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European Journal of Business and Management                                                        www.iiste.orgISSN 2222-...
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European Journal of Business and Management                                                             www.iiste.orgISSN ...
European Journal of Business and Management                                                        www.iiste.orgISSN 2222-...
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European Journal of Business and Management                                                        www.iiste.orgISSN 2222-...
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Policy support and performance of small and medium scale enterprises in south


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Policy support and performance of small and medium scale enterprises in south

  1. 1. European Journal of Business and Management www.iiste.orgISSN 2222-1905 (Paper) ISSN 2222-2839 (Online)Vol 4, No.9, 2012 Policy Support and Performance of Small and Medium Scale Enterprises in South-West Nigeria Adaramola, Anthony Olugbenga Department of Banking and Finance, Ekiti State University, PMB 5363, Ado Ekiti, Nigeria *e-mail address: gbengaadaramolaunad@yahoo.comThe research is financed by Asian Development Bank. No. 2006-A171(Sponsoring information)AbstractThis study sets out to investigate the impact of technological, infrastructure and financial supports on theperformance of small and medium scale enterprises (SMEs) in Nigeria. Because of the largeness of the numberof SMEs in different sectors of Nigeria, the coverage of the research work is narrowed down to bakeryenterprises in South West Nigeria. Primary data were employed to elicit information from 144 bakery firms fromSouth West Nigeria. The primary data were sourced using interview schedule and questionnaire administration.A model of three (3) linear equations was formulated capturing the variables of performance, technology,infrastructure and finance. In all, a total of twelve (12) variables were used in the analysis; they are: output(OUT), asset (AST), Employees (EMP), acquisition mode of machines (ACQ), energy expenditure (ENR), initialcapital (CAP), training (TRA), water expenditure (WAT), bank credit (BNK), education (EDU), age ofenterprise (AGE), and non-bank credit (NBK). The Ordinary Least Square (OLS) regression analysis was used toestimate the model. The findings of the study revealed that technological and financial supports impactpositively on the performance of SMEs while infrastructural support is negatively related to the performance ofSMEs in Nigeria. The study therefore concluded with empirical evidence that policy supports having bearing ontechnology, infrastructure and finance affect the performance of SMEs to a great extent in Nigeria.Keywords: Policy support, SMEs, Ordinary Least Square regression analysis.1. IntroductionThe worldview of Small and Medium Scale Enterprises (SMEs) as an index of technological backwardness or asa sign of industrial backwardness is changing tremendously with time. Indeed, in many developed anddeveloping nations of the world, SMEs are now appreciated as a necessary complement to the industrial structureof any modern economy. The dimensions of the recent attention on them border on the perceived wisdom thatthey could leapfrog their initial early stage and embrace modern large businesses in the development process.Many developing countries have recorded success and positive results from the discovery of SMEs in the pasttwo or three decades. In many countries, the dynamic role of SMEs as engines through which the growthobjectives of development can be achieved has long been recognized. As observed in the works of Egelen andSteil 1997; Daniel and Ngwira 1992; Gilbb and Richie 2002; Fisseha and McPherson 1991; Gallagher andRobison 1995; Kayanula and Quatrtey 2000; it is estimated that SMEs employ 22 percent of the adult populationin developing countries. In view of the importance and place of SMEs in an economy, it is imperative that SMEsshould be given the priority it deserves.However, the contribution of SMEs to the Nigerian economy is still very small and negligible when comparedwith other countries such as the Asian tigers (Owualah 1987). The SMEs in Nigeria still face a lot of problemsranging from financing to survival. The rate of mortality is alarming. The government has made a lot of efforts toensure that the SMEs are given a helping hand to frog-leap; growing to complement the modern day industrialstructure like other developing nations of the world. Over the years, there have been serious divergent opinionsas to what should be an appropriate policy to develop for Nigerian SMEs. In the recent times, the governmentmerged the Nigerian Industrial Development Bank (NIDB), Nigerian Bank for Commerce and Industry (NBCI)and Nigerian Economic Reconstruction Fund (NERFUND) to form the Bank of Industry (BOI); all in the effortto assist SMEs in Nigeria. The government also established the Small and Medium Enterprises DevelopmentAgency of Nigeria (SMEDAN) as coordinating and regulatory agency for SMEs sector. The government alsowent ahead to establish the National Guarantee Scheme for the collateral for SMEs so as to reduce the risk offinancing. The Small and Medium Enterprises Equity Investment Scheme (SMEIS) was set up in 2001 by theBankers Committee which was a response to government overture that banks should device ways of fundingSMEs in Nigeria. Now government has converted all the Community Banks in the country to becoming Micro 10
  2. 2. European Journal of Business and Management www.iiste.orgISSN 2222-1905 (Paper) ISSN 2222-2839 (Online)Vol 4, No.9, 2012finance Banks, strengthening the capital base, so as to be able to lend helping hand to the development of SMEs.In spite of these developmental policies, the result from this sector of the economy has not been encouraging.Some scholars are of the view the effort of Nigerian Government is unidirectional. Apart from financial support,little is being done by the government about other environmental supports such as infrastructure and technology.No doubt that in Nigeria and indeed as in many other developing countries, poverty level is still very high. Somescholars have maintained that high rate of poverty can be linked to the investment environments which have notbeen friendly to the survival and development of SMEs. This is evident from the rate of mortality of these smallscale ventures. Given the above scenario, the aim of this study therefore is to critically examine the impact of thelocal technology on the performance of SMEs.2. Conceptual Framework and Literature ReviewIn the literature, little was said of about the link between infrastructure, technology and the performance ofSMEs. In this case, the conceptual framework is explored to establish to link.Economic/Financial Environment and Support.Every business enterprise whether profit oriented or non-profit oriented is affected by the economic environmentand it support in various ways. For instance, the issue of capital; virtually every organization needs capital,machinery, building, office equipment, tools and cash. While some organizations may produce the neededcapital themselves, others may need to generate cash to purchase the capital items. This implies that allbusinesses are dependent on the availability and prices of these items. While some societies are endowed withnatural resources, others may not be as lucky. The issue of funding and its availability is of paramountimportance to the performance and survival of SMEs. Moreover business managers must be interested ineconomic variables such as: unemployment rate, exchange rate of the local currency in relation to the poundsterling or the American dollar, inflation and interest rates in the economy.The Technological Environment and its supportScience provides knowledge while technology utilizes it. The main influence of technology on business is in theway things are done. The impact and support of technology is seen in new products, new machines, new tools,new materials and new services in the market. For instance, with computer application banks are able to servetheir customers efficiently and promptly. Although technology has brought with it many benefits, it also hassome problems such as air, and water pollution, traffic jam, energy shortage etc; it contribution to success andsurvival of business enterprises cannot be overemphasized.Nigerian Business Environment and Its SupportBusiness is a social activity aimed at creating goods and services within the framework of a society orcommunity. An activity that is legitimate in one society, city or state may be illegitimate in another. This impliesthat the type of business activity that takes place in a particular community, state or nation is largely determinedby the beliefs, needs and attitudes of that community. A business makes a demand on the society and vise versa,the interrelationship between the business and the community in which it operates, amounts to the businessenvironment. However, the business environment and its support vary from one country or state to another.Some may be favourable to business growth while others may be hostile.The business environment is an intricate and dynamic concept which embraces the independent actions of allinstitutions, organizations; and individuals that directly or indirectly impact on the operations of businessorganizations (Olson 1983). He also opined that participants within the Nigeria business environment include: • Individuals who act as customers of goods and services; labour/employees in organization, providers of capital and entrepreneurial skills to organization producing the goods and services. • Business organizations, which are primary suppliers of input and services used for production, distribution and retailing of the goods and services. They also act as competitors to business. • The state, which acts as a consumer of goods and services, an employer, a producer of goods and services, a regulator of the economy, etc. 11
  3. 3. European Journal of Business and Management www.iiste.orgISSN 2222-1905 (Paper) ISSN 2222-2839 (Online)Vol 4, No.9, 2012Aluko (1983) is of the opinion that business environment can be conveniently classified into two – the internaland external business environment. To him, the internal environment consists of technologies used by theorganization and its sub-elements. i.e. its market and the marketing system, its products services and theproduction system, the administrative and control procedures, to mention but a few.The external business environment comprises sub- elements like the customers, competitors, the political andlegal systems, the economic and social system, the technological and ethical system, and the governmentregulatory system, etc. Aluko (1983) stressed on the interdependence and interrelatedness of the business to itsenvironment.As noted earlier, by Olson (1987), the Nigerian business environment is dynamic, that is, it is constantlychanging. Whether the change is friendly or hostile, positive or negative, it definitely results either inopportunities or threat to the business organizations, no business organization can make decisions that are notaffected by a wide range of internal and external business environmental factors. He shared the view of Alukothat there is inter-dependence between a business and its environment. To Ajayi and Adebisi (2006), anappreciation of this interdependence is an important tool to understanding how business functions and howpolicies are made. From the above ascertion, Isimoya (2005) noted that the two basic institutions are thecompany and the market environment. These two elements are connected by four flows such that the companydispatches goods/ services and communication (information) to the market while in return receives money(Sales) and feedback.Obikoya (1995) asserted that the operating environment contains other elements that affect the company and itsmarket. These elements affect the way the organization services its market and ultimately its success. To him,the first is the competitive environment, which is made up of operators in the firm’s industry and theintermediaries. For instance, the extent of efficiency of the firm’s suppliers and distributors, and the rate ofcompetitiveness in the industry for labour, capital and materials, will affect the firm’s level of success inoperations.The second level of environmental element is found in the micro- environment. These are independentinstitutions which facilitates the firm’s operation. Some of these elements are tagged mutual policies. These areinstitutions that the firm is interested in and which are in turn interested in the firm such as financial institutions,insurance firms and market intermediaries.Others include both the sought and unwelcome public: the sought public is made up of institutions like the pressand other mass media organizations, while the unwelcome public includes consumerist movement and tradeunions. These institutions are organizations that the firm cannot afford to ignore in making its decisions. They allhave a stake in the business.The third and most general level of environmental forces which is my focus in this study is the macro-environment. These macro- environmental forces affect the structure, conduct and performances of a firm. Sincethe firm cannot operate in isolation, it dependents on them. The implication for the company is that it shouldinvest to keep a-breast of the significant social changes, so as to adapt fast. The changes are constant. Forinstance, a technology appliance that is in vogue today may become obsolete as a result of customer lifestylechanges, government legislation and social trend. That a company succeeds depend on the rate at which it isfine-tuned to its environment. A company is said to be innovative and adaptive if it grasps the opportunities thatthe changes bring about and meet the threat thereof. An innovative firm is a prosperous firm. Amuda (2006) alsoillustrated this in explaining the inter-dependence between the company and its environment, and went further toexplain the open system concept.Literature is full of different system concept however, Kaynak and Olofddon-Brendenlow (1987) proffered thatan open system is a set of interrelated component that function together, within constraints, towards a commongoal.To this end, the open system suggests components that interact dynamically to create a synergistic whole whichis greater than the sum of its parts. For an industrial organization in Nigeria, the organization interacts with theenvironment and the units within the technological, infrastructural and financial sub-units. 12
  4. 4. European Journal of Business and Management www.iiste.orgISSN 2222-1905 (Paper) ISSN 2222-2839 (Online)Vol 4, No.9, 20123. Data and MethodologyThe major instrument of data collection that is considered adequate for the work is the use of questionnaire. Thisis because most SMEs used in my sample don’t publish financial statements where secondary data can besourced. The questionnaire was well constructed to ensure that it adequately measures what it intends tomeasure. To achieve this, authorities in this area were widely consulted. Personal interviews were conductedalong with the administration of questionnaire so that the respondents are well guided so as to avoidmisunderstanding of questions contained therein. However, the work as a whole used data and publishedinformation from government agencies such as the Small and Medium Enterprises Development Agency ofNigeria (SMEDAN), National Directorate of Employment (NDE), various journals and public works on SMEs.Model Specification and Estimation TechniqueFrom the objectives of this research work, a multiple regression analysis is used to ascertain if a definiterelationship exists between the performance of SMEs (output, total assets and employment generation) and theindependent variables which are: finance (capital invested, bank credit and non-bank credit); Infrastructure(energy and water); Technology (mode of acquisition of machine, training and educational background of theowners). Thus we specified a SMEs performance function for Nigeria which permits a test of the hypotheses that‘improved technological, infrastructural and financial policy support will boost SMEs performance that willaccelerate growth in the economy’. This yields the following functions ( Awe, 2002)Out = f(Acq, Enr, cap ) ------------------------------------(1)to be estimated as;Out = α0 + α1Acq + α2Enr + α3Cap + eWhere Out = total output Acq = acquisition mode Enr = expenditure on energy Cap = initial capitalAst = f(Tra, Wat, Bnk ) ------------------------------------(2)to be estimated as;Ast = α0 + α1 Tra + α2 Wat + α3 Bnk +eWhere Ast = total asset Tra = formal training Wat = water consumption in litres Bnk = bank creditandEmp = f(Edu, Age, Nbk ) ------------------------------------(3)to be estimated as;Emp = α0 + α1 Edu + α2 Age + α3 Nbk +eWhere Emp = employment generation Edu = educational background of the owner Age = age of the enterprise Nbk = non-bank creditHence, on apriori, the expectation of the model estimation is that the three (3) independent variables in each ofthe three (3) equations will impact on SMEs’ performance as follows: δOut > 0 , δOut < 0 , δOut > 0 ------------(4) δAqu δEnr δCap δAst > 0 , δAst > 0, δAst > 0 ------------(5) δTra δWat δBnk 13
  5. 5. European Journal of Business and Management www.iiste.orgISSN 2222-1905 (Paper) ISSN 2222-2839 (Online)Vol 4, No.9, 2012 δEmp > 0 , δEmp > 0, δEmp > 0 ------------(6) δEdu δAge δNbkAll the hypotheses formulated for this research work were tested at 95% level of confidence.4. Results and FindingsIn the regression result 1, effort was made to examine whether a definite relationship exists between theperformance of bakery firms proxied by output and predictors, which are acquisition mode of the machines,energy and initial capital which stands for technological infrastructural and financial support respectively. Withadjusted R2 of 0.965, it shows that about 96.5% of the behaviour of the dependent variables is explained by thepredictors. i.e. the explanatory variables. There is a positive relationship between mode of acquisition of machineand output. In the same way, a positive relationship exists between output and initial capital invested. However,a negative relationship exists between performance and expenditure on energy. Since most of the firms usealternative source of energy, the energy expenditures become very heavy on the enterprises and hence affectoutput. Finally, the f- statistics of 132.1 implies that the overall model is statistically significant at 5% level ofsignificance. It is interesting to discover here that despite the fact that most of the firms use locally fabricatedmachines, the local technology still impact positively on output. The variable for performance of bakeries ishighly positively sensitive to financial support. Therefore, we reject the entire null hypotheses for model 1 andaccept the alternative hypotheses. This means that acquisition mode of machines, energy expenditure and capitalinvestment have significant effect on performance of the enterprises in Nigeria.From regression result 2, the dependent variable is total asset while the predictors are training, water expenditureand bank credit, which are proxies for technological infrastructural and financial supports respectively. Theadjusted R2 of 0.795 shows that the predictors explain about 79.5% of the behaviour of the dependent variable. Apositive relationship exists between water expenditure and a total asset. The same positive relationship is existsbetween total asset and bank credit. However, a negative relationship exists between total asset and training. It isinteresting to note that the relationship that exists between total asset and water expenditure is positive. This iscontrary to our a priori expectation. However, the reason for this could be because the expenditure on water isnot significantly different from the figures of the quantity of water used by the enterprises, since we valued 2500liters at N2500. Water expenditure and bank credit are statistically significant at 5% level of significance. Whiletraining- a variable for technological support is not statistically significant at 5% level of significance. F-statistics of 185.51 is statistically significant at 5% level of significance. From these results and findings, wereject the null hypotheses that water expenditure and bank credit do not significantly affect total asset of SMEsand accept the alternative hypotheses. Concerning the third variable which is training, we accept the nullhypothesis that training does not significantly affect the total asset of bakeries in Nigeria while we reject thealternative hypothesis.The result of regression 3 shows an adjusted R2 of 0.6097. This implies that the predictors account for 60.97% ofthe behaviour of the dependent variable. Here, number of employees is a performance variable which depends onthe educational background of the owners, age of the enterprises and the credit facilities from the non- bankfinancial institution such as the cooperative societies. The predictors impact positively on the dependent variable.Again, all the three independent variables are statistically significant at 5% level of significance. This impliesthat all the null hypotheses for the three predictors are rejected. That is, educational background of the owners,age of the enterprise and credit facilities from non- bank institutions have significant impact on employmentgeneration of the SMEs. The F-statistics of 75.47 reveals that the overall model is also significant at 5% levelof significance.5. Summary of Findings and RecommendationsThe focal point of this study is to examine the impact of policy support on the performance of SMEs in Nigeria,with a special indifference on the south western part of the country. The study employs basically primary dataobtained through the use of questionnaires and personal interviews.In order to capture the performance of SMEs, a system of three equations were formulated to be the model forthe research work. Two other equations were later stated as a derivative of the original model. The proxies formeasuring the performance of SMEs as used in the model include output (OUT), total assets (AST) and theemployment generation (EMP); while each of the independent variables represents policy support which are 14
  6. 6. European Journal of Business and Management www.iiste.orgISSN 2222-1905 (Paper) ISSN 2222-2839 (Online)Vol 4, No.9, 2012either financial, technological or infrastructural. Acquisition mode of machine, government training programsand educational background of the entrepreneurs are proxies for technological support. Cost of energy and watersupply are used as proxies for infrastructural support, while initial capital investment, bank credit facilities andnon- bank credit facilities are proxies measuring financial supports.The result obtained in equation 1 reveals that output will constantly decline by 172.445 loaves of bread if thethree independent variables are held constant. The effect of the constant reduction reflects the importance ofthese variables in the enhancement of the performance of the SMEs as measured by the output. The result also reveals that the mode of acquisition of machine (ACQ) and initial capital (CAP) are directly related to output while expenditure on energy is inversely related to the output. This is as a result of the fact that increases in capital and machine acquisition mode will enhance output performance, while increase in expenditure on energy, as a result of the use of alternative source of energy will heavily affect output of SMEs. With a very high adjusted R2 of 96.52%, as corroborated by the F-statistics of 134.3 shows that the model has a goodness or fit, and that the independent variables well explained the variations in the output. In equation 2, the coefficient of constant parameter is negatively related to the total assets (AST) proxied as the performance variables indicating that the (AST) will decline, if the independent variable (TRA, WAT and BNK) are held constant. This shows the importance of the independent variables in enhancing the performance of SMEs proxied as total assets. Also training as a measure of technological support is inversely related and insignificant to the dependent variable, total assets; hence the performance of bakery firms. In contrast to the above, the coefficient of water supply as a measure of infrastructural performance is directly related and also significant to total assets (AST). This reveals the importance of water supply as an input enhancing the performance of the enterprises. Also, a positive relationship exists between bank credit facilities (BNK) and total assets (AST), indicating that a percentage increase in banks credit to the SMEs will result to 18.9% increase in SMEs total asset. Though the BNK is significant in explaining the variation of SMEs total Asset (AST), but there is a very low correlation between the bank’s credit facilities and total asset. The reason is not far fetched. It is as a result of the very low credit extended by the bank to SMEs due to overridden interest rate and stringent requirements and conditions in obtaining the loans. The coefficient of adjusted R2 of the 0.799 reveals a strong explanatory power of the model as also revealed by the F-statistics. From the result obtained from equation 3, the positive coefficient of the constant parameter shows that employment generation will increase constantly if the independent variables - educational background (EDU), business span (Age) and non bank credit facilities (NBK) are held constant. This shows that there are other factors that affect employment generation of SMEs other than the over-listed variables. The results also reveal a direct relationship between educational background and employment generation. This result also shows that EDU is significant indicating that the higher the level of education, the wider the scope of employment generation. Also, the coefficient of enterprise lifespan (AGE) is positively related and significant to EMP, which shows that the longer the span of the business the more the employment generation of SMEs. In addition to the above, credit facilities provided by non-bank financial institution, such as a cooperative societies are directly related and significant to the employment generation. The bulk of the funds to the SMEs is provided as initial capital through personal savings and credit from non-bank financial institutions. Hence, it is expected that an increase in credit to SMEs in Nigeria will increase employment generation, which is revealed by the result. The result also reveals that a percent increase (decrease) in non-bank credit facility will result to 86.06% increase in employment generation. The adjusted R2 of 0.6097 shows that the explanatory power of the model indicating that 60.97% variation in the dependent variable is explained by the independent variables while the other 39.03% is explained by other variables outside the model as supported by the F- statistics. Recommendations Considering the empirical findings of this research work, vis a vis the objectives of exercise, the following policy recommendations are hereby suggested:Even though, expenditure on energy as a variable is statistically significant, there is an inverse relationship withoutput of SMEs. It is therefore suggested that the government should do everything at its disposal to revamp the 15
  7. 7. European Journal of Business and Management www.iiste.orgISSN 2222-1905 (Paper) ISSN 2222-2839 (Online)Vol 4, No.9, 2012energy sector so that Nigeria SMEs can contribute maximally to the economic growth and development of thenation as in other nations of the world.From the findings, majority of the owners of bakery firms do not have any formal training as far as theproduction process is concerned. This may also be the situation for SMEs in other sectors. It is thereforerecommended that training workshops should be organized for the owners of SMEs as well as their employeesby government agencies such as the National Directorate of Employment (NDE), National Agency for Food andDrug Administration Control (NAFDAC), Small and Medium Enterprise Development Agency of Nigeria(SMEDAN) etc.From the findings of this research, less than 20% of the entrepreneurs have access to bank credit facilities. Thismay be as a result of lack of information on the part of the entrepreneurs. The cost of bank facilities is cheaperthan facilities from cooperative societies. Owners of SMEs should be encouraged to approach the banks forcredit facilities. Commercial and microfinance banks should also be encouraged by the government so as to bewilling to lend to Nigeria SMEs at concessionary interest rates devoid of heavy collaterals and stringentconditions.Bakery business heavily depends on water as part of its inputs. Most of the enterprises in Nigeria depend onprivate source of water supply. Some of them use private bore-hole water which is not reliable especially duringdry season. As part of the infrastructural support policy, government should revolutionalise the state and federalministries of water resources to ensure adequate and efficient supply of water. This is more hygienic than mostof the private water supply.From the findings, it is interesting to note through the acquisition mode of the machine used that locallyfabricated machines contribute greatly to the output of SMEs. It is therefore recommended that themanufacturers of the locally fabricated machines / tools should be encouraged by the government. Themanufacturers can be exposed to inductions outside the country so that Nigerian indigenous technology anddesign can compete favourably with what obtains any where in the world.Educational background of the entrepreneurs was found to be statistically significant in this research work.Therefore many of our graduates and school leavers should be encouraged by the government to be enterprising.By this, they become employers of labour and contribute meaningfully to the economic growth of the nation.6. Suggestion for Future ResearchIn this work, performance of SMEs in Nigeria was investigated in the light of contributions from technological,financial and infrastructural environments. The work does not cover other business environments such as thelegal, social religious, political, cultural-ethical and international environments. Future research should coverthese others areas. The work can also be studied to cover a group of developing countries.ReferencesAjayi S. O. and W.A. Adebisi, 2006, “The role of SMES in poverty alleviation”, Journal of managementresearch Vol 2, Pp 113- 123.Aluko S. 1983, “Research in Entrepreneurial Development in Nigeria” in U. Udfo-Aka, (Eds) ManagementEducation for National Development. Centre for management Development, Lagos, pp 86-106.Amuda S. 2006, “SMEDAN plan better welfare package for female banker”, National Mirror, WednesdayNovember 8, Vol. 2, No. 81.Awe I. O. 2002, Entrepreneurship Development, Gilgal Publication, Lagos, 2nd Edition.Bordens S. K. and B. B. Abbott, 2002. “Research Design and Methods: A process Approach”, (5th ed) McGrawHill Books New York.Bridge J. I., 1971. Applied Econometrics, North-Holland, Amsterdam.Daniel D. and E. Ngwira, 1992. “Entrepreneurship” Journal of Professional Administration. Vol. 5, No. 2, Pg. 6-18Davidson D. James, 2000. Econometric Theory, Blackwell Publishers, Oxford, U.K.Diebold Francis, 2001. Elements of Forecasting, 2nd Ed., South-Western Publishers. 16
  8. 8. European Journal of Business and Management www.iiste.orgISSN 2222-1905 (Paper) ISSN 2222-2839 (Online)Vol 4, No.9, 2012Egelen J., G. Lieht and F. Steil, 1997, “Firm Foundation and the Role of Financial Constraints,” Small BusinessEconomics, 9, Pp.137-150.Fisseha F. and McPherson, 1992. Management. New Jersey: PrenticeHall.Gallagher G. and Robison, 1995. Understanding Business. New York: Irwin McGraw-Hill.Gibb A. and J. Richie, 2002, ‘Understanding the process of starting small businesses’, European Small BusinessJournal, 1 (1), Pp. 12-23.Graybill F. A., 1961. An Introduction to Linear Statistical Models, Vol. 1, McGraw-Hill, New York.Harvey A. C., 1990. The Econometric Analysis of Time Series, 2nd Ed., MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass.Isimoya A. O., “Nigerian Business Environment; An Introduction”, Concept Publications Limited, Lagos.Kayanula K. and Quatrtey, 2005. Organizational Behaviour. New Delhi: McGraw, Hill, Irwin.Kaynak E., P.N. Ghauri, and T. Olofsson-Brendenlow, 1995. ‘Export Behaviour of Small Swedish Firms,Journal of Small Business Management, Vol.25, No.2, April, Pp. 26-32Koutsoyiannis A., 1973. “Theory of Econometrics, Harper & Row, New York.Mills T. C., 1993. The Econometric Modeling of Financial Time Series, Cambridge University Press.Netter J. and W. Wasserman, 1974. Applied Linear Statistical Models, Richard D. Irwin, Homewood, Ill.Obikoya J. O., 1995. “Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) in Nigeria: Problems and prospects”, in A.T. Ojo(1995) (Eds) Management of Small and medium enterprises in Nigeria (pp. 246-256), Ikeja: Pumark Limited.Olson D.D. 1987. “Entrepreneur and Management”, Journal of Small business Management, Vol.25, No.3, July,Pp. 7-13.Owualah, S. I. 1987. "Proving Necessary Economic Infrastructures for Small Businesses, Whose responsibility?”International Small Business Journal, Vol.6, No.1, Autumn, Pp. 10-13.AppendixRegression Result 1Dependent Variable: OUTMethod: Least SquaresSample: 1 144Included observations: 144 Variable Coefficient Std. Error t-Statistic Prob. C -172.4452 55.26936 -3.120087 0.0022 ACQ 320.6628 51.23053 6.259214 0.0000 ENR -0.789172 0.162030 -4.870546 0.0000 CAP 348.9215 6.979535 49.99208 0.0000R-squared 0.965886 Mean dependent var 2055.153Adjusted R-squared 0.965155 S.D. dependent var 1309.700S.E. of regression 244.4779 Akaike info criterion 13.86351Sum squared resid 8367721. Schwarz criterion 13.94601Log likelihood -994.1728 F-statistic 1321.312Durbin-Watson stat 1.898287 Prob(F-statistic) 0.000000 17
  9. 9. European Journal of Business and Management www.iiste.orgISSN 2222-1905 (Paper) ISSN 2222-2839 (Online)Vol 4, No.9, 2012 Regression Result 2Dependent Variable: ASTMethod: Least SquaresSample: 1 144Included observations: 144 Variable Coefficient Std. Error t-Statistic Prob. C -1.198348 0.306195 -3.913683 0.0001 TRA -0.193440 0.354684 -0.545388 0.5864 WAT 0.017802 0.000852 20.90606 0.0000 BNK 0.189430 0.082294 2.301875 0.0228R-squared 0.799007 Mean dependent var 4.869792Adjusted R-squared 0.794700 S.D. dependent var 3.231306S.E. of regression 1.464107 Akaike info criterion 3.627752Sum squared resid 300.1051 Schwarz criterion 3.710247Log likelihood -257.1982 F-statistic 185.5137Durbin-Watson stat 1.837594 Prob(F-statistic) 0.000000Regression Result 3Dependent Variable: EMPMethod: Least SquaresSample: 1 144Included observations: 144 Variable Coefficient Std. Error t-Statistic Prob. C 2.627731 0.421547 6.233544 0.0000 EDU 1.934017 0.489538 3.950698 0.0001 AGE 0.370461 0.031474 11.77044 0.0000 NBK 0.860643 0.236141 3.644614 0.0004R-squared 0.617929 Mean dependent var 8.097222Adjusted R-squared 0.609741 S.D. dependent var 3.933573S.E. of regression 2.457331 Akaike info criterion 4.663413Sum squared resid 845.3862 Schwarz criterion 4.745908Log likelihood -331.7657 F-statistic 75.47452Durbin-Watson stat 1.608473 Prob(F-statistic) 0.000000 18
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