In this chapter, you will learn about:The fall of SingaporeThe Japanese Occupation of SingaporeImmediate Post-War Problems
The Fall of Singapore, 15th February 1942 Click on the picture below to view a short video on thefall of Singapore:
British Efforts to Defend Singapore After WWI, Britain was _______________________ andcould not maintain a strong naval presence in the FarEast. However, Britain realised that there was a need todefend its empire in the Far East as Japan was buildinga powerful navy. Thus, it took several steps to defend Singapore.„Main FleettoSingapore‟strategyBuilding ofguns,airfieldsandbunkersSending inmoretroopsSending inthebattleships
British Efforts to Defend Singapore• Britain would send ships from______________ if there wastrouble in Asia• To maintain the ships, a hugenaval base was built in Singaporein 1938„Main Fleet toSingapore‟Strategy Why do you think Singapore was chosen tobe the location for the naval base?
British Efforts to Defend Singapore• To defend the naval base• 15-inch guns facing the sea wereinstalled• Military ______________ built inTengah and Sembawang• Underground ______________built in places such as FortCanning, Labrador andSembawangBuilding of guns,airfields andbunkers Why did the British choose to have theguns facing the sea?
British Efforts to Defend Singapore• In response to the Japaneseinvasion of ______________ in1937 and the Japanese treaty offriendship with Germany and Italyin 1939• More Indian, British and Australiantroops were sent to Singapore in1941Sending in moretroops After the signing of the treaty of friendship in 1939, whatwere Germany, Italy and Japan known as? Why did Japan set its sights on China and Southeast Asia?
British Efforts to Defend Singapore• The battleships HMS______________ and HMS______________ arrived inSingapore in 2 December1941• Britain could not send in morenaval and air reinforcements dueto its involvement in the war inEurope and North Africa• Both battleships were sunk by theJapanese on 10 December 1941Sending in thebattleships
British Failure to Stop the Japanese“Singapore, mighty fortressGuardian of the EastThe Japanese didn’t think soThey took it in a week”- A British Soldier- Singapore was regarded as an “impregnable fortress”.Yet, it fell to the Japanese within a week.
British Failure to Stop the JapaneseJapanese IntelligenceServicesBritish Underestimationof the JapaneseFatigue and InsufficientResources
1. Japanese Intelligence Services“The Japanese owned lands in Johor and Singapore and observedthe construction of the Singapore Naval Base and coastal defences.The Japanese fishing fleet, which accounted for nearly half of the fishsupplied to Singapore, conducted surveys of the Malayan coastalareas. Japanese photographers, who operated studios in manyMalayan towns, took pictures of roads, railways and militaryinstallations. Some Japanese military officers operated incognito, forexample, an army colonel worked for six years as a waiter in theBritish Officers‟ Club.” How did this help the Japanese during their invasion ofSingapore?
2. British Underestimation of theJapanese Believed that the Japanese,army, airforce and navy wereinferior However, Imperial Japanese Army had alarge modern airforce and navalfleet The Japanese „Zero‟ fighterplanes destroyed many Britishplanes, which were old andoutdated Japanese soldiers were bettertrained in_________________________:they used tanks as well asbicycles What was one possiblereason for Britishunderestimation of theJapanese?
3. Fatigue and Insufficient Resources Fear that there would be ahigh number of casualties if_____________________occurred Supplies of food and waterwere running low Men were tired anddemoralised
The Battle of Malaya As you watch this video, take note of the factors thatassisted the Japanese in the Battle of Malaya. Read your textbook pg 103 for more information.
The Battle of Malaya, 8 Dec 1941 to 31January 1942 Factors that assisted the Japanese:Japanese soldierswere well-trained in____________________________Strong leadershipof General______________British assumptionthat any attackwould be from the______________British troops werenot trained injungle warfareSinking of thebattleships gaveJapanese navalsupremacyAll British aircrafts hadbeen destroyed orhad withdrawn toSingapore: Japanesehad air supremacy.Japanese wereable to disruptBritish______________Japanese use oftanks and bicycles
The Fall of Singapore Read your textbook pg 104 and identify the key factorsthat led to the fall of Singapore.Smart and strategicleadership ofGeneral YamashitaBritish defenceswere moved fromnorthwest tonortheastMiscommunicationwithin the BritishtroopsBritish failure todefend suppliesDemoralised andexhausted BritishtroopsBritish fear oflosing more men ifthere was streetfighting
The Fall of Singapore Lieutenant-General ______________ signed thesurrender agreement with General Tomoyuki Yamashitaat 6:10pm on 15 February 1942. Read the three sources on pg107 and 108 of your textbook.How do you think the people ofSingapore reacted to the Britishsurrender?
The Japanese Occupation Singapore was renamed ______________, whichmeant „the Light of the South‟ or „the Radiant South‟. The Japanese Occupation changed the lives of thepeople in Singapore in several ways.Prisonersof War(POWs)Cruel andharshtreatmentPropagandaFoodshortageAnti-Japanesegroups
Prisoners of War (POWs) The Japanese interned the British, Australians and AlliedEuropeans in Singapore, including women and children“One who has beencaptured in battle shouldbe beheaded or castratedat the Emperor‟s will.”– Japanese quote Based on this quote, how doyou think the Japanesetreated the POWs?
Prisoners of War (POWs) Before imprisoning thePOWs, the Japanesewould make them marchpublicly in front of thelocal population. Why doyou think they did this?
Cruel and Harsh Treatment The Japanese military policewere known as______________. They kept thelocal population in a constantstate of anxiety and fear. Even the slightest offencewas met with harshpunishment. Many anti-Japanese suspectswere subjected to terribletorture and decapitation at theKempeitai centre.
Cruel and Harsh Treatment Many of the Eurasians were imprisoned or put todeath. Some had been members of the____________________________ and had fought againstthe Japanese. The Malays and Indians were not regarded as a threatto Japanese rule. Tried to convince the Malays that Japan would free themfrom British rule Tried to convince the Indians that Japan would free Indiafrom the British Anyone who disobeyed or displeased the Japanese wouldstill be punished
Cruel and Harsh Treatment Many Chinese became victims of the Japanese. The Japanese saw the Chinese as a threat to their rule. During Japanese invasion of China in 1937, they met withstrong Chinese resistance, including those from outsideChina. Thus, they wanted to take revenge. ____________________________was a Kempeitai operationaimed at identifying and eliminating suspected anti-Japanese elements in the Chinese Community. Read moreabout this infamous operation on pg112 of your textbook. In what ways did the Chinese in Singapore helpChina during the Japanese invasion in 1937?
Propaganda Refers to actions taken, especially by a government, toinfluence the way people think by spreading ideas,beliefs and new which are often inaccurate or biased. The Japanese used propaganda to influence thepeople in Singapore to be loyal to Japan. Read your textbook pg 113-114. In what ways didJapanese use propaganda?
Food Shortage Singapore‟s entrepot trade was disrupted and allavailable resources were used to support Japan‟s wareffort. Food shortage, inflation, malnutrition and diseases What does the picture on the rightdepict? What does inflation mean?
Anti-Japanese Grous The people of Singapore resented Japanese rule. Many anti-Japanese groups were formed. Launched attacks on the Japanese in the Malayan jungle Gathered information on the Japanese and sent it to theBritish to organise ______________ activities Went for training overseas to prepare to fight against theJapanese Can you name some of theanti-Japanese groups?
The Japanese Surrender On 6 and 9 August1945, American planesdropped atomic bombs onthe Japanese cities of______________ and______________. The Japanesesurrendered shortly after. The British returned toSingapore on 5September 1945.
The Japanese Surrender On ____________________________, Japanesemilitary leaders signed the surrender document in theMunicipal Building (now known as City Hall). Huge crowds gathered to cheer the return of the British.A short video clip onthe raising of theBritish flag at thePadang after theJapanese surrender.
After the British return A provisional government called the______________ ____________________________ (BMA) took charge of governingSingapore until 1 April 1946. It faced many immediate post-war problems.Shortageof waterDisruptedelectricityandtelephoneservicesShortageof foodLack ofhousing
Addressing the Immediate Post-WarProblems• Japanese__________were made to repair thewater mainsShortageof water• Japanese POWs weremade to restoreelectricity, gas and otheressential services, suchas lighting and telephoneDisruptedelectricityandtelephoneservices
Addressing the Immediate Post-WarProblems• Cleared the harbour, repaired the docksand built new warehouses so that shipscould enter the port to transport and storefoodstuffs• Rationed food given to each person• Opened____________________________ to sellfood at reasonable prices• Re-established trade links betweenSingapore and other countriesShortage of food• Introduced a law on ______________solandlords could not raise rents and forcetenants out• Constructed ______________ to alleviatehousing shortageLack of housing
Recap Questions What were the efforts made by the British to defendSingapore? Why did the British fail to stop the Japanese? What were the factors that helped the Japanese in thebattle for Malaya and Singapore? How did the people in Singapore react to the Britishsurrender? What was life in Singapore like during the JapaneseOccupation? Why did the Japanese surrender in 1945? What were the immediate post-war problems and howdid the British address them?