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Groundwater research and development potential in auchi polytechnic philipa idogho campus

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Groundwater research and development potential in auchi polytechnic philipa idogho campus

  1. 1. Civil and Environmental Research www.iiste.org ISSN 2224-5790 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0514 (Online) Vol.3, No.8, 2013 32 Groundwater Research and Development Potential in Auchi Polytechnic-Philipa Idogho Campus Abdulasisi Titi UMORU*, Edwin .O. OYATHELEMI,Tunde, Usman Nurudeen SULE. Dept. of Mineral Resources Engineering Tech., School of Engineering Technology, Auchi Polytechnic, Auchi. E-mail: ttee4all@yahoo.com, eddielemi99@yahoo.co.uk. latotuns@yahoo.com This Research is Initiated & Co-Ordinated by DR. (Mrs) Philipa .O. Idogho, the Rector of Auchi Polytechnic, We acknowledge her kind support and negotiation with the research sponsor- ETF research and development for underground water potential in Nigeria (2010). Abstract The immediate need of water is very vital to every organism therefore its availability and provision becomes very essential to life. As a result this study focused on the provision of quality ground water for sustainability of staff and students of Auchi polytechnic and its environs. It carried out conduction of resistivity sounding at the site and interpretation of the field Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) data to obtain geo-electric parameters. Determination of the hydrogeological characteristics of the subsurface at the site based on geo-electric and available geologic information reveal the possible of water availability. It recommended that a suitable drilling rig that can effectively drill to the required specifications and depth should be mobilized to site for subsequent projects. Keywords: Lithology, Depth, Geological survey, Ground water, ETF, Campus 1. Heading 1 Introduction The basic need and sustenance of man is water. As a result of its immediate needs to animal, plant and others, water availability and provision becomes very essential to life. According to Mulla, Syed, Abed and Pardhan (2011) observed that water is essential for life on the earth and any other planet and further explained that it is the fundamental right to get pollution free water to the every individual. The pollution of surface water can be treated with different techniques. It is very difficult to get purified ground water. In the Marathwada region from ancient times the people were using ground water for day-to-day use and drinking purpose. Groundwater resource development is a very viable means of meeting the ever increasing needs of our teeming population for potable water. Groundwater abstraction is more commonly done through borehole drilling. The amazing rates of failure recorded in the past drilling works have necessitated the absolute need for pre-drilling investigations (Fasunwon, Ayeni and Lawal, 2010). Geophysical methods have been very useful in determining the geological sequence and structure of the subsurface rocks by the measurement of their physical properties. Although there are varieties of geophysical techniques, which could be used in groundwater exploration, electrical resistivity method has proved reliable in delineating zones of relatively low resistivity signatory of saturated strata in various geologic terrains (Odejobi, 1999). Some chemical constituents are expected of ground water. For instance in the study of Majolagbe, Kasali and Ghaniyu (2011), the following chemical observations were recorded and helped to shape the study in Lagos suburban for ground water project. The chemicals are Cd, Fe, Cu Zn Mg and Na which were determined using Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (Buck scientific 210VGP model). The study confirmed that concentration of Pb, Fe and Cd found in Isolo study area were higher than WHO health based guideline values, indicating possible impact of landfill on the groundwater quality. This raises the question of toxicities of these elements, hence pose potential threat to man. Most of the nutritive metals analysed (Na, Zn, and Cu) in Isolo samples maintained strong positive correlation with r values ≥ 0.8 showing possible common source, unlike Ifo water samples that had all the metals analysed found within the WHO standards for drinking water. Ifo groundwater is soft with pH within the WHO acceptable range for drinking water while Isolo water is moderately hard, acidic in nature; hence require further treatment for it to be potable. In the ground water study of the Auchi Polytechnic presents a different view point based on the location, depth, geophysical analysis and Lethological laboratory test conducted before embarking on the project in the survey site. In addition, the total field operations and data acquisition at the site lasted for two days and follow the execution of the ground water project. 1.1Research Objective The primary objective of this investigation focuses on the followings: • Conduction of Resistivity sounding at the site and interpretation of the field Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) data to obtain geo-electric parameters.
  2. 2. Civil and Environmental Research www.iiste.org ISSN 2224-5790 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0514 (Online) Vol.3, No.8, 2013 33 • Determination of the hydrogeological characteristics of the subsurface at the site based on geo-electric and available geologic information. • Making an appropriate recommendations for the planning and execution of a viable groundwater abstraction project (at the site) through borehole drilling • Production of groundwater and quality distribution in the study area. • Installation of a treatment plant unit. 1.2 Study Area: Site location and description The geophysical exploration was carried out within Auchi Polytechnic, Auchi, Edo State, Nigeria. VES 1 is approximately defined by the geographical coordinates of latitude N070 02’44.4” and Longitude E0060 16’11.8”. The observed elevation above the mean sea level is 213 m. TUNDE MAP OF AUCHI, IGARRA, OSOSO AND ENVIRONS NIGERIA AUCHI NIGERIA AUCHI 0 3 6 9 12 151.5 Kilometers Legend ") Major_Settlements Settlements Major_Roads River Contours River ") ") ") ") ") 900 R iv er O rle RiverOjo R iv er Ubo River Ekafe R iv erO w an R iv er E kpeshi Oyanmi 900 700 500 600 400 800 1000 1200 300 1100 1500 1300 1400 1700 1500 1200 1000 110 0 15 00 1000 900 1000 700 800 1000 500 1500 700 700 1200 1000 1200 1000 800 1500 1500 700 1400 700 1500 1000 1000 500 1100 900 500 600 1500 900 40 0 1000 15 00 1000 1000 900 1000 500 900 1000 1100 1000 1000 15 00 600 60 0 800 1000 1000 1000 1100 400 800 1000 1000 1000 1100 700 1100 1500 OSOSO AUCHI IBILLO IGARRA WARRAKE Oja Oke Oku Ate Isa Ake Ogbe Iddo Otuo Afua Avia Meke Igwe Med. Jeda Usun Ugba Sebe Igwe Ajayo Onumu Ogugu Egene Akuku Owan Eturu Ogute Ogute Oloma Iyemu Afana Yelwa Jettu Iyuku Ohama Iyaba Uokha Mekeke Akpama Ekpesa Ekpesa Eshawa Okpoto Utejie Ogriga Isokwi Okugbe Ogbido Sasaro Suberu Ikao I Ogbona Ogbona Ugbeno Uruoke Ogbida Irelli Ekperi Okpemi Evoike Egboto Ugieda Iyakpe Ubiane Ebetse Ekpeye Ugboha Egbetua Dagbala Ojirami Udiegua Awuyami Awuyemi Kominio Imiagba Imiekwi GbagereIkao II Ayuguri Irukpai Iviotha Afashio AzukalaUgbekpe UbunekeOvbiomu Ille-Aro Oja-Sale Ogbe-Oke Ogbe-Oke Ayegunle Aiyetoro Somorika Imiegele Imiakebu Egbigele Ikabigbo Ineme-Osa Ogbe-Cane Sale-Ogbe Afokpilla Sebe-Ogbe Ago-Isame Ibia-Nafe Obie Sebe Okpokhumi Ineme-Ekpe Onumu-Sale Ebune-Ugbo Jimoh Camp Saliu Camp Ugboshi-Afe Unemenekhua Ugboshi Oke Sanunu Camp Utejie Camp Salami Camp Ojirami-Ogbo Ugboshi-Sale Semorika Afeke Okpilla Cement 6°20'0"E 6°20'0"E 6°15'0"E 6°15'0"E 6°10'0"E 6°10'0"E 6°5'0"E 6°5'0"E 6°0'0"E 6°0'0"E 6°25'0"E 6°25'0"E 7°25'0"N 7°25'0"N 7°20'0"N 7°20'0"N 7°15'0"N 7°15'0"N 7°10'0"N 7°10'0"N 7°5'0"N 7°5'0"N 7°0'0"N 7°0'0"N Source: Authors’ Extract of Auchi and its environments, 2012.
  3. 3. Civil and Environmental Research www.iiste.org ISSN 2224-5790 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0514 (Online) Vol.3, No.8, 2013 34 TUNDE MAP OFAUCHI, IGARRA, OSOSOAND ENVIRONS NIGERIA AUCHI NIGERIA AUCHI 0 3 6 9 12 151.5 Kilometers Legend ") Major_Settlements Settlements Major_Roads River Contours River ") ") ") ") ") 900 River Orle RiverOjo River Ubo River Ekafe RiverOwan RiverEkpeshi Oyanmi 900 700 500 60 0 400 800 1000 1200 300 1100 1500 1300 1400 1700 1500 1200 1000 1100 1500 1000 90 0 1000 700 800 1000 50 0 1500 700 700 1200 1000 1200 1000 800 1500 1500 700 1400 70 0 1500 1000 1000 500 1100 900 500 60 0 1500 90 0 400 1000 1500 1000 10 00 900 1000 500 900 1000 1100 1000 1000 1500 60 0 600 800 1000 10 00 100 0 1100 400 800 1000 1000 1000 1100 700 11 00 1500 OSOSO AUCHI IBILLO IGARRA WARRAKE Oja amp Oke Oku Ate Isa Ake Ogbe Iddo Otuo Afua Avia Meke Igwe Med. Jeda Usun Ugba Sebe Igwe Ogori Ajayo Onumu Ogugu Egene Akuku Owan Eturu Ogute Ogute Oloma Iyemu Afana Yelwa Jettu Iyuku Ohama Iyaba Uokha Mekeke Akpama Ekpesa Ekpesa Eshawa Okpoto Utejie Ogriga Isokwi Okugbe Ogbido Sasaro Suberu IkaoI Ogbona Ogbona Ugbeno Uruoke Ogbida Irelli Ekperi Okpemi Evoike Egboto Ugieda Iyakpe Ubiane Ebetse Ekpeye Ugboha Egbetua Dagbala Ojirami Udiegua Awuyami Awuyemi Kominio Imiagba Imiekwi Gbagere Ikao II Ayuguri Irukpai Iviotha AzukalaUgbekpe UbunekeOvbiomu Ille-Aro Oja-Sale Ogbe-Oke Ogbe-Oke AdairaC Ayegunle Aiyetoro Somorika Imiegele Imiakebu Egbigele Ikabigbo Ineme-Osa Ogbe-Cane Sale-Ogbe Lankpeshe Afokpilla Sebe-Ogbe Ago-Isame Ibia-Nafe Obie Sebe Okpokhumi Ineme-Ekpe Onumu-Sale Ebune-Ugbo Jimoh Camp Saliu Camp Ugboshi-Afe Unemenekhua Ugboshi Oke Sanunu Camp UtejieCamp Salami Camp Ojirami-Ogbo Ugboshi-Sale SemorikaAfeke Okpilla Cement 6°25'0"E 6°25'0"E 6°20'0"E 6°20'0"E 6°15'0"E 6°15'0"E 6°10'0"E 6°10'0"E 6°5'0"E 6°5'0"E6°0'0"E 7°25'0"N 7°25'0"N 7°20'0"N 7°20'0"N 7°15'0"N 7°15'0"N 7°10'0"N 7°10'0"N 7°5'0"N 7°5'0"N 7°0'0"N 7°0'0"N Source: Authors’ Geological Map of Auchi and its environments, 2012. 2. Material and Method of Study In this project, most materials employ involve geophysical survey, site clearing, mud pit construction, mobilization of equipment/personnel, drilling operation, excavation for tank foundation, chain design for tank foundation, casing of the borehole, gravel packing of the borehole, pump installation/pump testing, fabrication of the tank/stanchion , excavation for pipe laying, distribution points/reticulation, fetching points, treatment unit, painting of the stanchion/Tank, fencing of borehole perimeter, diagrams/pictures, financial breakdown, geophysical results, Some of our challenges/constrains. For illustrative purpose see the features below:
  4. 4. Civil and Environmental Research www.iiste.org ISSN 2224-5790 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0514 (Online) Vol.3, No.8, 2013 35 The Physical diagram of the project execution Figure 2 a and b Terrameter and reels Figure 2 a and b Terrameter and mud pit 2.1 Field procedure The groundwater exploration carried out at the site was done using electrical resistivity sounding techniques (VES). This was achieved with the aid of ABEM AC Terrameter and other field accessories. Geographical coordinates and elevations were obtained from the GARMIN GPS map 76CSx’ set. Three Vertical electrical sounding (VES) were done at the site using Schlumberger array. The total spread length (i.e. AB/2) attained for the three VES points within the limit of the available space were 500m, 350m, and 150m. However, the artificially generated electrical signal can hardly go beyond AB>2Km. This is why resistivity sounding is best suited for groundwater and not petroleum exploration (Kearey and Brooks, 1988). The Physical diagram of the project execution Figure 2 a and b drilling rig and chemical mixture of drilling mud
  5. 5. Civil and Environmental Research www.iiste.org ISSN 2224-5790 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0514 (Online) Vol.3, No.8, 2013 36 Figure 2 a and b stanchion stands and overhead tank under construction Figure 2 a and b pump testing of borehole water 3. Geology and Hydrogeology Desktop study and field observations show that the geologic material underlying the site belongs to the Ajali formation. The formation hitherto known as upper coal measure is made up of false-bedded sandstone, thin lenticular shales, coal and pebbly gravel. The texture is variable but generally speaking, it is coarse. Hydrogeological formation is a good prospect and it is often associated with fairly deep water table conditions. 4. Data Presentation The quantitative interpretations of the resistivity sounding curves were done to obtain the geoelectric parameters (i.e. layer thicknesses and resistivities) with the aid computer assisted iteration techniques. Table 1: Geographical Coordinates and Elevations of Sampled Points S/N Description Position Elevation (m) Latitude [N] Longitude [E] 1 VES1 07O 02’44.4” 006O 16’11.8’’ 213 2 VES 2 070 02’50.9” 0060 16’03.3” 218 3 VES 3 070 02’49.1” 0060 16’07.0” 216 Source: Laboratory analytical results, 2011
  6. 6. Civil and Environmental Research www.iiste.org ISSN 2224-5790 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0514 (Online) Vol.3, No.8, 2013 37 Table 2: Geoelecric Parameters and Inferred Lithology [VES1] Layer no App Res [ohm-m] Thickness [m] Lithology 1 1762 0.875 Lateritic/ Topsoil 2 110 1.13 Sub topsoil 3 1341 19.78 sandy horizon 4 10546 29.64 Resistive sandy/sandstone/clayey layer 5 198 65.71 Saturated sandy/partly clayey horizon 6 2061 52.88 Saturated sandy/sandstone/partly clayey layer 7 69766 - Dry /resistive sandstone layer Source: Laboratory analytical results, 2011 lithological interpretation of VES1 Table 3: Geoelecric Parameters and Inferred Lithology [VES2] Layer no App res [ohm-m] Thickness [m] Lithology 1 720 0.89 Lateritic/ Topsoil 2 5315 3.26 Sub topsoil 3 522 12.93 Clayey unit 4 9047 16.32 sandy horizon 5 736 77 56.27 Dry sandy/sandstone/Sandy/clayey layer 6 1767 55.85 Saturated sandy/sandstone/partly clayey layer 7 6054 - Resistive sandstone layer Source: Laboratory analytical results, 2011 lithological interpretation of VES2 Table 4: Geoelecric Parameters and Inferred Lithology [VES3] Layer no App res [ohm-m] Thickness [m] Lithology 1 1207 1.9 Lateritic/ Topsoil 2 2448 6.77 Sub topsoil 3 1296 5.82 Sandy/Clayey unit 4 8342 39.48 Dry sandy/sandstone-/clayey layer 5 815 - Saturated sandy/sandstone/partly clayey layer Source: Laboratory analytical results, 2011 lithological interpretation of VES3
  7. 7. Civil and Environmental Research www.iiste.org ISSN 2224-5790 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0514 (Online) Vol.3, No.8, 2013 38 Table 5: VES-1Depth (m) VES-2 Depth (m) VES-3 Depth (m) -0.89 A Top Soil -0.875 A Top Soil -1.9 A Top Soil -4.18 B Subsoil -2.01 B Subsoil -8.67 B Subsoil -17.08 C Clayey Layer -21.79 C Sandy Layer -14.5 C Sandy/Clayey Layer -33.41 D Sandy Layer -51.44 D Resistive Layer -53.98 D Dry Sandy/SSt -90.08 E Dry Sandy/SSt -117.1 E Saturated Sandy ∞ E Saturated Layer -145.9 F Saturated Sandy -170.0 F Saturated SSt ∞ G Resistive SSt ∞ G Resistive SSt Source: Field analytical results, 2011. Table 6: Physical Characteristic Combined Standards Results of Chemical Analysis S/N Parameter Philipa Idogho Campus Borehole NAFDAC Maximum Allowed Limits SON Standard WHO Standard Highest Desirable Maximum Permissible 1 Colour 2.0 TCU 3.0 TCU 3.0 TCU 3.0 TCU 15.0 TCU 2 Odour NS-Bent N.S N.S N.S N.S 3 Taste tasteless N.S N.S N.S N.S 4 PH at 200 C 6.7 6.50-8.5 6.50-8.5 7.0-8.9 6.90-9.50 5 Turbidity ND 5.0 NTU 5.0 NTU 5.0 NTU 5.0 NTU 6 Conductivity 43.3(µS/cm) 1000(µS/cm) 1000(µS/cm) 100(µS/cm) 1200(µS/cm) 7 Total Solid 20.5mg/l 500mg/l 500mg/l 500mg/l 1500mg/l 8 Total Alkalinity 8.2mg/l 100mg/l 100mg/l 100mg/l 100mg/l 9 Phenolphthalein Alkalinity - 100mg/l 100mg/l 100mg/l 100mg/l 10 Chloride 53.1mg/l 100mg/l 100mg/l 200mg/l 250mg/l 11 Fluoride - 1.0mg/l 1.0mg/l 1.0mg/l 1.5mg/l 12 Copper ND 1.0mg/l 1.0mg/l 0.5mg/l 2.0mg/l 13 Iron 0.25mg/l 0.3mg/l 0.3mg/l 1mg/l 3mg/l 14 Nitrate (NO3) 0.45mg/l 10mg/l 10mg/l 10mg/l 50mg/l 15 Nitrate (NO2) 0.15mg/l 0.02mg/l 0.02mg/l 0.2mg/l 3mg/l 16 Manganese 0.06mg/l 2.0mg/l 0.05mg/l 0.1mg/l 1.0mg/l 17 Magnesium 0.02mg/l 20mg/l 0.20mg/l 20mg/l 20mg/l 18 Zinc 0.01mg/l 5.0mg/l 5.0mg/l 0.01mg/l 3.0mg/l
  8. 8. Civil and Environmental Research www.iiste.org ISSN 2224-5790 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0514 (Online) Vol.3, No.8, 2013 39 19 Selenium - 0.0mg/l N/S 0.01mg/l 0.01mg/l 20 Silver - - - N/S N/S 21 Cyanide ND 0.01mg/l 0.01mg/l 0.01mg/l 0.07mg/l 22 Sulphate 1.54mg/l 100mg/l 100mg/l 250mg/l 500mg/l 23 Calcium 0.88mg/l 75mg/l 75mg/l N/S N/S 24 Aluminium ND 0.5mg/l N/S 0.2mg/l 0.2mg/l 25 Potassium 0.09mg/l 10.0mg/l 10.0mg/l N/S N/S 26 Lead ND 0.01mg/l 0.01mg/l 0.01mg/l 0.01mg/l 27 Chromium ND 0.05mg/l 0.05mg/l 0.05mg/l 0.05mg/l 28 Cadmium 0.01mg/l 0.003mg/l 0.003mg/l 0.003mg/l 0.003mg/l 29 Arsenic - 0.01mg/l 0.01mg/l 0.01mg/l 0.01mg/l 30 Barium - 0.05mg/l 0.05mg/l 0.05mg/l 0.07mg/l 31 Mercury - 0.001mg/l 0.001mg/l 0.001mg/l 0.001mg/l 32 Antimony - N/S N/S - 0.02mg/l 33 Tin - - - - 1.2µg/l 34 Nickel ND - - - 0.02mg/l 35 Total Hardness(CaCO3) 100mg/l 100mg/l 100mg/l 500mg/l 36 Vinyl Chloride - 0mg/l 0mg/l 0mg/l 0mg/l Source: Martlet Environmental Research Laboratory Limited Results of Chemical Analysis 5. Results and discussion The interpreted result is presented as sounding curves and descriptive geo-electric logs/Section. Seven geo- electric layers were resolved for VES1. Layer 1 and 2 stand for lateritic topsoil and subsoil with thicknesses 0.875m and 1.13m and Layers 3 is the sandy horizon. Layer 4 is designated as the resistive sandy/sandstone/clayey layer. The fifth layer is the saturated sandy/ partly clayey horizon. Layer 6 is also saturated sandy/sandstone/partly clayey unit. The seventh layer of unknown thickness is designated as the dry/resistive sandstone horizon. VES 2 and 3 are of the same trend. Two distinct saturated layers (i.e. Aquifers) were identified from the interpreted VES results. The first is layer 5 while the second is layer 6. The calculated thicknesses of layers 5 and 6 are 65.71m and 52.88m respectively. Furthermore the depth to the to the base of layer 6 is 170m (561ft) The apparent resistivity values for the saturated layers are fairly low, indicating good aquifers. In view of the above hydrogeological and hydro-geophysical analysis, it can be deduced that groundwater resource development through borehole drilling at the site is feasible. Therefore the borehole at the site, a maximum drilled depth of 197m (650ft) is recommended and VES 1 is the recommended drilling point. It is advised that the terminal drilled depth of the borehole at the site should be left at the discretion of the site geologist and hydro-geologist, who should document and supervise the borehole construction work in it’s entirely. 6. Conclusion and Recommendation The on-going research work is currently on phase IV with a successful completion of phase I – III. The result of the pre-drilling geophysical investigations for groundwater resource development (through borehole construction) carried out within Auchi Polytechnic campus, Auchi Edo State is presented in this report. Hydrogeological and hydro-geophysical deductions made from the interpreted VES data establish the feasibility of a viable groundwater abstraction project at the site. A total drilled depth of 197m (650ft) is recommended. In addition, a suitable drilling rig that can effectively drill to the required specifications and depth should be mobilized to the
  9. 9. Civil and Environmental Research www.iiste.org ISSN 2224-5790 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0514 (Online) Vol.3, No.8, 2013 40 site for the project. The entire (On-the-site) drilling process should be supervised and documented by a competent and professional geologist and hydro-geologist who should also determine the final/terminal depth of the borehole at the site. Well design and completion processes should be anchored on the downhole lithological assessment of cuttings. To establish water quality and portability, a full analysis of the water sample from the developed borehole should be done at a reputable laboratory for physio-geo-chemical and biological analysis, in order to ascertain the hydro-geochemical impurity determination of the groundwater, so as to pin-point the exalt type of water treatment plant-unit to be installed. In addition to the pump testing a 5.5HP submersible pump was installed. Reference Abdulrafiu O. M, Adeleke A. K and Lateef .O G (2011) Quality assessment of groundwater in the vicinity of dumpsites in Ifo and Lagos, Southwestern Nigeria, Advances in Applied Science Research Pelagia Research Library[Online], 2 (1): 289-298. [Accessed 23 June 2013]. Available at: www.pelagiaresearchlibrary.com Anozie A.N., and Odejobi O.J (2009). Evaluation of Heat Exchanger Network Design and Energy Efficiency in the Crude Distillation Units of Nigerian Refineries. JNSChE, 24, No. 1&2: 48-59 Mullaa, J. G, Syed, A., Abedc,S. and Pardhand, V (2011). Ground water quality assessment of babalgaon, district Latur. Journal of Chemical, Biological and Physical Sciences, [Online], Vol.2.No.1, 501-504. [Accessed 23 March 2012]. Available at: www.scribed.com Fasunwon, O.O., Ayeni, A.O. and Lawal, A.O. (2010). A Comparative Study of Borehole Water Quality from Sedimentary Terrain and Basement Complex in South-Western, Nigeria. Research Journal of Environmental Sciences [Online] 4(3): 327-335. [Accessed 23 April 2013]. Available at: http://scialert.net/qredirect.php?doi=rjes.2010.327.335&linkid=pdf
  10. 10. This academic article was published by The International Institute for Science, Technology and Education (IISTE). The IISTE is a pioneer in the Open Access Publishing service based in the U.S. and Europe. The aim of the institute is Accelerating Global Knowledge Sharing. More information about the publisher can be found in the IISTE’s homepage: http://www.iiste.org CALL FOR PAPERS The IISTE is currently hosting more than 30 peer-reviewed academic journals and collaborating with academic institutions around the world. There’s no deadline for submission. Prospective authors of IISTE journals can find the submission instruction on the following page: http://www.iiste.org/Journals/ The IISTE editorial team promises to the review and publish all the qualified submissions in a fast manner. All the journals articles are available online to the readers all over the world without financial, legal, or technical barriers other than those inseparable from gaining access to the internet itself. Printed version of the journals is also available upon request of readers and authors. IISTE Knowledge Sharing Partners EBSCO, Index Copernicus, Ulrich's Periodicals Directory, JournalTOCS, PKP Open Archives Harvester, Bielefeld Academic Search Engine, Elektronische Zeitschriftenbibliothek EZB, Open J-Gate, OCLC WorldCat, Universe Digtial Library , NewJour, Google Scholar

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