris National Policy. Retrieved from http://hq.salsalabs.com/o/5417/p/dia/action3/common/public/index.sjs?action_KEY=14244 Polaris Project (2012). Understanding the definition of human trafficking: The action-means-purpose model. Retrieved from http://www.polarisproject.org/resources/resources-by-topic/human-trafficking
  • 28. References PCWTA, CalSWEC, CDSS. (2016). Commercial Sexual Exploited Children Awareness: Training Module. Retrieved from https://calswec-hosting.s3.amazonaws.com/CSEC/CSEC_awareness_eLearning_full/story_html5.html Walker, K. (2013). Ending the commercial sexual exploitation of children: a call for multi-system collaboration. California Child Welfare Council. Retrieved from http://www.youthlaw.org/fileadmin/ncyl/youthlaw/publications/Ending-CSEC-A-Call-for-Multi-System_Collaboration- in-CA.pdf. U.S. Department of Justice. (2010). The national strategy for child exploitation prevention and interdiction: A report to Congress. Retrieved from https://www.justice.gov/psc/docs/natstrategyreport.pdf

Editor's Notes

  1. I chose child welfare and CSEC because of how prevalent the issue is among the youth I serve in Alameda county. (MISSEY 2016)
  2. Child sexual abuse is any sexual activity with a child where consent is not or cannot be given, The sexually abusive acts may include penetration, creation of pornographic images, sexual touching, or non-contact acts such as exposure or voyeurism (Walker, 2013). Sexual Exploitation is taking unfair advantage of the imbalance of power between an adult and a youth or child under the age of 18 for the purpose of sexual pleasure (Lloyd & Orman, 2010). Domestic Minor Sex Trafficking consists of all forms of CSEC. It occurs when a US citizen or legal permanent resident of the U.S. who has not attained 18 years of age is engaged in a commercial sex act (National Human Trafficking Resource Center, 2015). Types of CSEC: escort services, internet pornography, massage parlors, street prostitution, brothels, survival sex, sex tours, sex phone lines, private parties, stripping, gang-based prostitution, interfamilial pimpling, forms of internet-based exploitation. •Survival sex - A minor exchanging sex for anything of commercial value (food, shelter, drugs) even if a trafficker/pimp is not involved. The “John” is the exploiter/trafficker if a trafficker is not involved.
  3. According to MISSEY, 2016.
  4. Individual(internal)- sex abuse, abuse, neglect, runaway, homelessness, lgbt, mental illness, unaddressed trauma, developmental/learning disabilities Environmental (micro/situational)- adult sex industry, substance abuse, transient male population, poverty violence, street involved culture/economy Social (macro/contextual)-racism, sexism, misogyny, tansphobia, sexualization of boys, acceptance of violence against women and minority groups, glorification of pimp culture, materialism/consumerism, inaccessibility to legal economies, access to technology
  5. Traffickers target these vulnerabilities.
  6. Sexual abuse occurs along a continuum. This continuum illustrates a path made of multiple factors that can lead a child closer to CSE. Child sexual abuse, Sexual Exploitation of children (SEC), and CSEC are defined as different forms of child abuse that build off one another. Experience with one form of abuse puts a child at risk for other forms of abuse. The risk for CSEC is higher for youth who have experienced multiple forms of sexual abuse. 60-80% of commercially sexually exploited youth were sexually abused as children. (MISSEY, 2016).
  7. The TVPA was signed into a law by President Clinton in October 2000. The act defines “sex trafficking” as a commercial sex act that is induced by force, fraud, or coercion, or in which the person induced to perform such an act has not attained 18 years of age.
  8. Protection: Increased the U.S. Government’s efforts to protect trafficked U.S. citizens and foreign national victims Prosecution: Authorized the U.S. Government to strengthen efforts to prosecute traffickers Prevention: Increased prevention measures; Authorized the U.S. Government to assist foreign countries with efforts to combat trafficking; Increased research and awareness of human trafficking in the US; Created assistance programs for victims
  9. This was a quote from Gary Ridgway, “The Green River Killer”, in a statement to the Court in which he pled guilty to murdering 48 women and girls in 2003. Of his 48 victims, 27 of those victims were between the ages of 15-18 years old. He is therefore one of the largest child serial killers in the U.S. and the largest known killer of CSEC victims, yet the fact that many of his victims were children/youth is never mentioned because they were viewed as “prostitutes”.
  10. guerilla pimp-control through fear violence and coercion finesse pimp- lures victims with smooth talk and false promises romeo pimp-cons vulnerable oung women in to relationsip with them pretending to care popcorn pimp- has very few girls/women in his ‘stable’ and is considered to have very little knowledge of the pimp game and is ridiculed by other pimps
  11. Tactics to recruit and manipulate youth include: warmth, affection, gifts; promises of a better life; rape and abuse; purposeful targeting of vulnerable youth; purposeful targeting of minors. Recruiting occurs at schools, restaurant and bars, courtrooms and hallways of court buildings, playgrounds, foster homes and halfway houses,group homes and homeless shelters, malls, etc.
  12. Framing the Issue: We define sexual exploitation as rape, abuse, and violence against children, in which 1.6 million youth did NOT “choose “ to be a victim. Alameda County has the 2nd largest population of Commercially Sexually Exploited Children and youth where every two minutes a child is being groomed for sexual exploitation (PCWTA). These numbers represent the amount of CSEC victims we serve, typically without knowing. The traumatic and adverse experiences commonly occurring in our communities, put our children at higher risk for being coerced, manipulated, and forced into sexual exploitation and human trafficking. A trafficker knows what to look for—and so should we. To protect our children, we must increase our awareness and understanding of CSEC in order to effectively prevent, respond, and restore. CSEC is on the rise and while it’s happening all around us, most of us don’t see it. Help us make child sex trafficking and commercial sexual exploitation visible, so we can end it. Because every child is too valuable to be bought and sold!