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Florence nightingale

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Florence nightingale

  1. 1. Florence Nightingale <ul><li>MOTHER OF MODERN NURSING </li></ul><ul><li>By: Ezra Viktoria R. Haduca </li></ul>
  2. 2. “ Lady with the Lamp” <ul><li>Place: Florence, Italy </li></ul><ul><li>Birth: May 12, 1820 (International Nurses Day) </li></ul><ul><li>Her father provided her with reputable education which was uncommon for a Victorian woman. </li></ul><ul><li>According to Sir Thomas Cook, she was a linguist. </li></ul><ul><li>She was a wife of an aristocrat. </li></ul><ul><li>She was a Unitarian Christian and believed she had a religious calling. </li></ul><ul><li>Death: August 13, 1910 </li></ul>
  3. 3. First Nurse Educator <ul><li>Germany: place of the first nursing school </li></ul><ul><li>Pastor Theodor Fleidner: a protestant pastor who opened a hospital in Kaiserswerth, Germany with no staff thus designed a school of nursing. </li></ul><ul><li>Nightingale applied with a 12-page handwritten curriculum and became the 134 th nursing student to attend the school. </li></ul><ul><li>She developed skills in both nursing care and management and used her gained knowledge as a reformer for the well-being of the citizens. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Crimean War English VS. Turkish <ul><li>-Hospital barracks were infested with fleas and rats. </li></ul><ul><li>-Sewage flowed under the wards </li></ul><ul><li>-Mortality rate at the hospital was 42.7% of those treated; </li></ul><ul><li>higher from disease than from war injuries </li></ul><ul><li>-Six months later, mortality rate dropped to 2.2% and was </li></ul><ul><li>achieved by attending to the environment of the soldiers. </li></ul><ul><li>-Heroine in Great Britain </li></ul><ul><li>-Awarded with Order of Merit by Great Britain </li></ul>
  5. 5. Writings <ul><li>Notes on Matters Affecting Health </li></ul><ul><li>Notes on Hospital </li></ul><ul><li>Efficiency and Hospital Administration of the British Army </li></ul><ul><li>Report on Measures Adopted for Sanitary Improvements in India </li></ul><ul><li>Notes on Nursing </li></ul>
  6. 6. Nightingale’s Environmental Theory <ul><li>Theory basis : the inter-relationship of a healthful environment with nursing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>External influences and conditions can prevent, suppress, or contribute to disease or death </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Theory goal : Nurses help patients retain their own vitality by meeting their basic needs through control of the environment </li></ul><ul><li>Nursing’s Focus : control of the environment for individuals, families & the community </li></ul>
  7. 7. Nightingale’s Environmental Theory <ul><li>The first published nursing theory (1860) </li></ul><ul><li>Persons are in connection with the environment </li></ul><ul><li>Gives emphasis on the healing properties of the physical environment (fresh air, light, warmth and cleanliness) </li></ul><ul><li>Nursing puts patients in the “best conditions” for nature to act upon them </li></ul><ul><li>Health is “the positive of which the pathology is the negative” </li></ul>
  8. 8. Nightingale’s Environmental Theory <ul><li>“ Nature alone cures” </li></ul><ul><li>When aspects of the environment are out of balance, the client must use energy to counter these environmental stresses </li></ul><ul><li>Viewed disease as a reparative process </li></ul><ul><li>The health of the home/community are critical components in an individual’s health </li></ul>
  9. 9. Environmental Factors Affecting Health <ul><li>Ventilation and warmth </li></ul><ul><li>-check the patient’s body temperature, room temperature, </li></ul><ul><li>ventilation and foul odors </li></ul><ul><li>Light </li></ul><ul><li>-check room for adequate light (sunlight is beneficial to the </li></ul><ul><li>patient) </li></ul><ul><li>-create and implement adequate light in the room without </li></ul><ul><li>placing the patient in direct sunlight </li></ul>
  10. 10. Environmental Factors Affecting Health <ul><li>Cleanliness </li></ul><ul><li>-check and keep room from dust, dampness and dirt </li></ul><ul><li>Health of houses </li></ul><ul><li>-check surrounding for fresh air, pure water, drainage, </li></ul><ul><li>cleanliness and light </li></ul><ul><li>-remove garbage and stagnant water </li></ul><ul><li>Noise </li></ul><ul><li>-check and attempt to keep noise level in minimum </li></ul>
  11. 11. Environmental Factors Affecting Health <ul><li>Bed and Bedding </li></ul><ul><li>-keep the bed dry, wrinkle-free and lowest height to ensure </li></ul><ul><li>comfort </li></ul><ul><li>Personal Cleanliness </li></ul><ul><li>-keep the patient dry and clean at all times </li></ul><ul><li>Variety </li></ul><ul><li>-attempt to accomplish variety in the room </li></ul><ul><li>Chattering hopes and advices </li></ul><ul><li>-respect the patient and avoid personal talk </li></ul>
  12. 12. Environmental Factors Affecting Health <ul><li>Taking food </li></ul><ul><li>-document the plan of care and evaluate the outcome to </li></ul><ul><li>ensure continuity of care </li></ul><ul><li>Petty Management </li></ul><ul><li>-check the diet of the patient </li></ul><ul><li>-note the amount of food and liquid ingested by the patient </li></ul><ul><li>in every meal </li></ul><ul><li>Observation of the Sick </li></ul><ul><li>-observe the patient’s environment and record anything </li></ul><ul><li>about the patient </li></ul>
  13. 13. Metaparadigm in Nursing (PERSON) <ul><li>-Referred to by Nightingale as “the patient” </li></ul><ul><li>-Recipient of nursing care </li></ul><ul><li>-A human being acted upon by a nurse, or affected by the environment </li></ul><ul><li>-Has reparative powers to deal with disease </li></ul><ul><li>-Recovery is in the patient’s power as long as a safe environment exists </li></ul>
  14. 14. Metaparadigm in Nursing (HEALTH) <ul><li>-Holistic level of wellness that the person experiences </li></ul><ul><li>-Maintained by using a person’s healing powers to their fullest extent </li></ul><ul><li>-Maintained by controlling the environmental factors so as to prevent disease </li></ul><ul><li>-Disease is viewed as a reparative process instituted by nature </li></ul><ul><li>-Health and disease are the focus of the nurse </li></ul><ul><li>-Nurses help patients through their healing process </li></ul>
  15. 15. Metaparadigm in Nursing (ENVIRONMENT) <ul><li>-The foundational component of Nightingale’s theory </li></ul><ul><li>-The external and internal aspects of life that influence the person </li></ul><ul><li>-Includes everything from a person’s food to a nurse’s verbal and nonverbal interactions with the patient </li></ul>
  16. 16. Metaparadigm in Nursing (NURSING) <ul><li>-Nursing is essential for everybody’s well-being </li></ul><ul><li>-It is having the responsibility for someone else’s health. </li></ul><ul><li>- Notes on Nursing : provides women with guidelines for caring for their loved ones at home and gives advice on how to “think like a nurse” </li></ul><ul><li>*Trained nurses however, applies additional scientific principles to their work and more skilled in observing their patients. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Acceptance By The Nursing Community <ul><li>EDUCATION </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nightingale’s principles of Nursing training provided a universal template for early nurse training school beginning with St. Thomas Hospital </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Acceptance By The Nursing Community <ul><li>RESEARCH </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nightingale’s interest in scientific inquiry and statistics continues to define the scientific inquiry used in nursing research. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Concepts that Nightingale identified served as the basis of research to test modern theories </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Acceptance By The Nursing Community <ul><li>PRACTICE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The environmental aspects of her theory (ventilation, warmth, quiet, diet and cleanliness) remain integral components of nursing care. </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. CRITIQUE <ul><li>SIMPLICITY </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Three Major Relationships: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A. Environment to Patient </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Environment was the main factor creating illness in a patient </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>B. Nurse to Environment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nurses need to manipulate the environment to enhance the patient’s recovery </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 21. CRITIQUE <ul><ul><ul><li>C. Nurse To Patient </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Suggests collaboration and cooperation between the nurse and the patient </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The protection of the patient from emotional distress </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Conservation of energy while allowing the patient to participate in self-care </li></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 22. CRITIQUE <ul><li>GENERALITY </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nightingale’s theory has been used to provide general guidelines for all nurses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The universality and timelessness of her concepts remain pertinent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The relation concepts (nurse, patient and environment) are applicable in all nursing settings today </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. CRITIQUE <ul><li>EMPIRICAL PRECISION </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nightingale’s theory are presented as truths rather than tentative, testable statements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>She advised nurses that their practice should be based on their observation and experiences rather than systematic, empirical research </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. CRITIQUE <ul><li>DERIVABLE CONSEQUENCES </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Deeply religious, she viewed nursing as a means of doing the will of God (Nursing is a divine calling) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Her encouragement for a measure of independence and precision guides and motivates nurses today as the profession continues to evolve </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. FIN ~

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