Journal of Environment and Earth ScienceISSN 2224-3216 (Paper) ISSN 2225Vol. 3, No.4, 2013Indiscriminate Solid Waste Diopo...
Journal of Environment and Earth ScienceISSN 2224-3216 (Paper) ISSN 2225Vol. 3, No.4, 2013irritation of the skin, nose, an...
Journal of Environment and Earth ScienceISSN 2224-3216 (Paper) ISSN 2225Vol. 3, No.4, 2013In this research sampling is det...
Journal of Environment and Earth ScienceISSN 2224-3216 (Paper) ISSN 2225Vol. 3, No.4, 2013Table 2 Level of IncomeThe surve...
Journal of Environment and Earth ScienceISSN 2224-3216 (Paper) ISSN 2225Vol. 3, No.4, 2013Table 3 Per Capita Solid Waste G...
Journal of Environment and Earth ScienceISSN 2224-3216 (Paper) ISSN 2225Vol. 3, No.4, 2013the low income.The research foun...
Journal of Environment and Earth ScienceISSN 2224-3216 (Paper) ISSN 2225Vol. 3, No.4, 2013Figure 3 Authorised and Illegal ...
Journal of Environment and Earth ScienceISSN 2224-3216 (Paper) ISSN 2225Vol. 3, No.4, 2013Table 4 Showing Equipment and Ma...
Journal of Environment and Earth ScienceISSN 2224-3216 (Paper) ISSN 2225Vol. 3, No.4, 2013subscription or tax. This compel...
Journal of Environment and Earth ScienceISSN 2224-3216 (Paper) ISSN 2225Vol. 3, No.4, 2013accessible locations. Long dista...
Journal of Environment and Earth ScienceISSN 2224-3216 (Paper) ISSN 2225Vol. 3, No.4, 2013Figure 5 Reasons for lack of sto...
Journal of Environment and Earth ScienceISSN 2224-3216 (Paper) ISSN 2225Vol. 3, No.4, 2013The impact of indiscriminate dis...
Journal of Environment and Earth ScienceISSN 2224-3216 (Paper) ISSN 2225Vol. 3, No.4, 2013organisms into the leachate of d...
Journal of Environment and Earth ScienceISSN 2224-3216 (Paper) ISSN 2225Vol. 3, No.4, 2013agency would mobilised all its r...
Journal of Environment and Earth ScienceISSN 2224-3216 (Paper) ISSN 2225Vol. 3, No.4, 2013ACKNOWLEDGEMENTSThe author is gr...
This academic article was published by The International Institute for Science,Technology and Education (IISTE). The IISTE...
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Indiscriminate solid waste dioposal in bauchi causes and impacts on the community and the environment

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Indiscriminate solid waste dioposal in bauchi causes and impacts on the community and the environment

  1. 1. Journal of Environment and Earth ScienceISSN 2224-3216 (Paper) ISSN 2225Vol. 3, No.4, 2013Indiscriminate Solid Waste DioposalImpacts on the CommunityBogoro Audu Gani, Mohammed Yaya Abubakar and Yakubu Yahaya BabanyaraUrban and Regional Planning ProgrammeAbstractThere has been poor solid waste management in Bauchi metropolis. The paper appraised the level ofindiscriminate disposal with a view to idphysical environment and make recommendations to mitigate the impacts. The study area was divided in totwelve wards and from each ward a proportionate unit of household was selected usisampling techniques. Data were collected through purposeful questionnaire and interview and pictures weretaken for on-site environmental assessment. Since there are 39,675 households in the study area, 4% of 39,675households were taken as the sample size which is 1587 households. The study found that the area generates 286metric tonnes daily but only 111 metric tonnes is collected for disposal. There are 205 illegal dump sites againstthe 89 authorised dump sites in the metropolicentres, poor community attitude to environmental health, availability and nearness to open spaces, weaklegislation on solid waste disposal are responsible for the problems which negand environment. The paper recommends an immediate joint action to evacuate the wastes already accumulatedin order to restore environmental sanity in the metropolis. Then more collection centres to be provided,involvement of communities, creation of awareness on environmental health and enforcement not legislation onwaste management would greatly reduce indiscriminate disposal.Key words: solid waste, indiscriminate disposal, causes, impactINTRODUCTIONSolid waste is an inevitable and unwanted byhuman population was relatively small and nomadic, but became a serious problem with urbanization and thegrowth of large conurbations. Indiscriminate dispenvironment in general. In medieval times, epidemics associated with water contaminated with pathogensdecimated the population of Europe and even more recently (19th century), cholera was a common occSome of the direct health impacts of the mismanagement of waste are well known and can be observedespecially in developing countries (Giusti 2009). It has been documented that, about 1.3 x 109 t of municipalsolid waste (MSW) was generated global109 t (Chattopadyay et al, 2009). Furthermore, urban population in Asia generates around 760 x 103 t ofmunicipal waste per day, and this is expected to increase to 1.8 x 10 6 t by 202005). Despite the importance of adequate solid waste management to the urban environment, the performanceof many cities authorities in this respect leaves much to be desired. According to (Ogu 2000), between oneand half of the solid waste generated in most cities of low and middleusually end up as illegal dumps on streets, open spaces and waste land. UNCHS (1996) documented that theproportion of solid waste evacuated and dispos- 60% respectively for Karachi (Pakistan) and Jakarta (Indonesia). It is believed that in the poorest communities(many of which are in sub Saharan Africa), 80 to 90% of wastes generated are nNigeria inclusive (Ogu 2000).The adverse impact can either directly or indirectly be on the environment and the residents. According toMarshal (1995), open dumpsites are a major problem to the environment, especially oninhale. Dumpsites emit obnoxious odours and smoke that cause illness to people living in, around, or closer tothem. According to Wrensh (1990) dumpsites maybe a source of airborne chemical contamination via off sitemigration of gases and the particles and chemicals adhering to dust, especially during the period of activeoperation of the site. Contamination of soil and groundwater may lead to direct contact or pollution of indoor airfor example in the case of volatile organic chemconsumption of home grown vegetables as well. Wrensh (1990) further stated that in some sites, volatile organicchemicals have been detected in odored air of homes nearby dumpsites.In a number of community health surveys, a wide range of health problems, including respiratory symptoms,Journal of Environment and Earth Science3216 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0948 (Online)40Indiscriminate Solid Waste Dioposal in Bauchi: Causeshe Community and the EnvironmentBogoro Audu Gani, Mohammed Yaya Abubakar and Yakubu Yahaya Babanyaral Planning Programme, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi, Nigeria.e-mail:-auduganibogoro@yahoo.comThere has been poor solid waste management in Bauchi metropolis. The paper appraised the level ofindiscriminate disposal with a view to identifying the causes and the adverse effects on the community and thephysical environment and make recommendations to mitigate the impacts. The study area was divided in totwelve wards and from each ward a proportionate unit of household was selected using the systematic randomsampling techniques. Data were collected through purposeful questionnaire and interview and pictures weresite environmental assessment. Since there are 39,675 households in the study area, 4% of 39,675taken as the sample size which is 1587 households. The study found that the area generates 286metric tonnes daily but only 111 metric tonnes is collected for disposal. There are 205 illegal dump sites againstthe 89 authorised dump sites in the metropolis. Issues like; lack of storage facilities, long distance to collectioncentres, poor community attitude to environmental health, availability and nearness to open spaces, weaklegislation on solid waste disposal are responsible for the problems which negatively affects both the communityand environment. The paper recommends an immediate joint action to evacuate the wastes already accumulatedin order to restore environmental sanity in the metropolis. Then more collection centres to be provided,nt of communities, creation of awareness on environmental health and enforcement not legislation onwaste management would greatly reduce indiscriminate disposal.: solid waste, indiscriminate disposal, causes, impacts an inevitable and unwanted by-product of our daily activities. This was not a major issue when thehuman population was relatively small and nomadic, but became a serious problem with urbanization and thegrowth of large conurbations. Indiscriminate disposal of solid waste has adverse effect on live and theenvironment in general. In medieval times, epidemics associated with water contaminated with pathogensdecimated the population of Europe and even more recently (19th century), cholera was a common occSome of the direct health impacts of the mismanagement of waste are well known and can be observedespecially in developing countries (Giusti 2009). It has been documented that, about 1.3 x 109 t of municipalsolid waste (MSW) was generated globally in 1990, and at present, the annual generation is approximately 1.6 x109 t (Chattopadyay et al, 2009). Furthermore, urban population in Asia generates around 760 x 103 t ofmunicipal waste per day, and this is expected to increase to 1.8 x 10 6 t by 2025 (Pokhrel and Viraraghavan2005). Despite the importance of adequate solid waste management to the urban environment, the performanceof many cities authorities in this respect leaves much to be desired. According to (Ogu 2000), between onef of the solid waste generated in most cities of low and middle-income countries are not collected. Theyusually end up as illegal dumps on streets, open spaces and waste land. UNCHS (1996) documented that theproportion of solid waste evacuated and disposed of is less than 25% in Dares Salaam (Tanzania) and about 40%60% respectively for Karachi (Pakistan) and Jakarta (Indonesia). It is believed that in the poorest communities(many of which are in sub Saharan Africa), 80 to 90% of wastes generated are not collected for safe disposal,The adverse impact can either directly or indirectly be on the environment and the residents. According toMarshal (1995), open dumpsites are a major problem to the environment, especially oninhale. Dumpsites emit obnoxious odours and smoke that cause illness to people living in, around, or closer tothem. According to Wrensh (1990) dumpsites maybe a source of airborne chemical contamination via off siteses and the particles and chemicals adhering to dust, especially during the period of activeoperation of the site. Contamination of soil and groundwater may lead to direct contact or pollution of indoor airfor example in the case of volatile organic chemicals into basements of nearby residents and in the case ofconsumption of home grown vegetables as well. Wrensh (1990) further stated that in some sites, volatile organicchemicals have been detected in odored air of homes nearby dumpsites.community health surveys, a wide range of health problems, including respiratory symptoms,www.iiste.orgn Bauchi: Causes andhe EnvironmentBogoro Audu Gani, Mohammed Yaya Abubakar and Yakubu Yahaya BabanyaraBauchi, Nigeria.There has been poor solid waste management in Bauchi metropolis. The paper appraised the level ofentifying the causes and the adverse effects on the community and thephysical environment and make recommendations to mitigate the impacts. The study area was divided in tong the systematic randomsampling techniques. Data were collected through purposeful questionnaire and interview and pictures weresite environmental assessment. Since there are 39,675 households in the study area, 4% of 39,675taken as the sample size which is 1587 households. The study found that the area generates 286metric tonnes daily but only 111 metric tonnes is collected for disposal. There are 205 illegal dump sites againsts. Issues like; lack of storage facilities, long distance to collectioncentres, poor community attitude to environmental health, availability and nearness to open spaces, weakatively affects both the communityand environment. The paper recommends an immediate joint action to evacuate the wastes already accumulatedin order to restore environmental sanity in the metropolis. Then more collection centres to be provided,nt of communities, creation of awareness on environmental health and enforcement not legislation onproduct of our daily activities. This was not a major issue when thehuman population was relatively small and nomadic, but became a serious problem with urbanization and theosal of solid waste has adverse effect on live and theenvironment in general. In medieval times, epidemics associated with water contaminated with pathogensdecimated the population of Europe and even more recently (19th century), cholera was a common occurrence.Some of the direct health impacts of the mismanagement of waste are well known and can be observedespecially in developing countries (Giusti 2009). It has been documented that, about 1.3 x 109 t of municipally in 1990, and at present, the annual generation is approximately 1.6 x109 t (Chattopadyay et al, 2009). Furthermore, urban population in Asia generates around 760 x 103 t of25 (Pokhrel and Viraraghavan2005). Despite the importance of adequate solid waste management to the urban environment, the performanceof many cities authorities in this respect leaves much to be desired. According to (Ogu 2000), between one-thirdincome countries are not collected. Theyusually end up as illegal dumps on streets, open spaces and waste land. UNCHS (1996) documented that theed of is less than 25% in Dares Salaam (Tanzania) and about 40%60% respectively for Karachi (Pakistan) and Jakarta (Indonesia). It is believed that in the poorest communitiesot collected for safe disposal,The adverse impact can either directly or indirectly be on the environment and the residents. According toMarshal (1995), open dumpsites are a major problem to the environment, especially on the air that the peopleinhale. Dumpsites emit obnoxious odours and smoke that cause illness to people living in, around, or closer tothem. According to Wrensh (1990) dumpsites maybe a source of airborne chemical contamination via off siteses and the particles and chemicals adhering to dust, especially during the period of activeoperation of the site. Contamination of soil and groundwater may lead to direct contact or pollution of indoor airicals into basements of nearby residents and in the case ofconsumption of home grown vegetables as well. Wrensh (1990) further stated that in some sites, volatile organiccommunity health surveys, a wide range of health problems, including respiratory symptoms,
  2. 2. Journal of Environment and Earth ScienceISSN 2224-3216 (Paper) ISSN 2225Vol. 3, No.4, 2013irritation of the skin, nose, and eyes, gastrointestinal problems, psychological disorders, and allergies, have beendiscovered, United Nations, (1997).. A number othe public, often triggered by nuisances caused by emissions of volatile organic compounds. For example,according to Dolk (1997), dump sites closer to residential areas are always feeding plaThese pets, together with rodents, carry diseases with them to nearby homesteads.The UNEPA (2006) state that wastes that are not properly managed, especially excreta and other liquids andsolid wastes, from households and the commundiseases. The report further states that unattended wastes lying around attract flies, rats, and other creatures that,in turn, spread diseases.Normally, it is the wet waste that decomposnext to the dumpsite, which clearly shows that the dumpsites have serious effects to people settled around or nextto them, Marc (2006).Rotting organic materials pose great public healthgrounds for disease vectors. Waste handlers and waste pickers are especially vulnerable and may also becomevectors, contracting and transmitting diseases when human or animal excreta or medical wasstream.Indiscriminate solid waste disposal resulting to poor environmental sanitation is typical characteristics ofcities of developing countries; the issue has become a common feature of many Nigerian cities. Estimates showthat 30-50% of solid waste generated in Nigerian cities, are uncollected and disposed of, Falade, (2001). That iswhy Mabogunje, (2001), concluded that “Nigerian cities are reputed to be some of the dirtiest cities in theworld”. This gloomy picture of our citiesaccusing fingers at our failures to deliver functionally aesthetic and liveable cities. The lack of adequate wastecollection and disposal systems in developing countries causes public healtwhich aggravates poverty and leads to negative consequences such as loss of income due to illness, increasedspending on health care, and the deprivation of the poor’s capability to live in a safer environment, World Bank,(2001).This can be attributed to factors like inaccessibility and distance to collection centres, poor community attitudeto environmental health, availability and nearness to open spaces and open drains, absence or weak legislation onsolid waste disposal among other factors, the activities create adverse impact on the environment.Bogoro, (2010) Reported that waste management in Bauchi metropolis is performed in three stages by differentagencies. Bauchi State Environmental Protection Agency (BASEPA)while community based organisations nonBASEPA take care of the waste at community level. The household members mainly women are in charge of thewaste management at the lowest level which is the household level.In all the areas visited in Bauchi metropolis, high residential density areas such as Jahun, Nassarawa and BakinKura, were generally littered with refuse. Filled containers were found withoSurprisingly, reverse was the case in the lowSurroundings were tidy, waste containers were well packed and covered. On this basis, it is rational if oneasserts that low density promote the maintenance of a healthy and clean environment. However the managementat the metropolitan and the community levels have not been efficient, aswaste emerged on the surface of residential areas innumber of unauthorised dumping site is more than twice the number of authorised dumping sites. This hascaused serious environmental problems to the community which need to be addressed.METHODS AND MATERIALSBauchi town lies in the crystalline up land of northern Nigeria. The town lies over 2000 ft above sea leveland has an altitude of 795.2m above. The metropolis, which is the headquarters of Bauchi State, is locatedbetween latitudes 9” 00’ and 9” 30’ North of the Equator and longitudes 10” 25 and 11” 20’ East of theGreenwich Meridian. It occupies a total land area of 3, 604.0 hecteres. It is about 128km North150km West of Gombe town. There are two major types of climatethe dry season. The wet season starts from May to October while the dry season covers the remaining part of theyear. The two different seasons would tend to favour different waste disposal methods.Bauchi metropolis, being the study area, has a total population of 318,038census NPC, (2006). Furthermore, based on the average household size of 8 persons per household as revealedby the 2006 census there are 39,675 households inresearch.Journal of Environment and Earth Science3216 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0948 (Online)41irritation of the skin, nose, and eyes, gastrointestinal problems, psychological disorders, and allergies, have beendiscovered, United Nations, (1997).. A number of researches have been carried out in response to concerns fromthe public, often triggered by nuisances caused by emissions of volatile organic compounds. For example,according to Dolk (1997), dump sites closer to residential areas are always feeding plaThese pets, together with rodents, carry diseases with them to nearby homesteads.The UNEPA (2006) state that wastes that are not properly managed, especially excreta and other liquids andsolid wastes, from households and the community, are a serious health hazard and could lead to the spreading ofdiseases. The report further states that unattended wastes lying around attract flies, rats, and other creatures that,Normally, it is the wet waste that decomposes and releases a bad odor. The bad odor affects the people settlednext to the dumpsite, which clearly shows that the dumpsites have serious effects to people settled around or nextRotting organic materials pose great public health risks, including, as mentioned above, serving as breedinggrounds for disease vectors. Waste handlers and waste pickers are especially vulnerable and may also becomevectors, contracting and transmitting diseases when human or animal excreta or medical wasIndiscriminate solid waste disposal resulting to poor environmental sanitation is typical characteristics ofcities of developing countries; the issue has become a common feature of many Nigerian cities. Estimates show50% of solid waste generated in Nigerian cities, are uncollected and disposed of, Falade, (2001). That iswhy Mabogunje, (2001), concluded that “Nigerian cities are reputed to be some of the dirtiest cities in theworld”. This gloomy picture of our cities should concern environmentalists because it seems to be pointingaccusing fingers at our failures to deliver functionally aesthetic and liveable cities. The lack of adequate wastecollection and disposal systems in developing countries causes public health problems resulting in diseases,which aggravates poverty and leads to negative consequences such as loss of income due to illness, increasedspending on health care, and the deprivation of the poor’s capability to live in a safer environment, World Bank,This can be attributed to factors like inaccessibility and distance to collection centres, poor community attitudeto environmental health, availability and nearness to open spaces and open drains, absence or weak legislation onosal among other factors, the activities create adverse impact on the environment.Bogoro, (2010) Reported that waste management in Bauchi metropolis is performed in three stages by differentagencies. Bauchi State Environmental Protection Agency (BASEPA) manages the waste at the metropolitan levelwhile community based organisations non-governmental organisations, trade unions in collaboration withBASEPA take care of the waste at community level. The household members mainly women are in charge of theste management at the lowest level which is the household level.In all the areas visited in Bauchi metropolis, high residential density areas such as Jahun, Nassarawa and BakinKura, were generally littered with refuse. Filled containers were found without cover and overflowing.Surprisingly, reverse was the case in the low-density residential areas where solid generation rate is high.Surroundings were tidy, waste containers were well packed and covered. On this basis, it is rational if oneat low density promote the maintenance of a healthy and clean environment. However the managementat the metropolitan and the community levels have not been efficient, as more and more new heaps of solidwaste emerged on the surface of residential areas in addition to the old ones that have refused to disappear. Thenumber of unauthorised dumping site is more than twice the number of authorised dumping sites. This hascaused serious environmental problems to the community which need to be addressed.Bauchi town lies in the crystalline up land of northern Nigeria. The town lies over 2000 ft above sea leveland has an altitude of 795.2m above. The metropolis, which is the headquarters of Bauchi State, is located’ and 9” 30’ North of the Equator and longitudes 10” 25 and 11” 20’ East of theGreenwich Meridian. It occupies a total land area of 3, 604.0 hecteres. It is about 128km North150km West of Gombe town. There are two major types of climate in Bauchi namely the rainy (wet) season andthe dry season. The wet season starts from May to October while the dry season covers the remaining part of theyear. The two different seasons would tend to favour different waste disposal methods.opolis, being the study area, has a total population of 318,038 people as at June 2010, populationcensus NPC, (2006). Furthermore, based on the average household size of 8 persons per household as revealedby the 2006 census there are 39,675 households in the metropolis which formed the target population of thewww.iiste.orgirritation of the skin, nose, and eyes, gastrointestinal problems, psychological disorders, and allergies, have beenf researches have been carried out in response to concerns fromthe public, often triggered by nuisances caused by emissions of volatile organic compounds. For example,according to Dolk (1997), dump sites closer to residential areas are always feeding places for dogs and cats.The UNEPA (2006) state that wastes that are not properly managed, especially excreta and other liquids andity, are a serious health hazard and could lead to the spreading ofdiseases. The report further states that unattended wastes lying around attract flies, rats, and other creatures that,es and releases a bad odor. The bad odor affects the people settlednext to the dumpsite, which clearly shows that the dumpsites have serious effects to people settled around or nextrisks, including, as mentioned above, serving as breedinggrounds for disease vectors. Waste handlers and waste pickers are especially vulnerable and may also becomevectors, contracting and transmitting diseases when human or animal excreta or medical wastes are in the wasteIndiscriminate solid waste disposal resulting to poor environmental sanitation is typical characteristics ofcities of developing countries; the issue has become a common feature of many Nigerian cities. Estimates show50% of solid waste generated in Nigerian cities, are uncollected and disposed of, Falade, (2001). That iswhy Mabogunje, (2001), concluded that “Nigerian cities are reputed to be some of the dirtiest cities in theshould concern environmentalists because it seems to be pointingaccusing fingers at our failures to deliver functionally aesthetic and liveable cities. The lack of adequate wasteh problems resulting in diseases,which aggravates poverty and leads to negative consequences such as loss of income due to illness, increasedspending on health care, and the deprivation of the poor’s capability to live in a safer environment, World Bank,This can be attributed to factors like inaccessibility and distance to collection centres, poor community attitudeto environmental health, availability and nearness to open spaces and open drains, absence or weak legislation onosal among other factors, the activities create adverse impact on the environment.Bogoro, (2010) Reported that waste management in Bauchi metropolis is performed in three stages by differentmanages the waste at the metropolitan levelgovernmental organisations, trade unions in collaboration withBASEPA take care of the waste at community level. The household members mainly women are in charge of theIn all the areas visited in Bauchi metropolis, high residential density areas such as Jahun, Nassarawa and Bakinut cover and overflowing.density residential areas where solid generation rate is high.Surroundings were tidy, waste containers were well packed and covered. On this basis, it is rational if oneat low density promote the maintenance of a healthy and clean environment. However the managementand more new heaps of solidaddition to the old ones that have refused to disappear. Thenumber of unauthorised dumping site is more than twice the number of authorised dumping sites. This hasBauchi town lies in the crystalline up land of northern Nigeria. The town lies over 2000 ft above sea leveland has an altitude of 795.2m above. The metropolis, which is the headquarters of Bauchi State, is located’ and 9” 30’ North of the Equator and longitudes 10” 25 and 11” 20’ East of theGreenwich Meridian. It occupies a total land area of 3, 604.0 hecteres. It is about 128km North-east of Jos andin Bauchi namely the rainy (wet) season andthe dry season. The wet season starts from May to October while the dry season covers the remaining part of thepeople as at June 2010, populationcensus NPC, (2006). Furthermore, based on the average household size of 8 persons per household as revealedthe metropolis which formed the target population of the
  3. 3. Journal of Environment and Earth ScienceISSN 2224-3216 (Paper) ISSN 2225Vol. 3, No.4, 2013In this research sampling is determined in three perspectives, which are; sampling frame, sampling size andsampling technique. The study area was divided into twelve wards (Gunduma) whiFrom each ward a proportionate unit of household was selected for the purpose of administering questionnaireand interview. The sample size of this research was determined based on the target population size. Since thereare 39,675 households in the study area, 4% of 39,675 households were taken as the sample size which is 1587households. For a heterogeneous environment like Bauchi metropolis, where population density, income leveland probably occupation which to a great extensystematic random sampling techniques was adopted for the selection of the samples. These techniques are themost appropriate for a social survey because they are scientific and easy to aRESULTS AND DISCUSSIONProjected from 2006 census, the population of Bauchi metropolis stood at 318 038 in June 2010, using theNational growth rate for urban centres, which is 4.5%. The survey revealed that female dominated with 50.6%(160 972) of the total population. Civil servants in the area constituted up to 55.00%. This confirms the sayingthat Bauchi metropolis is not a commercial or industrial town, but a city of civil servants.Table 1 Occupation of RespondentsHousehold sizeCivil servantsFarmingBusinessSchoolingUnemployedOthersTotalThe type of occupation does not only influence the type and amount of solid wastes generation. Fareas where farmers and students dominated most of their storage containers were quickly filled and overflowwith farm wastes and papers. Since 87.8% are employed, they should be able to afford to buy solid wastesstorage facilities or/and hire labourers to evacuate the solid waste. Civil servants are free on weekends that canbe an opportunity for weekly evacuation of solid wastes from collection centres thereby reducing indiscriminatewaste disposal.Income level plays a vital role in solid waste generation visGL 01- 05 are referred as low income, whose monthly earnings ranges betweenof the respondents are within this category. Only 5.8% fit into the hiN45, 000.00 and above.Journal of Environment and Earth Science3216 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0948 (Online)42In this research sampling is determined in three perspectives, which are; sampling frame, sampling size andsampling technique. The study area was divided into twelve wards (Gunduma) which form the sample frame.From each ward a proportionate unit of household was selected for the purpose of administering questionnaireThe sample size of this research was determined based on the target population size. Since there,675 households in the study area, 4% of 39,675 households were taken as the sample size which is 1587For a heterogeneous environment like Bauchi metropolis, where population density, income leveland probably occupation which to a great extent determined solid generation and characteristics, are quite varied,systematic random sampling techniques was adopted for the selection of the samples. These techniques are themost appropriate for a social survey because they are scientific and easy to apply.Projected from 2006 census, the population of Bauchi metropolis stood at 318 038 in June 2010, using theNational growth rate for urban centres, which is 4.5%. The survey revealed that female dominated with 50.6%f the total population. Civil servants in the area constituted up to 55.00%. This confirms the sayingthat Bauchi metropolis is not a commercial or industrial town, but a city of civil servants.Table 1 Occupation of RespondentsNumber Percentage873 55.00200 12.602871217318.107.604.6033 2.101587 100.00The type of occupation does not only influence the type and amount of solid wastes generation. Fareas where farmers and students dominated most of their storage containers were quickly filled and overflowwith farm wastes and papers. Since 87.8% are employed, they should be able to afford to buy solid wasteshire labourers to evacuate the solid waste. Civil servants are free on weekends that canbe an opportunity for weekly evacuation of solid wastes from collection centres thereby reducing indiscriminateolid waste generation vis-a-vis its evacuation. In Nigeria, civil servants on05 are referred as low income, whose monthly earnings ranges between N5000.00 to 15,000.00, 33.7%of the respondents are within this category. Only 5.8% fit into the high-income group with monthly income ofwww.iiste.orgIn this research sampling is determined in three perspectives, which are; sampling frame, sampling size andch form the sample frame.From each ward a proportionate unit of household was selected for the purpose of administering questionnaireThe sample size of this research was determined based on the target population size. Since there,675 households in the study area, 4% of 39,675 households were taken as the sample size which is 1587For a heterogeneous environment like Bauchi metropolis, where population density, income levelt determined solid generation and characteristics, are quite varied,systematic random sampling techniques was adopted for the selection of the samples. These techniques are theProjected from 2006 census, the population of Bauchi metropolis stood at 318 038 in June 2010, using theNational growth rate for urban centres, which is 4.5%. The survey revealed that female dominated with 50.6%f the total population. Civil servants in the area constituted up to 55.00%. This confirms the sayingThe type of occupation does not only influence the type and amount of solid wastes generation. For instance, inareas where farmers and students dominated most of their storage containers were quickly filled and overflowwith farm wastes and papers. Since 87.8% are employed, they should be able to afford to buy solid wasteshire labourers to evacuate the solid waste. Civil servants are free on weekends that canbe an opportunity for weekly evacuation of solid wastes from collection centres thereby reducing indiscriminatevis its evacuation. In Nigeria, civil servants on5000.00 to 15,000.00, 33.7%income group with monthly income of
  4. 4. Journal of Environment and Earth ScienceISSN 2224-3216 (Paper) ISSN 2225Vol. 3, No.4, 2013Table 2 Level of IncomeThe survey revealed that female dominated with 50.6% (160 972) of the total population. Over 50% of thehousehold heads were found to be employed with the state and local government whose level of payrelatively low.The study found that, out of the 12 wards in Bauchi metropolis, 7 wards are fully enlighten, since up to 40% ofthe respondents have secondary education and above. However despite the high level of education, thehousehold size is still as high as 8 persons per household and the level of income is relatively low. The findingsexhibited a contrary situation where an educationally enlighten society is characterized by low income and highhousehold size. Probably, the situation cdominated in the area.Quantitatively, the amount of solid waste generated in Bauchi metropolis is 0.16 kg lower than the nationalaverage per capita. The average solid waste genekg/capita/day for medium density residential areas and 1.03 kg/capita/day lowgeneral average per capital solid waste generated was 0.86 kg/capita/dayWards High45 100 and aboveOld G R A 49.9New G R A 44.3F/Mada 37.4Yelwa 40.2Dan Iya 41.4Makama 33.6Ibrahim Bako 28.6Nassaraw a 22.1Dan Kade 20.5Dawaki 15.9Dan Amar 14.9Hardo 25.4Average 33.6Journal of Environment and Earth Science3216 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0948 (Online)43The survey revealed that female dominated with 50.6% (160 972) of the total population. Over 50% of thehousehold heads were found to be employed with the state and local government whose level of payThe study found that, out of the 12 wards in Bauchi metropolis, 7 wards are fully enlighten, since up to 40% ofthe respondents have secondary education and above. However despite the high level of education, theis still as high as 8 persons per household and the level of income is relatively low. The findingsexhibited a contrary situation where an educationally enlighten society is characterized by low income and highhousehold size. Probably, the situation could be attributed to the type of occupation (mostly civil servants) thatQuantitatively, the amount of solid waste generated in Bauchi metropolis is 0.16 kg lower than the nationalaverage per capita. The average solid waste generated in high density residential areas at 0.79 kg/capita/day; 0.89kg/capita/day for medium density residential areas and 1.03 kg/capita/day low-density residential areas. Thegeneral average per capital solid waste generated was 0.86 kg/capita/dayMedium Low No Income45 100 and above 15 100 - 45000Below 15 00030.3 7.431.2 10.426.5 11.430.3 10.030.4 6.426.8 8.316.7 4.112.4 4.24.6 2.43.9 1.89.4 1.212.5 1.519.4 5.8www.iiste.orgThe survey revealed that female dominated with 50.6% (160 972) of the total population. Over 50% of thehousehold heads were found to be employed with the state and local government whose level of payment isThe study found that, out of the 12 wards in Bauchi metropolis, 7 wards are fully enlighten, since up to 40% ofthe respondents have secondary education and above. However despite the high level of education, theis still as high as 8 persons per household and the level of income is relatively low. The findingsexhibited a contrary situation where an educationally enlighten society is characterized by low income and highould be attributed to the type of occupation (mostly civil servants) thatQuantitatively, the amount of solid waste generated in Bauchi metropolis is 0.16 kg lower than the nationalrated in high density residential areas at 0.79 kg/capita/day; 0.89density residential areas. TheNo Income12.814.124.319.521.831.350.963.372.578.474.560.641.2
  5. 5. Journal of Environment and Earth ScienceISSN 2224-3216 (Paper) ISSN 2225Vol. 3, No.4, 2013Table 3 Per Capita Solid Waste Generation In kilogramme (Kg)In general the higher a country’s level of industrialization the higher its income level and the larger its proportionof toxic, non-organic and nonbiodegradable. Garbarespectively. Trash is the least with only 11% as indicated in the figure belowFigure 1 Characteristics of Solid Waste Generated in Bauchi MetropolisBauchi metropolis generates 286 metric tonnes ofper/capita/day, That means those responsible for waste management have a total quantity of 104 476 tonnes ofhousehold solid waste to manage every year. Garbage and ash constitute up to 66% of the wastmetropolis. Income of the household has been found to have the most significant effect on the quantity andcomposition of the waste generated. High income earners generate more of non25%GarbageWard Density GarbageOld G R A Low 1.12New G R A Low 1.28F/Mada Low 1.02Yelwa Medium 0. 86Dan Iya Medium 0.76Makama Medium 0.62I/ Bako Medium 0.80Nassarawa High 0.37Dan Kade High 0.52Dawaki High 0.41Dan Amar High 0.52Hardo High 0.61Total (kg) 8.75Journal of Environment and Earth Science3216 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0948 (Online)44able 3 Per Capita Solid Waste Generation In kilogramme (Kg)In general the higher a country’s level of industrialization the higher its income level and the larger its proportionorganic and nonbiodegradable. Garbage and ash has the highest percentage of 31% and 25%respectively. Trash is the least with only 11% as indicated in the figure belowFigure 1 Characteristics of Solid Waste Generated in Bauchi MetropolisBauchi metropolis generates 286 metric tonnes of household solid waste daily with an average of 0.86kgper/capita/day, That means those responsible for waste management have a total quantity of 104 476 tonnes ofhousehold solid waste to manage every year. Garbage and ash constitute up to 66% of the wastmetropolis. Income of the household has been found to have the most significant effect on the quantity andcomposition of the waste generated. High income earners generate more of non- biodegradable solid waste than31%18%11%15%Rubbish Trash Ash PolytheneGarbage Rubbish Trash Ash Polythene Total(kg)1.12 0.99 1.00 0.45 1.57 5.131.28 0.90 1.10 0.30 1.44 5.021.02 1.11 0.80 0.65 1.31 4.890. 86 0.91 1.03 0.77 0.99 4.560.76 0.83 0.91 0.64 0.87 4.010.62 0.58 0.75 1.08 1.00 4.030.80 0.92 0.78 0.87 1.04 4.410.37 0.75 0.50 1.34 0.54 3.500.52 0.67 0.71 1.54 0.80 4.240.41 0.82 0.49 1.66 0.61 3.990.52 0.54 0.62 1.47 0.48 3.490.61 0.47 0.51 1.21 0.69 3.498.75 9.49 9.20 12.0 11.31 50.74www.iiste.orgIn general the higher a country’s level of industrialization the higher its income level and the larger its proportionge and ash has the highest percentage of 31% and 25%household solid waste daily with an average of 0.86kgper/capita/day, That means those responsible for waste management have a total quantity of 104 476 tonnes ofhousehold solid waste to manage every year. Garbage and ash constitute up to 66% of the waste stream in themetropolis. Income of the household has been found to have the most significant effect on the quantity andbiodegradable solid waste thanPolytheneTotal(kg)Average(kg)5.13 1.035.02 1.004.89 0.984.56 0.914.01 0.804.03 0.814.41 0.883.50 0.704.24 0.853.99 0.803.49 0.703.49 0.7050.74
  6. 6. Journal of Environment and Earth ScienceISSN 2224-3216 (Paper) ISSN 2225Vol. 3, No.4, 2013the low income.The research found that low income wards ( Nassarawa, Dan Kade, Dawaki, Dan Amar And Hardo Wards)dispose of 68.22% of their solid waste through the open dump, while 51.35% in the medium income ( Yelwa,Dan Iya, Makama and Ibrahim Bako Wards ) do the same. In theFadaman Mada Wards) more than 70% use collection centres provided by BASEPA to dispose their waste only7.25% dispose of their waste in the pit in their backyard.Figure 2 Methods of Solid Waste DisposalOpen dump, which is the major waste disposal method in bauchi metropolis can no longer be feasible becauseof insufficient land and health and environmental unfriendliness. Incineration was adopted, still because of theindestructibility of matter incineratiocontinues to exist in the fly ash and gases; therefore incineration is only a waste reduction process not a wastedisposal process. Incineration use to be expensive 1980’s the cosaround. As the waste absorbing capacity of the open urban land is exhausted it becomes necessary to find a newand permanent solution. One of the most effective ways to achieve the goals of recycling is throughreduction or pre-recycling. This can be done by waste minimisation through segregation at sources.The rate at which solid waste is indiscriminately disposed of in Bauchi is a serious issue to attract the attention ofthe urban managers. This has given rise to a total number of up to 205 illegal dump sites scattered within themetropolis against 89 dump site provided by the agency responsible for solid waste mangemewnt in themetropolis. Yelwa and Fadaman Mada wards have the highest number of illegalillegal dump sites respectively. The GRAs have the least number of the illegal dump sites as in the figure below01020304050607080Low income Medium incomeJournal of Environment and Earth Science3216 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0948 (Online)45arch found that low income wards ( Nassarawa, Dan Kade, Dawaki, Dan Amar And Hardo Wards)dispose of 68.22% of their solid waste through the open dump, while 51.35% in the medium income ( Yelwa,Dan Iya, Makama and Ibrahim Bako Wards ) do the same. In the high income areas, (Old GRA, New GRA andFadaman Mada Wards) more than 70% use collection centres provided by BASEPA to dispose their waste only7.25% dispose of their waste in the pit in their backyard.Figure 2 Methods of Solid Waste Disposaln dump, which is the major waste disposal method in bauchi metropolis can no longer be feasible becauseof insufficient land and health and environmental unfriendliness. Incineration was adopted, still because of theindestructibility of matter incineration does not eliminate waste; it just changes its form and volume. The residuecontinues to exist in the fly ash and gases; therefore incineration is only a waste reduction process not a wastedisposal process. Incineration use to be expensive 1980’s the cost of incinerating a tone of solid waste wasaround. As the waste absorbing capacity of the open urban land is exhausted it becomes necessary to find a newand permanent solution. One of the most effective ways to achieve the goals of recycling is throughrecycling. This can be done by waste minimisation through segregation at sources.The rate at which solid waste is indiscriminately disposed of in Bauchi is a serious issue to attract the attention ofven rise to a total number of up to 205 illegal dump sites scattered within themetropolis against 89 dump site provided by the agency responsible for solid waste mangemewnt in themetropolis. Yelwa and Fadaman Mada wards have the highest number of illegal dump sites with up 36 and 34illegal dump sites respectively. The GRAs have the least number of the illegal dump sites as in the figure belowMedium income High incomeOpen dumpBASEPAPit in the backyardwww.iiste.orgarch found that low income wards ( Nassarawa, Dan Kade, Dawaki, Dan Amar And Hardo Wards)dispose of 68.22% of their solid waste through the open dump, while 51.35% in the medium income ( Yelwa,high income areas, (Old GRA, New GRA andFadaman Mada Wards) more than 70% use collection centres provided by BASEPA to dispose their waste onlyn dump, which is the major waste disposal method in bauchi metropolis can no longer be feasible becauseof insufficient land and health and environmental unfriendliness. Incineration was adopted, still because of then does not eliminate waste; it just changes its form and volume. The residuecontinues to exist in the fly ash and gases; therefore incineration is only a waste reduction process not a wastet of incinerating a tone of solid waste wasaround. As the waste absorbing capacity of the open urban land is exhausted it becomes necessary to find a newand permanent solution. One of the most effective ways to achieve the goals of recycling is through sourcerecycling. This can be done by waste minimisation through segregation at sources.The rate at which solid waste is indiscriminately disposed of in Bauchi is a serious issue to attract the attention ofven rise to a total number of up to 205 illegal dump sites scattered within themetropolis against 89 dump site provided by the agency responsible for solid waste mangemewnt in thedump sites with up 36 and 34illegal dump sites respectively. The GRAs have the least number of the illegal dump sites as in the figure belowOpen dumpBASEPAPit in the backyard
  7. 7. Journal of Environment and Earth ScienceISSN 2224-3216 (Paper) ISSN 2225Vol. 3, No.4, 2013Figure 3 Authorised and Illegal Collection CentresThe high number of the unauthorised collection centres in tlack of storage facilities, inadequate and inaccessible collection centres, family attitudes to solid waste handling,available unrestricted open spaces, economic factors, weak or lack of appropriate envother factors.Bauchi State Environmental Protection Agency was established by Edict No. 3 of 1997 and came into force on10thJune 1997 to replace and take over the activities of the defunct task force on Environmental Sanitationwhich was abrogated in 1996. It was established to; implement environmental policies towards protection,sustenance and development of the environment generally, identify, detect and involve any environmentalproblem such as pollution of all kinds, reprenegotiations for governmental arrangement relating to environment, arrange and courban and regional process in the state and or liaise with private or public instienvironmental activities and direct and control the collection and disposal of refused in the whole state.The agency has been incapacitated by poor funding to carry out its responsibilities. The problems of inadequatemachinery and manpower are also experience by the agency.0510152025303540Journal of Environment and Earth Science3216 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0948 (Online)46Figure 3 Authorised and Illegal Collection CentresThe high number of the unauthorised collection centres in the metropolis could be due to so many reasons like;lack of storage facilities, inadequate and inaccessible collection centres, family attitudes to solid waste handling,available unrestricted open spaces, economic factors, weak or lack of appropriate environmental policies andBauchi State Environmental Protection Agency was established by Edict No. 3 of 1997 and came into force onJune 1997 to replace and take over the activities of the defunct task force on Environmental SanitationIt was established to; implement environmental policies towards protection,sustenance and development of the environment generally, identify, detect and involve any environmentalproblem such as pollution of all kinds, represent the state in any matters pertaining to plans, procedures, ornegotiations for governmental arrangement relating to environment, arrange and co-ordinate planning for theurban and regional process in the state and or liaise with private or public institutions that engage inenvironmental activities and direct and control the collection and disposal of refused in the whole state.The agency has been incapacitated by poor funding to carry out its responsibilities. The problems of inadequatemanpower are also experience by the agency.Authorised Illegalwww.iiste.orghe metropolis could be due to so many reasons like;lack of storage facilities, inadequate and inaccessible collection centres, family attitudes to solid waste handling,ironmental policies andBauchi State Environmental Protection Agency was established by Edict No. 3 of 1997 and came into force onJune 1997 to replace and take over the activities of the defunct task force on Environmental SanitationIt was established to; implement environmental policies towards protection,sustenance and development of the environment generally, identify, detect and involve any environmentalsent the state in any matters pertaining to plans, procedures, orordinate planning for thetutions that engage inenvironmental activities and direct and control the collection and disposal of refused in the whole state.The agency has been incapacitated by poor funding to carry out its responsibilities. The problems of inadequate
  8. 8. Journal of Environment and Earth ScienceISSN 2224-3216 (Paper) ISSN 2225Vol. 3, No.4, 2013Table 4 Showing Equipment and Machines in the AgencyTable 5 Manpower in BASEPAPerformance of BASEPA• Population of Bauchi metropolitan area• Quantity of household Waste generated daily• Daily collection: 35 trips of tip35 x 5 274.10 = 184 593.39kg (62.41%)• Uncollected waste: 111 181.95kg (37.59%) of the household solid waste• Yearly accumulationremains uncollectedBudgetary grants from Bauchi State Government are the major source of fund for BASEPA and thegrant is inadequate and normally delayed. The National• Ecological fund occasionally assist the agency with equipment such as the Rorousing. No other assistance, gift, loan from any source nor had the agency raised money fromEquipment No. RequireBulldozerTipper trucksDino trucksTractorsPay loadersTankersRefusecontainersShovelsBroomsHoesProfessionalTown PlannersEnvironmentalHealth OfficersOthersTotalJournal of Environment and Earth Science3216 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0948 (Online)47Table 4 Showing Equipment and Machines in the AgencyPopulation of Bauchi metropolitan area – 318 038Quantity of household Waste generated daily -286 234.34kg (286metric tonnes)Daily collection: 35 trips of tipper trucks with capacity of 5 274.10kg (5 metric tonnes)35 x 5 274.10 = 184 593.39kg (62.41%)Uncollected waste: 111 181.95kg (37.59%) of the household solid wasteYearly accumulation – 405 81412.0kg (40 581 metric tonnes) of the household wasBudgetary grants from Bauchi State Government are the major source of fund for BASEPA and thegrant is inadequate and normally delayed. The NationalEcological fund occasionally assist the agency with equipment such as the Rorousing. No other assistance, gift, loan from any source nor had the agency raised money fromNo. Require No. AvailableConditionOn road2 0 -10 5 45 2 210 6 410 2 15 3 1300 80 801000 600 -1000 600 -500 300 -No. Required No. Available5 3200 112200 1291000 5651405 809www.iiste.org286 234.34kg (286metric tonnes)per trucks with capacity of 5 274.10kg (5 metric tonnes)Uncollected waste: 111 181.95kg (37.59%) of the household solid waste405 81412.0kg (40 581 metric tonnes) of the household wasteBudgetary grants from Bauchi State Government are the major source of fund for BASEPA and theEcological fund occasionally assist the agency with equipment such as the Roro bins the agency isusing. No other assistance, gift, loan from any source nor had the agency raised money fromConditionOff-road-1-212----
  9. 9. Journal of Environment and Earth ScienceISSN 2224-3216 (Paper) ISSN 2225Vol. 3, No.4, 2013subscription or tax. This compelled the agency to operate under difficult financial constraints. It isrights to assume that this is the majorCauses-:The survey conducted revealed that over 50.0% of the household sampled carried the filled storage facilities tocollection centres themselves and 22container for temporary storage of the solid waste generated in the house, but about 10% do not have containersfor temporary storage of waste generated in their households.Distances to collection centres can cause indiscriminate waste disposal.the method of collection system used in Bauchi metropolis. Distance of collection centres to the households isvital in encouraging the effective usage of the collectito 500 metres to the nearest collection centre and 31.9% had to go as far as over 0.5km to dump their refuseTable 6 Distance to collection centres.Distance (metres)Less than 100101-500501and aboveTotalCollection centres are found to be inadequate and therefore far away. In addition to long distance, the collectioncentres are not fairly distributed. Collection centres as co0%10%20%30%40%50%60%70%80%90%100%Journal of Environment and Earth Science3216 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0948 (Online)48subscription or tax. This compelled the agency to operate under difficult financial constraints. It isrights to assume that this is the major factor that impedes the efficiency of the agency.The survey conducted revealed that over 50.0% of the household sampled carried the filled storage facilities tocollection centres themselves and 22 -30% used hired labourers. Every household iscontainer for temporary storage of the solid waste generated in the house, but about 10% do not have containersfor temporary storage of waste generated in their households.Figure 4 Waste Storage Containerscentres can cause indiscriminate waste disposal. Community collection centre system isthe method of collection system used in Bauchi metropolis. Distance of collection centres to the households isvital in encouraging the effective usage of the collection centres. 38.70% traveled with their refuse between 100to 500 metres to the nearest collection centre and 31.9% had to go as far as over 0.5km to dump their refuseTable 6 Distance to collection centres.Number Percentage467 29.40614 38.70506 31.901587 100.00Collection centres are found to be inadequate and therefore far away. In addition to long distance, the collectioncentres are not fairly distributed. Collection centres as community facilities, they should be in close andAvailable Not availablewww.iiste.orgsubscription or tax. This compelled the agency to operate under difficult financial constraints. It isfactor that impedes the efficiency of the agency.The survey conducted revealed that over 50.0% of the household sampled carried the filled storage facilities to30% used hired labourers. Every household is supposed to have acontainer for temporary storage of the solid waste generated in the house, but about 10% do not have containersCommunity collection centre system isthe method of collection system used in Bauchi metropolis. Distance of collection centres to the households ison centres. 38.70% traveled with their refuse between 100to 500 metres to the nearest collection centre and 31.9% had to go as far as over 0.5km to dump their refuseCollection centres are found to be inadequate and therefore far away. In addition to long distance, the collectionmmunity facilities, they should be in close and
  10. 10. Journal of Environment and Earth ScienceISSN 2224-3216 (Paper) ISSN 2225Vol. 3, No.4, 2013accessible locations. Long distance and inaccessibility may lead to emergence of illegal dump site or conversionof drainage channels, road sides and uncompleted buildings to dump site.The attitudes of some families towards handling of solid waste contribute to emergence of illegal dump site.of the respondents that have storage facilities about 40.0% kept their full containers for over three days theremaining 60.10% emptied their containers into the coTable 7 Duration of Keeping Full Storage ContainersDuration (days)1-23-45-67 and aboveTotalIt is an unhealthy habit to keep full open containers for over two days. Filled containers when not disposal ofimmediately may overflow to the ground thereby littering the environment and subsequently make collectionvery difficult.The survey conducted revealed that over 50.0%storage facilities to collection centre themselves and 22evacuate waste from individual housesTable 8 Conveying Refuse Containers to CollConveying bychildrenGovernment agencyHired labourOtherTotalAs at the time this research was conducted, there were a number of undeveloped plots thThese open spaces, though awaiting development, were illegally converted to dump sites. Apart from the GRAs,all the wards outside the walled-city are characterised by this practice. Within the walledthe drainage is covered with slabs, the remaining 61.57% is left open. The neary residents convert the opn drainsto dump sites which block the drains thereby causing flood during rainy season. The level of poverty in themetropolis is so high that it has affected thEvery household is supposed to have a container for temporary storage of the solid waste generated in the house.But from the survey it was discovered that 31.50% (75) of the respondents sampled did not have solid wastestorage facilities. 21.30% claimed they do not have the money to buy storage facilityJournal of Environment and Earth Science3216 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0948 (Online)49accessible locations. Long distance and inaccessibility may lead to emergence of illegal dump site or conversionof drainage channels, road sides and uncompleted buildings to dump site.families towards handling of solid waste contribute to emergence of illegal dump site.of the respondents that have storage facilities about 40.0% kept their full containers for over three days theremaining 60.10% emptied their containers into the collection centres immediately they are full.Table 7 Duration of Keeping Full Storage ContainersNumber Percentage954 60.10410 25.80155 9.8068 4.301587 100.00to keep full open containers for over two days. Filled containers when not disposal ofimmediately may overflow to the ground thereby littering the environment and subsequently make collectionThe survey conducted revealed that over 50.0% of the household sampled use their children to carry the filledstorage facilities to collection centre themselves and 22 -30% used hired labourers. The government does notevacuate waste from individual housesTable 8 Conveying Refuse Containers to Collection Centres.Number Percentage1093 68.900 0.0354 22.30140 8.801587 100.00As at the time this research was conducted, there were a number of undeveloped plots thThese open spaces, though awaiting development, were illegally converted to dump sites. Apart from the GRAs,city are characterised by this practice. Within the wallede is covered with slabs, the remaining 61.57% is left open. The neary residents convert the opn drainsto dump sites which block the drains thereby causing flood during rainy season. The level of poverty in themetropolis is so high that it has affected the management of waste in the area.Every household is supposed to have a container for temporary storage of the solid waste generated in the house.But from the survey it was discovered that 31.50% (75) of the respondents sampled did not have solid wastestorage facilities. 21.30% claimed they do not have the money to buy storage facilitywww.iiste.orgaccessible locations. Long distance and inaccessibility may lead to emergence of illegal dump site or conversionfamilies towards handling of solid waste contribute to emergence of illegal dump site. Outof the respondents that have storage facilities about 40.0% kept their full containers for over three days thellection centres immediately they are full.Percentage60.1025.80100.00to keep full open containers for over two days. Filled containers when not disposal ofimmediately may overflow to the ground thereby littering the environment and subsequently make collectionof the household sampled use their children to carry the filled30% used hired labourers. The government does notPercentage100.00As at the time this research was conducted, there were a number of undeveloped plots that were without fence.These open spaces, though awaiting development, were illegally converted to dump sites. Apart from the GRAs,city are characterised by this practice. Within the walled-city, only 38.43% ofe is covered with slabs, the remaining 61.57% is left open. The neary residents convert the opn drainsto dump sites which block the drains thereby causing flood during rainy season. The level of poverty in theEvery household is supposed to have a container for temporary storage of the solid waste generated in the house.But from the survey it was discovered that 31.50% (75) of the respondents sampled did not have solid waste
  11. 11. Journal of Environment and Earth ScienceISSN 2224-3216 (Paper) ISSN 2225Vol. 3, No.4, 2013Figure 5 Reasons for lack of storage facilitiesThe need for individual on-site solid waste storage facilities in every household cannot be over emphasized. Thehigh number of households without solid waste storage facilities because of poverty is a serious problem, as itleads to indiscriminate disposal of waste.On the cost of carrying the filled containers to collection centres, 26.40% of the sampled respondenstorage containers were carried by hired labourers did not complain about the amount charge by the labourersbecause they did not pay more thancollected solid waste have cause to complain.Figure 6 Cost of Carrying Filled Containers to Collection Centres0510152025303540Less than N100.00Journal of Environment and Earth Science3216 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0948 (Online)50Figure 5 Reasons for lack of storage facilitiessite solid waste storage facilities in every household cannot be over emphasized. Thehigh number of households without solid waste storage facilities because of poverty is a serious problem, as itleads to indiscriminate disposal of waste.On the cost of carrying the filled containers to collection centres, 26.40% of the sampled respondenstorage containers were carried by hired labourers did not complain about the amount charge by the labourersbecause they did not pay more than N100.00 weekly, while 33.90% pay N151 .00 and above for evacuating theirse to complain.Figure 6 Cost of Carrying Filled Containers to Collection CentresClose to collection centresImmediate burningNot provided by governmentNo money to buyDumped outsideLess than N100.00 N101.00- N150.00 N151.00 and abovewww.iiste.orgsite solid waste storage facilities in every household cannot be over emphasized. Thehigh number of households without solid waste storage facilities because of poverty is a serious problem, as itOn the cost of carrying the filled containers to collection centres, 26.40% of the sampled respondents whosestorage containers were carried by hired labourers did not complain about the amount charge by the labourers100.00 weekly, while 33.90% pay N151 .00 and above for evacuating theirClose to collection centresImmediate burningNot provided by governmentNo money to buyDumped outside
  12. 12. Journal of Environment and Earth ScienceISSN 2224-3216 (Paper) ISSN 2225Vol. 3, No.4, 2013The impact of indiscriminate disposal of solid waste in the environment is enamours. Indiscriminate disposal ofsolid waste adversely affect the socioCreate greenhouse gas emissions and other air pollutants.or landfills, they undergo anaerobic degradation and become significant sources of methane, a gas with 21 timesthe effect of carbon dioxide in trapping heat in the atmosphere.Garbage is often burned in residential areas and in landfills to reduce volume and uncover metals. Burningcreates thick smoke that contains carbon monoxide, soot and nitrogen oxides, all of which are hazarhuman health and degrade urban air quality. Combustion of polyvinyl chlorides (PVCs) generates highlycarcinogenic dioxins.Damage ecosystems. When solid waste is dumped into rivers or streams it can alter aquatic habitats and harmnative plants and animals. The high nutrient content in organic wastes can deplete dissolved oxygen in waterbodies, denying oxygen to fish and other aquatic life form. Solids can cause sedimentation and change streamflow and bottom habitat. Siting dumps or landfills ithese valuable natural resources and the services they provide.Injure people and property. In locations where shantytowns or slums exist near open dumps or near badlydesigned or operated landfills, landslides or fires can destroy homes and injure or kill residents. Theaccumulation of waste along streets may present physical hazards, clog drains and cause localized flooding.In Bauchi metropolis, during rainy seasons year after year, there haveflooding along Kobi street, Wunti market roundabout, Dass road, etc, this occur due to the blockage of thedrainage channels owing to indiscriminate dumping of solid waste in to the drainage channels as shown belowPlate I Indiscriminate Disposal of Solid Waste at Yelwa MakarantaContaminate ground and surface waterJournal of Environment and Earth Science3216 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0948 (Online)51The impact of indiscriminate disposal of solid waste in the environment is enamours. Indiscriminate disposal ofsolid waste adversely affect the socio-economic and the physical environment.Create greenhouse gas emissions and other air pollutants. When organic wastes are disposed of in deep dumpsor landfills, they undergo anaerobic degradation and become significant sources of methane, a gas with 21 timesrbon dioxide in trapping heat in the atmosphere.Garbage is often burned in residential areas and in landfills to reduce volume and uncover metals. Burningcreates thick smoke that contains carbon monoxide, soot and nitrogen oxides, all of which are hazarhuman health and degrade urban air quality. Combustion of polyvinyl chlorides (PVCs) generates highlyWhen solid waste is dumped into rivers or streams it can alter aquatic habitats and harmand animals. The high nutrient content in organic wastes can deplete dissolved oxygen in waterbodies, denying oxygen to fish and other aquatic life form. Solids can cause sedimentation and change streamflow and bottom habitat. Siting dumps or landfills in sensitive ecosystems may destroy or significantly damagethese valuable natural resources and the services they provide.. In locations where shantytowns or slums exist near open dumps or near badlyls, landslides or fires can destroy homes and injure or kill residents. Theaccumulation of waste along streets may present physical hazards, clog drains and cause localized flooding.In Bauchi metropolis, during rainy seasons year after year, there have been constant reported cases of roadflooding along Kobi street, Wunti market roundabout, Dass road, etc, this occur due to the blockage of thedrainage channels owing to indiscriminate dumping of solid waste in to the drainage channels as shown belowate I Indiscriminate Disposal of Solid Waste at Yelwa MakarantaContaminate ground and surface water. Municipal solid waste streams can bleed toxic materials and pathogenicwww.iiste.orgThe impact of indiscriminate disposal of solid waste in the environment is enamours. Indiscriminate disposal ofWhen organic wastes are disposed of in deep dumpsor landfills, they undergo anaerobic degradation and become significant sources of methane, a gas with 21 timesGarbage is often burned in residential areas and in landfills to reduce volume and uncover metals. Burningcreates thick smoke that contains carbon monoxide, soot and nitrogen oxides, all of which are hazardous tohuman health and degrade urban air quality. Combustion of polyvinyl chlorides (PVCs) generates highlyWhen solid waste is dumped into rivers or streams it can alter aquatic habitats and harmand animals. The high nutrient content in organic wastes can deplete dissolved oxygen in waterbodies, denying oxygen to fish and other aquatic life form. Solids can cause sedimentation and change streamn sensitive ecosystems may destroy or significantly damage. In locations where shantytowns or slums exist near open dumps or near badlyls, landslides or fires can destroy homes and injure or kill residents. Theaccumulation of waste along streets may present physical hazards, clog drains and cause localized flooding.been constant reported cases of roadflooding along Kobi street, Wunti market roundabout, Dass road, etc, this occur due to the blockage of thedrainage channels owing to indiscriminate dumping of solid waste in to the drainage channels as shown belowMunicipal solid waste streams can bleed toxic materials and pathogenic
  13. 13. Journal of Environment and Earth ScienceISSN 2224-3216 (Paper) ISSN 2225Vol. 3, No.4, 2013organisms into the leachate of dump sites and landfills. (Leachate is the liquid dit is composed of rotted organic waste, liquid wastes, infiltrated rainwater and extracts of soluble material.) If thelandfill is unlined, this runoff can contaminate shallow wells, ground or surface water, depending on thfrom the dump site, drainage system and the composition of the underlying soils.outbreak of cholera was reported in Mallam Goje (Dawaki ward). Investigation revealed that it was as a resultdrinking well water that was polluted by the heap of refuse close to the wellDiscourages tourism and other business.solid waste along streets and in fields, forestsestablishment and/or maintenance of businesses. On the southern end of Wunti market in Bauchi metropolis,there stands a mountain of solid waste that always shortly reshops near the refuse dump because of poor patronage by customers who repelled by the bad odor emanatingfrom the dump and the dump when fully grown always block the road in southern part of the marketConclusionNow that many collection centres are overflowing, and unauthorised dumping sites have emerged, an immediatejoint action should be adopted to evacuate the wastes accumulated in order to restore environmental sanity in themetropolis. This can be achieved by establishing a sof the communities and private organisation. For immediate evacuation, BASEPA should contract theevacuation of outside walled-city to private contractors to be completed within one month, meanwJournal of Environment and Earth Science3216 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0948 (Online)52organisms into the leachate of dump sites and landfills. (Leachate is the liquid discharge of dumps and landfills;it is composed of rotted organic waste, liquid wastes, infiltrated rainwater and extracts of soluble material.) If thelandfill is unlined, this runoff can contaminate shallow wells, ground or surface water, depending on thfrom the dump site, drainage system and the composition of the underlying soils. For example, In 2007 anoutbreak of cholera was reported in Mallam Goje (Dawaki ward). Investigation revealed that it was as a resultolluted by the heap of refuse close to the wellPlate II Heap of Solid Waste t Mallam GojeDiscourages tourism and other business. The unpleasant odor and unattractive appearance of piles of uncollectedsolid waste along streets and in fields, forests and other natural areas can discourage tourism and theestablishment and/or maintenance of businesses. On the southern end of Wunti market in Bauchi metropolis,there stands a mountain of solid waste that always shortly re-appear after it has being cleareshops near the refuse dump because of poor patronage by customers who repelled by the bad odor emanatingfrom the dump and the dump when fully grown always block the road in southern part of the marketction centres are overflowing, and unauthorised dumping sites have emerged, an immediatejoint action should be adopted to evacuate the wastes accumulated in order to restore environmental sanity in themetropolis. This can be achieved by establishing a strong team comprising of staff of the agency, representativeof the communities and private organisation. For immediate evacuation, BASEPA should contract thecity to private contractors to be completed within one month, meanwwww.iiste.orgischarge of dumps and landfills;it is composed of rotted organic waste, liquid wastes, infiltrated rainwater and extracts of soluble material.) If thelandfill is unlined, this runoff can contaminate shallow wells, ground or surface water, depending on the distanceFor example, In 2007 anoutbreak of cholera was reported in Mallam Goje (Dawaki ward). Investigation revealed that it was as a resultThe unpleasant odor and unattractive appearance of piles of uncollectedand other natural areas can discourage tourism and theestablishment and/or maintenance of businesses. On the southern end of Wunti market in Bauchi metropolis,appear after it has being cleared. Traders desertedshops near the refuse dump because of poor patronage by customers who repelled by the bad odor emanatingfrom the dump and the dump when fully grown always block the road in southern part of the marketction centres are overflowing, and unauthorised dumping sites have emerged, an immediatejoint action should be adopted to evacuate the wastes accumulated in order to restore environmental sanity in thetrong team comprising of staff of the agency, representativeof the communities and private organisation. For immediate evacuation, BASEPA should contract thecity to private contractors to be completed within one month, meanwhile the
  14. 14. Journal of Environment and Earth ScienceISSN 2224-3216 (Paper) ISSN 2225Vol. 3, No.4, 2013agency would mobilised all its resources (equipment/vehicles and staff) and concentrate on the walled city. Thecommunity should assist the agency with labour force, which will clear filled drainage’s load refuses into thetrucks, and provide fuel. A one-month sanitation exercise should be declared in the metropolis to be observedduring work free days. ‘Stop’ notices should be placed on all unauthorised dumping sites sand a monitoringteam comprising staff of the agency and representative of tdisposal of waste.- Bauchi local government should source fund from National Ecological Fund to procure refuse handlingequipment in order to resume its statutory function of solid waste collection. The loshould limit its service within the walled city the agency covers the outside walled city. However theagency would constantly offer technical assistant and professional advice to the local government whenthe need arise.- A high level of awareness and education on sanitation, environmental health matters and benefits ofsegregation at household level should be created to the entire public so that they can appreciate need fora clean living environment and actively participate in the segregatCorporation, Bauchi Television Authority and the FM Station should transmit programmes organised bythe agency on environmental health, highlighting on the roles of individual and at community level.Posters and handbills shoul- In the low-residential density areas such as GRA and Kari Housing Estate, housesystem is more difficult to solve, because the large size of plot means that collection centres wouldinvolve too long a walking distance for people to use them and greater distance that each refuse vehiclewill have to travel increase the collection cost. To help keep these cost as low as possible eachhousehold each household be encourage to provide a bin ofcan be easily lifted and emptied by the refuse collectors the bin should be kept outside by the roadsidewhere the collection crew will put it back after emptying the waste into collection vehicle. The goodroad network in the areas is an opportunity for accessibility to each house. Service charges should beintroduced to these areas to generate income for the agency and alleviate the financial constraints.- In order to achieve a full collection system it is suggon convenient with road access some 250 to 300 metres apart. This allows a maximum walkingdistance of any tip of some 125 metres, and it is estimated that these would mean about 220 such sitesbeing set aside in addition to the existing 25 located the residential areas. (See figures 5.1 proposedcollection centres). These 245 collection centres should distribute in the high and medium residentialdensities where communal collection centres would be pcentres) can serve 50 households, which would generate 11.5mevacuation should arrive with an empty bin, and deposit it besides the full in, the full bin can then betoyed to be disposal site.To achieve the weekly evacuation schedule, 35 collection centres must evacuated daily, 7 tractorswould be required to make 5 trips daily.- Each of the 12 wards sin the metropolis should form a visitation team comprising of communityrepresentative, staff of the two authorities and security member. The activities of the team shouldinvolve house-to-house health and sanitary inspection to ensure the provision of storage facilities ineach household and promptly discharge into the dumpingare due for evacuation, the team shall enjoy the legal power of the environmental and sanitation law tofine defaulters.- The agency to conjunction with the local government council should occasionally organiand seminars environmental sanitation for community heads, community bases organisations to fullyintegrated then in refuse evacuation activities. A yearly award for the cleanest ward should also beorganise to entice the community and encouracleanliness.There should be an ecological legislation on Solid Waste Management to be enacted largely in response to thegrowing and emerging heaps of solid waste on the urban land and .scarcity of disposatraditional city. The law should emphasize on solid waste avoidance and volume reduction through sourcereduction and waste minimization measures, with the protection of public health and the environment as theprimary goal.Journal of Environment and Earth Science3216 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0948 (Online)53agency would mobilised all its resources (equipment/vehicles and staff) and concentrate on the walled city. Thecommunity should assist the agency with labour force, which will clear filled drainage’s load refuses into themonth sanitation exercise should be declared in the metropolis to be observedduring work free days. ‘Stop’ notices should be placed on all unauthorised dumping sites sand a monitoringteam comprising staff of the agency and representative of the communities should supervise the collection andBauchi local government should source fund from National Ecological Fund to procure refuse handlingequipment in order to resume its statutory function of solid waste collection. The loshould limit its service within the walled city the agency covers the outside walled city. However theagency would constantly offer technical assistant and professional advice to the local government whenareness and education on sanitation, environmental health matters and benefits ofsegregation at household level should be created to the entire public so that they can appreciate need fora clean living environment and actively participate in the segregation exercise. Bauchi RadioCorporation, Bauchi Television Authority and the FM Station should transmit programmes organised bythe agency on environmental health, highlighting on the roles of individual and at community level.Posters and handbills should also be printed to created more awareness.residential density areas such as GRA and Kari Housing Estate, housesystem is more difficult to solve, because the large size of plot means that collection centres woulde too long a walking distance for people to use them and greater distance that each refuse vehiclewill have to travel increase the collection cost. To help keep these cost as low as possible eachhousehold each household be encourage to provide a bin of regulation size and weight with a lid thatcan be easily lifted and emptied by the refuse collectors the bin should be kept outside by the roadsidewhere the collection crew will put it back after emptying the waste into collection vehicle. The goodnetwork in the areas is an opportunity for accessibility to each house. Service charges should beintroduced to these areas to generate income for the agency and alleviate the financial constraints.In order to achieve a full collection system it is suggested that more collection centres to be establishedon convenient with road access some 250 to 300 metres apart. This allows a maximum walkingdistance of any tip of some 125 metres, and it is estimated that these would mean about 220 such siteset aside in addition to the existing 25 located the residential areas. (See figures 5.1 proposedcollection centres). These 245 collection centres should distribute in the high and medium residentialdensities where communal collection centres would be practiced. On average the 245 Bin (collectioncentres) can serve 50 households, which would generate 11.5m3(0.32x50x7) weekly, therefore theevacuation should arrive with an empty bin, and deposit it besides the full in, the full bin can then beTo achieve the weekly evacuation schedule, 35 collection centres must evacuated daily, 7 tractorswould be required to make 5 trips daily.Each of the 12 wards sin the metropolis should form a visitation team comprising of communityresentative, staff of the two authorities and security member. The activities of the team shouldhouse health and sanitary inspection to ensure the provision of storage facilities ineach household and promptly discharge into the dumping to the agency to local government when theyare due for evacuation, the team shall enjoy the legal power of the environmental and sanitation law toThe agency to conjunction with the local government council should occasionally organiand seminars environmental sanitation for community heads, community bases organisations to fullyintegrated then in refuse evacuation activities. A yearly award for the cleanest ward should also beorganise to entice the community and encourage them maintain a high standard of environmentalThere should be an ecological legislation on Solid Waste Management to be enacted largely in response to thegrowing and emerging heaps of solid waste on the urban land and .scarcity of disposal sites, particularly in in thetraditional city. The law should emphasize on solid waste avoidance and volume reduction through sourcereduction and waste minimization measures, with the protection of public health and the environment as thewww.iiste.orgagency would mobilised all its resources (equipment/vehicles and staff) and concentrate on the walled city. Thecommunity should assist the agency with labour force, which will clear filled drainage’s load refuses into themonth sanitation exercise should be declared in the metropolis to be observedduring work free days. ‘Stop’ notices should be placed on all unauthorised dumping sites sand a monitoringhe communities should supervise the collection andBauchi local government should source fund from National Ecological Fund to procure refuse handlingequipment in order to resume its statutory function of solid waste collection. The local governmentshould limit its service within the walled city the agency covers the outside walled city. However theagency would constantly offer technical assistant and professional advice to the local government whenareness and education on sanitation, environmental health matters and benefits ofsegregation at household level should be created to the entire public so that they can appreciate need forion exercise. Bauchi RadioCorporation, Bauchi Television Authority and the FM Station should transmit programmes organised bythe agency on environmental health, highlighting on the roles of individual and at community level.residential density areas such as GRA and Kari Housing Estate, house-to-house collectionsystem is more difficult to solve, because the large size of plot means that collection centres woulde too long a walking distance for people to use them and greater distance that each refuse vehiclewill have to travel increase the collection cost. To help keep these cost as low as possible eachregulation size and weight with a lid thatcan be easily lifted and emptied by the refuse collectors the bin should be kept outside by the roadsidewhere the collection crew will put it back after emptying the waste into collection vehicle. The goodnetwork in the areas is an opportunity for accessibility to each house. Service charges should beintroduced to these areas to generate income for the agency and alleviate the financial constraints.ested that more collection centres to be establishedon convenient with road access some 250 to 300 metres apart. This allows a maximum walkingdistance of any tip of some 125 metres, and it is estimated that these would mean about 220 such siteset aside in addition to the existing 25 located the residential areas. (See figures 5.1 proposedcollection centres). These 245 collection centres should distribute in the high and medium residentialracticed. On average the 245 Bin (collection(0.32x50x7) weekly, therefore theevacuation should arrive with an empty bin, and deposit it besides the full in, the full bin can then beTo achieve the weekly evacuation schedule, 35 collection centres must evacuated daily, 7 tractorsEach of the 12 wards sin the metropolis should form a visitation team comprising of communityresentative, staff of the two authorities and security member. The activities of the team shouldhouse health and sanitary inspection to ensure the provision of storage facilities into the agency to local government when theyare due for evacuation, the team shall enjoy the legal power of the environmental and sanitation law toThe agency to conjunction with the local government council should occasionally organise workshopand seminars environmental sanitation for community heads, community bases organisations to fullyintegrated then in refuse evacuation activities. A yearly award for the cleanest ward should also bege them maintain a high standard of environmentalThere should be an ecological legislation on Solid Waste Management to be enacted largely in response to thel sites, particularly in in thetraditional city. The law should emphasize on solid waste avoidance and volume reduction through sourcereduction and waste minimization measures, with the protection of public health and the environment as the
  15. 15. Journal of Environment and Earth ScienceISSN 2224-3216 (Paper) ISSN 2225Vol. 3, No.4, 2013ACKNOWLEDGEMENTSThe author is grateful to BASEPA, Urban And Regional Planning Programme, Abubakar Tafawa BalewaUniversity, Bauchi, and those who have helped to make this study a success.ReferencesBogoro, A.G (2010) Managemnt of Solid Waste at HousehSchool of Environmental Studies, The Federal Polytechnic, Bida. Vol., 5 No., 1Chattopadhyay, S., Dutta, A., & Ray, A. (2009). Municioal solid waste managemant inKolkata, India- A review. Waste Management JDolk, M. (1997), Residents near waste landfill sites and risk of nonEUROHAZCON: Collaboration study group, New York.Edict No. 5 (1986) Bauchi State Environmental Sanitation Task Force. BaFalade J. B. (2001) Amenity and Open Spaces Contents of Nigerian Planning Legislation. A Paper Presented atthe Policy Seminar on Environmental Issues and Management in Nigerian Development Held at theDepartment of Geography University of Benin. 4Giusti, L. (2009). A review of waste management practices and their impact on human health. WasteManagement Journal., v.29, pp. 2227Mabogunje, A.L. (2001), Lessons of Experience in Housing LowPresented at International Conference On Housing and Urban Development for Low Income Groups inSub-Saharan Africa, held in Accra, Ghana, 22Marc, J. (2006). Urban infilling impacts on solid waste facilitiehttp://www.forester.net/mw-0506Marshal, E. (1995), Analytic study to evaluate associations between dumpsites and birth effects.CO.LTD: Atlanta.Ogu, V. I., (2000). Private sector participation and municipal waste manaEnvironment and Urbanization. V.12, No. 2, pp 10310.117/0956247800001200209.Pokhrel, D., & Viraraghavan, T., (2005). Municipal solid waste managementWaste Management., v.25, No. 5, pp. 555United Nations, (1997). Urban and Rural Areas, 1950Population Division New York, United StatesUNCHS, (1996). Urban and Rural Areas, 1950Population Division New York, United StatesUNEPA, (2006) United Nations Environment Program. Agency.http://www.unep.org?PDF/KenyawasWorld Bank, (2001). Urban Environmental Priorities. Draft for Discussion, C.R. Bartone,Urban Development Division, Infrastructure Group, Washington, D.C., January.Wrensh, M. (1990). Hydrogeologic assessmentArchives of environmental health.Journal of Environment and Earth Science3216 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0948 (Online)54The author is grateful to BASEPA, Urban And Regional Planning Programme, Abubakar Tafawa BalewaUniversity, Bauchi, and those who have helped to make this study a success.Bogoro, A.G (2010) Managemnt of Solid Waste at Household Level. Environmental Watch; A Journal of theSchool of Environmental Studies, The Federal Polytechnic, Bida. Vol., 5 No., 1Chattopadhyay, S., Dutta, A., & Ray, A. (2009). Municioal solid waste managemant inA review. Waste Management Journal., v.29., pp. 1449-1458.Residents near waste landfill sites and risk of non-chromosal congenital malformations.EUROHAZCON: Collaboration study group, New York.Edict No. 5 (1986) Bauchi State Environmental Sanitation Task Force. Bauchi State Of Nigeria, Gazette No.5Falade J. B. (2001) Amenity and Open Spaces Contents of Nigerian Planning Legislation. A Paper Presented atthe Policy Seminar on Environmental Issues and Management in Nigerian Development Held at theraphy University of Benin. 4th– 7thApril 2001Giusti, L. (2009). A review of waste management practices and their impact on human health. WasteManagement Journal., v.29, pp. 2227-2239.Mabogunje, A.L. (2001), Lessons of Experience in Housing Low-Income Groups on SubPresented at International Conference On Housing and Urban Development for Low Income Groups inSaharan Africa, held in Accra, Ghana, 22-26 July 2002.Marc, J. (2006). Urban infilling impacts on solid waste facilities. Retrieved from:0506-urban.html., Analytic study to evaluate associations between dumpsites and birth effects.Ogu, V. I., (2000). Private sector participation and municipal waste management in Benin City, Nigeria.Environment and Urbanization. V.12, No. 2, pp 103-116. DOI:Pokhrel, D., & Viraraghavan, T., (2005). Municipal solid waste management in Nepal: Practices and challenges.. 5, pp. 555-562.United Nations, (1997). Urban and Rural Areas, 1950-2030 (The 1996 Revision), On Diskette. United NationsPopulation Division New York, United StatesUNCHS, (1996). Urban and Rural Areas, 1950-2030 (The 1996 Revision), On Diskette. UnitedDivision New York, United StatesUNEPA, (2006) United Nations Environment Program. Agency. Informal Solid Waste Management.http://www.unep.org?PDF/Kenyawastemngntsector/sector/chapter1.pdf.World Bank, (2001). Urban Environmental Priorities. Draft for Discussion, C.R. Bartone,Urban Development Division, Infrastructure Group, Washington, D.C., January.Hydrogeologic assessment of exposure to solvent contaminated drinking waterenvironmental health.www.iiste.orgThe author is grateful to BASEPA, Urban And Regional Planning Programme, Abubakar Tafawa Balewaold Level. Environmental Watch; A Journal of thechromosal congenital malformations.uchi State Of Nigeria, Gazette No.5Falade J. B. (2001) Amenity and Open Spaces Contents of Nigerian Planning Legislation. A Paper Presented atthe Policy Seminar on Environmental Issues and Management in Nigerian Development Held at theGiusti, L. (2009). A review of waste management practices and their impact on human health. WasteGroups on Sub-Saharan Africa, PaperPresented at International Conference On Housing and Urban Development for Low Income Groups ins. Retrieved from:, Analytic study to evaluate associations between dumpsites and birth effects. ATSDRgement in Benin City, Nigeria.in Nepal: Practices and challenges.2030 (The 1996 Revision), On Diskette. United Nations2030 (The 1996 Revision), On Diskette. United NationsInformal Solid Waste Management.of exposure to solvent contaminated drinking water. New York:
  16. 16. This academic article was published by The International Institute for Science,Technology and Education (IISTE). The IISTE is a pioneer in the Open AccessPublishing service based in the U.S. and Europe. The aim of the institute isAccelerating Global Knowledge Sharing.More information about the publisher can be found in the IISTE’s homepage:http://www.iiste.orgCALL FOR PAPERSThe IISTE is currently hosting more than 30 peer-reviewed academic journals andcollaborating with academic institutions around the world. There’s no deadline forsubmission. Prospective authors of IISTE journals can find the submissioninstruction on the following page: http://www.iiste.org/Journals/The IISTE editorial team promises to the review and publish all the qualifiedsubmissions in a fast manner. All the journals articles are available online to thereaders all over the world without financial, legal, or technical barriers other thanthose inseparable from gaining access to the internet itself. Printed version of thejournals is also available upon request of readers and authors.IISTE Knowledge Sharing PartnersEBSCO, Index Copernicus, Ulrichs Periodicals Directory, JournalTOCS, PKP OpenArchives Harvester, Bielefeld Academic Search Engine, ElektronischeZeitschriftenbibliothek EZB, Open J-Gate, OCLC WorldCat, Universe DigtialLibrary , NewJour, Google Scholar

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