Team #642 - Assignment 2 - Planned cities Assignment 2 Barcelona Brasilia Karlsruhe Letchworth Palmanova -miming organic development at a first -repeatability of urban isles which seem glance dull and hard to individualize -The fan shaped initial panning of the -nature integrated as an essential part -interior courts that leave room for -functional districts which are city degrades itself while moving of urban planning personalized use perpendicular on the city axis away from the core -high focus on social infrastructure and - they give the specific of the area (the -community activities are not a main - The new lots still keep some high living standards for individuals in unexpected thrill of the search) concern characteristics of the urban isles, but terms of space, distribution and comfort -Strong boundaries -traffic, sunlight and ventilation were -good connectivity for federal affairs do not thoroughly respect the fabric street conditions. -star shaped plan with a radial and taken into account -large empty spaces which act as a -they move their public space -industry, separated but highly concentric development - beveled corners which create the symbol, enhancing the impact of towards the exterior, instead of accessible, is the work nucleus that -housing arranged to follow the road opportunity of larger public spaces at architectural objects isolating it inside makes Letchworth urban rather than line every intersection, probably also -no industry or other form of -weak limits consisting of countryside. -gathering space in the center influencing the way the space is production does not create the need transportation and green areas that -clear separation between the service -no other functions, except living and perceived in terms of orientation. for expansion can allow further development pole and the living areas defense Urban fabric Green spaces have different roles: Green belts -visual, acoustic and theoretical insulation from the exterior of the city -physical limit, boundary that does not allow urban sprawl -The main road is a metaphor for Public parks and squares symbolism -space for community -Via de los Corts Catalanes acts as a -it connecting the railway station to the Private gardens -access in the city is not hierarchised barrier between Eixample and the old National Congress Building -Via Triumphalis, an axis that -re-creating the green oasis from the according to points of interest city -it acts as a traffic aggregator provides access to the palace and countryside -access points in order to ensure -it distinguishes itself through size -it has no community infrastructure the city’s most important buildings Large green areas protection in strategic points -it serves mostly for transit -the road system is perpendicular to -the road system started as a strict -either community parks (with no -the main road is substituted by the Road distribution -the rest of the streets are identical, laid this axis and acts as a traffic fan shape, but it evolved differently in planned areas) or private spaces for main square that has the role of the and "Via down after a strict rectangular plan distributor time golf courses and other leisure facilities. ancient agora. Triumphalis" Green spaces have different roles: Green belts -visual, acoustic and theoretical insulation from the exterior of the city -physical limit, boundary that does not allow urban sprawl -the main planned green space Public parks and squares - green spaces emphasize the surrounding the Palace, symbolizing -space for community -green spaces used to mark architectural objects the architectural object Private gardens intersections - they do not provide for community, -it also expands the final point of the -re-creating the green oasis from the -green spaces used as a defense -the community spaces mostly except the spaces in the housing main urban axis. countryside mechanism, an intermediary space consisting in the interior courts of isles, areas which, as history has proved, -other green spaces are subdued to Large green areas between the living area and the where people individualized space does not necessary increase the urban isles -either community parks (with no fortress -not all initial plans were respected, urban comfort in free-plan areas. -planned parks try to address planned areas) or private spaces for -green spaces inside the town are hence no parks -other green spaces are residual community needs. golf courses and other leisure facilities. residual in nature Green spaces -built in the 16th century as a defense -developed in 1903 as Ebenizer city, Palmanova has the military Howard’s first garden-city, Letchworth function strongly embedded into its -built in the 19th century as an extension was planned as an ideal industrial city. urban planning to the city -developed around the Karlsruhe -although industry was the main -urban extensions by adding -Cerda wanted Eixample to be an all- -mid XXth century urban development Palace function, a greater focus was put in concentric walls also ensured better class aggregator neighbourhood, -strongly focused on creating a federal -further generated its expansion as a providing high standard living to defense providing all types of services for a district -approached urban planning as Justice district people. -population was self-sustainable, normal life a circulation node and public spaces -influenced urban planning by -the most well-known working city generating no need for other facilities Main functions -it however, became a living place for as a compliment to the national creating symbolic axes and important garden, with urban politics applied to -only military in purpose, the city died that influenced the wealthy importance of its function. public buildings as nodes. this day so as to promote this model after it became obsolete development
-the community spaces designed by -no community spaces - centralized activity poles: living, Cerda were not respected -central area not dedicated to social services, leisure and industry. -interior courts are used as community purposes -well-known gathering places -no interest in community, except for spaces -symbolic green spaces -seems to not be a flagrant mistake -closed community manifestations in the main square -intersections are subdued to traffic -overwhelming traffic nor a good example for responding to -Urban politics that advocate for the -a model that did not function when its needs rather than social needs -the free-plan urbanism adopted for social needs garden city model main purpose became obsolete – -services included in the urban plans housing districts has proved to not -it provides no connection to the -urban politics that involve community which shows the lack of response to Social -no distinct leisure area provide proper comfort levels water for leisure activities -high comfort levels for living social needs infrastructureLETCHWORTH - Is a good social infrastructure enough for development?One of the main reasons I’m considering that Letchworth has a good social infrastructure is because it was built upon an utopist model and, to this day,it functions the way it was supposed to. Moreover, the original idea was however centered on community and on creating the best conditions for life.Paradoxically, it functions on a functional segregation that has proven to be the death (symbolically) of larger cities. Here, the large living areas areseparated from the service pole, the industrial area, the administrative sector. Sure, we must certainly take into account the small, controlled size of theurban development, but at the end of the day, the layout of the city gathers all citizens in the same place. People seem to end up socializinginvoluntarily.I considered Broadway to be a sort of “Via Triumphalis” because, although it has no role in connecting Letchworth to other nearby urban structures, it isthe center of the community life. It acts as an aggregator for the living areas, directing the people flow towards the service pole. It is the only streettreated as a symbol (the park in the middle, the systematic shift in sizes, even the presence of the first roundabout in England). Moreover, it gathersmany important services such as a school, a park, a hotel, a library, etc.The layout of green spaces from a social point is quite interesting here. In major cities, the main attraction would be a large green area in the city centerwhich would be used as leisure zone. Since the town provides each inhabitant with a sufficient amount of green space, the service pole has become themain social interest and other green spaces are pushed away towards the outskirts (being almost integrated into the green belts) providing for othertypes of leisure activities (golf etc.)Urban politics are always community centered, from archeological activities to implementing a sustainable policy among the city’s use to new investors.The local art scene became regional, Letchworth citizens are active in online environments. It seems that, in a way, Letchworth is moving forward, itadapts to the new economy, to the cyberspace, to almost everything our world is going towards. However, they are still a closed community thatconstantly advocate for their model of urban planning.
I brought this into discussion because the Letchworth model looks like a model designed to work in confined spaces, in small communities that arecontrollable and predictable. Its utopia started from combining a rural environment with city life (considered as such probably because of the shift inproduction means, from agriculture to industry). However, more than 100 years later, can this still be considered an urban environment?Can a good social infrastructure like this expand (as principles) on a larger scale or it would just be overwhelmed by mere size? Living areas Industry Service pole Sport facilities Broadway - people flow and service aggregator