Fish market in negeria


Published on

International Journals Call for paper,

Published in: Business, Technology
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Fish market in negeria

  1. 1. Journal of Natural Sciences Research www.iiste.orgISSN 2224-3186 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0921 (Online)Vol.1, No.2, 2011The Abundance and Socio-Economic Characteristics of Kpata Fish Market In Lokoja, Kogi State, Nigeria Edah Bernard1*, C. I. Ayo-Olalusi2, M.O. Ezekiel3. Nigerian Institute for Oceanography and Marine Research (N.I.O.M.R) P. M. B. 12729, Wilmot Point Road, Victoria Island, Lagos, Nigeria. E-Mail: bernardnda@yahoo.comAbstractThis study attempts to analyze the abundance and possible market characteristic of the Kpata fish market(Old Market) in Lokoja. Fishery products caught were mainly to meet domestic demand especially inLokoja. Age distribution among fish mongers do not differ significantly (p > 0.05) as 63.1% of the fishmongers fell within the economic productive age group (18 to 55 years), less than 30% of the respondentwere between the ages of 56 to 70 years and only 4.3% of the respondents fell within the step-down agegroup (71 to 100 years). Distribution of fish species as observed in the market are majorly fresh waterspecies even though there are traces of brackish and marine fish species. Despite the market’s longhistorical background, low level of former education and poor market infrastructures are the majorconstrains observed in this study.Key words: - Kpata fish market, Socio-economic characteristics, Northern Nigeria.1.0 IntroductionThe fish production patterns and consumption patterns have changed over the last 30–40 years, with bothproduction and consumption being predominant in developing countries (Delgado et. al., 2003). Fish andall aquatic products are easily digested and though perishable, are easily processed into various formsavoiding wastage. Most importantly, fish constitutes one of the main animal protein sources of thedeveloping world, containing all essential amino acids, thereby providing an affordable nutrient source tomost rural and impoverished communities (Sena S. et. al., 1999 )Fish also play an important part in the life and well being of most of the vast populations of Nigerians.Fresh, smoked, dried, roasted or even fried, they are sold in the remote small villages; dehydrated andpounded into fish flour in some areas, they provide an insurance against leaner times. Fish dishes areprobably served several times weekly in most homes and there are few Nigerians who do not relish thiswholesome food (Reed, W., 2010)In Nigeria, fish has a far-reaching implications on food security as fish supplies naturally augment foodavailability; consumption of fish improves the utilization of food thereby ensuring good nutritionaloutcomes particularly of the poor and rural populations; and, the vast number of people engaged in thefishing industry earn incomes that improve upon their access to food (Okrah et. al., 2011). The broadobjective of this study was to investigate the socio-economic characteristics and abundance of Kpata fishmarket (Old market) in Lokoja.14 | P a g
  2. 2. Journal of Natural Sciences Research www.iiste.orgISSN 2224-3186 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0921 (Online)Vol.1, No.2, 20112.0 MethodologyKpata fish market (Old Market) in Lokoja is located at latitude 7o 48’N and longitude 6o 46’E. The cityserves as a confluence for the two most prominent rivers in Nigeria; River Niger and River Benue. A pine-hole view of the confluence joining the two rivers can be seen in plate 1.The ancient city of Lokoja has a long tradition of a very active domestic fishing industry and with the riversNiger and Benue making a confluence at Lokoja makes the city a natural attraction for some artisanal fishfarmers who travel many hundreds of miles during dry seasons from Kano and Sokoto to Lokoja wherethey fish for a few months until the rain begins.Besides its importance to fishermen and those who are partly dependent upon fish for food the fishingindustry in Lokoja provides gainful employment for many thousands of people who trade in fish or fishinggear as well as transporters and canoe makers.3.0 ResultsOrganizational Structure Of Kpata Fish MarketBusiness in Kpata fish market (Old market) in Lokoja begins as early as 5.30am when fish buyers arrive atthe fish landing site to check the days catch before the arrival of visitors who often come to escalate theprices. The price of fish in the market varies as the supply decides the price levels, subject to the buyingpower. When there is excess catch of a particular specie and the end markets are glutted with that specie theprices will be cheaper. At the same time when the season is over or the particular specie in short supply, theprices will be at a premium. The catalogue of some fishes caught from Lokoja river and other parts ofNorthern Nigeria can be seen in table 1.3.1 Fish Smoking In Kpata MarketFish smoking in Kpata fish market (Old Market) in Lokoja is traditionally carried out by women along thebanks of River Niger. Various traditional methods are employed to preserve and process fish forconsumption and storage. These methods includes, frying, drying, smoking, salting etc. However, smokingis the predominant method of fish preservation in Lokoja as over 40% of domestic catches are consumed insmoked form. Edah et. al., 2010 who worked on the Organoleptic Characteristics, Length-weightRelationship and Condition Factor of Oreochromis niloticus in Egah River at Idah L.G.A of Kogi State,Nigeria revealed that although, smoking of fish is the predominant method of fish preservation, most ofthese fishes are not salt-cured before smoking, as such, smoked fishes get spoiled easily.Pictures of some fishes caught from River Niger, smoked and displayed at Kpata fish market (Old market)can be seen on plate 2 and 3.15 | P a g
  3. 3. Journal of Natural Sciences Research www.iiste.orgISSN 2224-3186 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0921 (Online)Vol.1, No.2, 20113.1.1 Socio-Economic CharacteristicsFrom fig 1 , the age distribution among fish mongers do not differ significantly (p > 0.05). 63.1% of thefish mongers fell within the economic productive age group (18 years to 55 years), less than 30% of therespondent were between the ages of 56 years to 70 years and only 4.3% of the respondents fell within thestep-down age group (71 years to 100 years), while table 2. shows the categories of fish sellers.3.1.2 Brackish and Marine Fish Food Traces in Kpata Fish marketTraditionally, the bulk of the food fish supplies is of fresh water origin, and it still is. However, no accountof freshwater fishes would seem complete without a mention of some brackish and marine creatures likethe; Potamotrygon garouensis Giebel, Palaemon paucidens Hilgend and the Atya gabonensis, which aresometimes captured by fishermen from the Niger River and displayed at the kpata fish market in Lokoja.Historical developments of the fisheries caught indicates the escape of some brackish and marine fisheriesorigins into the fresh waters of Lokoja.3.1.3 Fish Food Needs and AquacultureAlthough the production from the capture fisheries in Lokoja has plateaued, the demand for fish has grownover the years resulting from an increased in population, exacerbated by increased consumption among fishlovers, the aquaculture industry in Lokoja is gradually gaining ground as cultured fishes like the Clariasand Heterobranchus are seen displayed in the market for interested buyers.4.0 DISCUSSIONOwing to its long historical records as a river port and a confluence city; the Kpata fish market (OldMarket) in Lokoja serves as a major fish center for many as fresh fish could be gotten readily at cheaperrate. The categories of fish sellers present on a daily basis are majorly between the ages of 46-55 yearsfollowed closely by 56-70 years of ages. The least age group respondents in the market are the too old andtoo young fish seller (71-100 and 13-17years respectively). The age group of between 18 to 35 yearsshowed a reduced interest in this profession, this could be as a result of their low experience and theirsocial status of been ‘spinsters’ thus may not be willing to endure the rigorous activities involved in theprofession.The survey also exposed the absence of the male folks in open fish marketing, fish processing and fishsmoking. This could be as a result of cultural and native beliefs of the citizenry as they are primarilyrestricted to the fishing aspect.16 | P a g
  4. 4. Journal of Natural Sciences Research www.iiste.orgISSN 2224-3186 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0921 (Online)Vol.1, No.2, 2011The low level of formal education among the respondents contributes to the poor adoption of motheragricultural technologies. This is in line with Dogondaji and Baba (2010) who emphasized that low literacylevel could have a negative impact on the adoption of agricultural technologies. Salt curing of processedfish, poor infrastructure and inadequate power supply to kpata fish market are among other points the majorlimitations observed during this study. This limitations are similar to the results of Ayo-Olalusi et al 2010,who worked on the Liverpool fish market in Lagos State, Nigeria.4.1 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONKpata fish market (Old Market) in Lokoja has a wealth of a long historical record. With the high rate ofdevelopment in Lokoja today, the need to provide basic facilities like generators and constant powersupply, freezers and cold rooms, market shops at fish landing sites which will serve as both outlet for theirfish products and as a ware houses in case of excess supplies becomes very necessary. Despite its primitivebeginning Kpata fish market (Old Market) is still regarded as the pier of fresh fish in Lokoja.REFERENCE 1. Ayo-Olalusi, C.I. et al. (2010). The Liverpool fish market in Lagos State, Nigeria 2. Delgado et al. (2003). Outlook for Fish to 2020: Meeting Global Demand. 2020 Vision Food Policy Report. 3. Dongondaji, S. D and K.M. Baba (2010). Income distribution in large scale irrigation projects: A case study of Dry season rice farmers at the Bakolori irrigation project, Zamfara state, Nigeria. Proceedings of the 24th Annual National Conference of the Farm Management of Nigeria held at the Adamawa State University, Mubi 11th- 14th October, 2010 4. Edah, et al. (2010). Organoleptic Characteristics, Length-weight Relationship and Condition Factor of Oreochromis niloticus in Egah River at Idah L.G.A of Kogi State, Nigeria 5. 6. Okrah, Maxwell (2011). Economic Dimensions of Inland Fisheries of the Upper East Region of Ghana 7. Sena, S. De Silva • F. Brian Davy (1999). Success Stories in Asian Aquaculture 8. William Reed (2008). Fish and fisheries of Northern Nigeria, Ministry of Agriculture, Northern Nigeria edition, in English - 1st ed.17 | P a g
  5. 5. Journal of Natural Sciences Research ISSN 2224-3186 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0921 (Online) Vol.1, No.2, 2011 TABLE 1: Catalogue Of Some Fishes Caught and displayed in kpata fish market (Old market) and Other Parts Of Northern Nigeria.S/N NAME OF FISH FAMILY GENUS1 Chrysichthys auratus longifilis Bagridae Chrysichthys2 Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus Bagridae Chrysichthys3 Chrysichthys furctus Bagridae Chrysichthys4 Clarotes laticeps Bagridae Clarotes5 Clarotes macrocephalus (after Blache) Bagridae Clarotes6 Auchenoglanis biscutatus Bagridae Auchenoglanis7 Clarias lazera Claridae Clarias8 Clarias anguillaris Claridae Clarias9 Clarias submarginatus (after Daget) Claridae Clarias10 Heterobranchus longifilis (after Boulenger) Claridae Heterobranchus11 Heterobranchus bidorsalis Claridae Heterobranchus12 Heterobranchus isopterus Bleeker Claridae Heterobranchus13 Hydrocynus brevis Characidae Hydrocynus14 Hydrocynus somonorum Characidae Hydrocynus15 Hydrocynus lineatus Characidae Hydrocynus16 Hydrocynus forskali Characidae Hydrocynus17 Micralestes actuidens Characidae Micralestes18 Alestes dentex sethente Characidae Alestes19 Alestes baremose Characidae Alestes20 Alestes chaperi (after Boulenger) Characidae Alestes21 Alestes longipinnis Characidae Alestes22 Alestes nurse Characidae Alestes23 Alestes Leucisus Characidae Alestes24 Alestes imberi (after Boulenger) Characidae Alestes24 Alestes macrolepidotus Characidae Alestes26 Alestes brevis Characidae Alestes 18 | P a g e
  6. 6. Journal of Natural Sciences Research ISSN 2224-3186 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0921 (Online) Vol.1, No.2, 201127 Hepsetus odoe Characidae Hepsetus28 Nannaethiops unitaeniatus (after Daget) Citharinidae Nannaethiops29 Paradistichodus dimidiatus Citharinidae Paradistichodus30 Distichodus brevipinnis Citharinidae Distichodus31 Protopterus annectens Lepidosirenidae Protopterus32 Heterotis niloticus Osteoglossidae Heterotis33 Papyrocranus afer Notopteridae Papyrocranus34 Xenomystus nigri Notopteridae Xenomystus35 Hyperopisus bebe occidentalis Mormyridae Hyperopisus36 Mormyrus rume Mormyridae Mormyrus37 Mormyrus hasselquisti Mormyridae Mormyrus38 Mormyrus macropthalmus Mormyridae Mormyrus39 Petrocephalus bane ansorgei Mormyridae Petrocephalus40 Petrocephalus bovei Mormyridae Petrocephalus41 Petrocephalus simus Mormyridae Petrocephalus42 Mormyrops deliciosus Mormyridae Mormyrops43 Mormyrops oudoti (after Daget) Mormyridae Mormyrops44 Mormyrops engystoma (after Boulenger) Mormyridae Mormyrops45 Marcusenius psittacus Mormyridae Marcusenius46 Marcusenius harringtoni (after Daget) Mormyridae Marcusenius47 Mrcusenius isidori Mormyridae Marcusenius48 Marcusenius ihuysi Mormyridae Marcusenius49 Marcusenius petricolus (after Daget) Mormyridae Marcusenius50 Marcusenius brachistius Mormyridae Marcusenius51 Gnathonemus tamandua Mormyridae Gnathonemus52 Gnathonemus abadii Mormyridae Gnathonemus53 Gnathonemus pictus Mormyridae Gnathonemus54 Gnathonemus petersii Mormyridae Gnathonemus55 Gnathonemus deboensis Mormyridae Gnathonemus56 Gnathonemus niger Mormyridae Gnathonemus57 Gnathonemus senegalensis Mormyridae Gnathonemus58 Gnathonemus cyprinoides Mormyridae Gnathonemus59 Gymnarchus niloticus Gymnarchidae Gymnarchus60 Cromeria niloticus occidentalis (after Daget) Kneriidae Cromeria61 Mugil cephalus Mugildae Mugil62 Hemichromis bimaculatus Cichlidae Hemichromis 19 | P a g e
  7. 7. Journal of Natural Sciences Research ISSN 2224-3186 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0921 (Online) Vol.1, No.2, 201163 Hemichromis fasciatus Cichlidae Hemichromis64 Pelmatochromis guentheri Cichlidae Pelmatochromis65 Pelmatochromis pulcher (after Boulenger) Cichlidae Pelmatochromis66 Tilapia zillii Cichlidae Tilapia67 Tilapia monodi (after Blache) Cichlidae Tilapia68 Tilapia melanopleura Cichlidae Tilapia69 Tilapia mariae Cichlidae Tilapia70 Tilapia macrocephala Cichlidae Tilapia71 Tilapia nilotica Cichlidae Tilapia72 Tilapia galilaea Cichlidae Tilapia Fig 1: Age Distribution And Socio-Economic Characteristics of Kpata fish Marketers in Lokoja 20 | P a g e
  8. 8. Journal of Natural Sciences Research www.iiste.orgISSN 2224-3186 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0921 (Online)Vol.1, No.2, 2011 Table 2: CATEGORIES OF FISH SELLERSCategories Number of Respondents Percentage of RespondentsLive Fish Sellers 9 16.07Fresh Fish Sellers 19 33.93Smoked Fish Sellers 16 28.57Penaeid shrimp sellers 12 21.43Total 56 100 PLATE 1: A pin-hole view of the River Niger and Benue confluence from Lokojas table-tops ( | P a g
  9. 9. Journal of Natural Sciences Research www.iiste.orgISSN 2224-3186 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0921 (Online)Vol.1, No.2, 2011 PLATE 2: Display of Smoked Fish at Kpata Fish Market PLATE 3: Display of Fresh Fish at Kpata Fish Market22 | P a g