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Circulatory System


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This presentation is catered to meet the requirements of GCE 'O' Level Biology (Pure) - Circulatory System.

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Circulatory System

  1. 1. This presentation was produced by the Science department ofTemasek Secondary School. Redistribution or reproduction ofthis resource is prohibited by copyright regulations.
  2. 2. Double circulationDouble circulation
  3. 3. The circulatory system ismade up of:1. heart- pumps blood around thebody2. blood vessels- network of tubes to carryblood around the body3. blood- a liquid that transportsmaterials around the bodyveinheartartery
  4. 4. Video on Circulatory System
  5. 5. HeadLungsDouble circulation:Blood passes through theheart twice in one completecirculation.Systemic circulationfrom heart to rest of bodyand back againPulmonary circulationfrom heart to lungs and backagain+Other partsof bodyVIDEOII
  6. 6. lungsleftatriumrightatriumleftventriclerightventricledigestivesystemrest of bodyPulmonaryarteryPulmonaryveinAorta (artery)Vena cava(vein)Deoxygenatedblood at lowpressureOxygenatedbloodDeoxygenatedbloodOxygenatedblood athigher pressure
  7. 7. ORGANBlood VesselsHEARTArteryVeinCapillariesarteries branchinto network ofcapillaries, whichlie close to thecellsfood and oxygenpass from theblood into the cellscarbon dioxide andother wastesubstances passfrom the cells intothe capillariescapillaries jointogether to form theveins which carryblood back towardsthe heart
  8. 8. The HeartThe Heart
  9. 9. Chestx-raysternumlung
  10. 10. right atriumleft atriumright ventricleleft ventricleapexThe HeartThe heart has 4 chambers:2 smaller, upper chambers(one atrium, two atria)2 larger, lower chambers(one ventricle, two ventricles)
  11. 11. HumanHeart
  12. 12. 456 789Externalstructureof heartvenacavaaortapulmonary arterypulmonaryveinleft atriumleftventriclerightatriumvenacavaright ventricle
  13. 13. AortaPulmonaryveinLeft atriumBicuspid valveLeftventriclePulmonaryarterySemi-lunar valveRight atriumTricuspid valveChordae tendinaeRightventricleVena Cava
  14. 14. The Heartvena cava (vein)right atriumright ventricleleft ventriclemuscleleft atriumaorta(artery)pulmonaryarteryDeoxygenatedblood from thebodyDeoxygenatedblood from thebodyto the lungsto the lungsOxygenated bloodfrom the lungsOxygenated bloodfrom the lungsto the rest of thebody againto the rest of thebody againpulmonaryveinseptum
  15. 15. right atriumright ventricleleft ventriclemuscleleft atriumThe HeartPulmonaryarteryPulmonaryveinAorta (artery)Vena cava(vein)123456789
  16. 16. Why is the left side of the heartthicker than the right?The left ventricle is more muscular so thatit can contract forcefully, to sendoxygenated blood quickly to the rest of thebody.The less muscular right ventricular wallscontract less forcefully. Blood is pumpedout to the lungs at a lower blood pressureso as to allow time for exchange of gasesat the lungs
  17. 17. Arteries, veins and capillariesArteries, veins and capillaries
  18. 18. Watch Video on Blood vesselsIntro to blood vesselsStructure of blood vessels
  19. 19. ArteriesArteriesThick & elastic muscular walls enablesthe vessel to withstand the immensepressure of blood as it is forced out ofthe heart.Dilation & constriction of vessel isbrought about by contraction &relaxation of muscles in the vesselwall.
  20. 20. Semi-lunar valves on our hands
  21. 21. Heart valvesHeart valves Semi-lunar valves in pulmonary artery andSemi-lunar valves in pulmonary artery andaorta.aorta. Bicuspid valve (left side of heart, betweenBicuspid valve (left side of heart, betweenleft atrium and left ventricle)left atrium and left ventricle)TTrricuspid valve (icuspid valve (rright side of heart,ight side of heart,between right atrium and right ventricle)between right atrium and right ventricle)
  22. 22. Differences betweenDifferences betweenArteriesArteriesCarry blood awayfrom heart tolimbs & organs ofbodyCarry redoxygenated bloodThick and elasticmuscular wallsVeinsVeinsReturn bloodfrom tissues backto the heartCarry bluish-reddeoxygenatedbloodWalls are thinner,with less elastic &muscular tissue
  23. 23. Differences betweenDifferences betweenArteriesArteriesFairly wide lumenBlood flowsthrough fast, inspurtsBlood is undergreat pressure inthese vesselsVeinsVeinsHave wider lumenBlood flowsslowly & smoothlyBlood pressure islow & steady
  24. 24. Differences betweenDifferences betweenArteriesArteriesInternal valves areabsentElasticity allowsstretching &recoiling of vesselwall, help to pushblood alongVeinsVeinsHave internalvalves along theirlength to preventbackflow of bloodMovement ofblood is assistedby action ofskeletal musclesin the body.
  25. 25. Characteristics ofCharacteristics of CAPILLARIECAPILLARIESSMicroscopic blood vessels foundbetween cells of almost all tissuesWalls are made up of only a singlelayer of greatly flattened cellsWall of vessel is partially permeable
  26. 26. Characteristics ofCharacteristics of CAPILLARIECAPILLARIESSDense network of fine vesselsConnects two types of vesselstogetherFunction: Site of exchange ofsubstances between blood andtissue cells
  27. 27. •Blood plasma and some dissolved food substances are forcedout of the capillary walls by diffusion into the tissue fluid, to thebody cells•Blood flow is slow, to enable exchange of substances to occur
  28. 28. bloodcapillarycarbon dioxide diffuse fromthe cell into the bloodoxygen diffuse from the bloodinto the cellExchange of substances betweencells and bloodO2CO2Body cellsPartiallypermeablemembrane
  29. 29. Describe how is the blood capillaryadapted for its function 1 cell thick capillary wall enables substancesto be exchanged quickly (faster rate ofdiffusion) as the distance between body cellsand blood is shorter. Network of branching capillaries increasessurface area for exchange of substances Size of lumen is that of a red blood cell. Rateof blood flow is slow, giving more time forexchange of substances between blood andtissue cells.
  30. 30. Coronary Heart DiseaseCoronary Heart Disease
  31. 31. Coronary Heart DiseaseDuring a heart attack, blood flow to aparticular part of the heart may becompletely blockedDue to blocked blood flow, that region ofheart muscles are deprived of oxygen andnutrientsThe heart muscles are damaged anddead.
  32. 32. Causes of Coronary Heart DiseaseDiet rich in cholesterolEmotional stressSmoking
  33. 33. Treatment of Coronary HeartDiseaseAngioplasty (ballooning)Coronary Heart Bypass Grafting
  34. 34. Angioplasty (Ballooning)Angioplasty (Ballooning)WatchVideo
  35. 35. CoronaryBypassWatch Video(CABG)
  36. 36. Hole in the HeartHole in the Heart
  37. 37. What are the consequences of ahole in the heart? The oxygenated blood on the left side of the heartwill be mixed with the deoxygenated blood on theright side of the heart. Blood pumped out of theheart to the rest of the body through the aorta is notfully oxygenated. Thus less oxygen transported toother parts of the body. As blood from left ventricle is pumped into the rightside of the heart, this will cause an increasedpressure, resulting in enlargement of right side ofheart, overworking the heart.