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Drug-Crime Nex...
Developing Country Studies
ISSN 2224-607X (Paper) ISSN 2225-0565 (Online)
Vol.3, No.9, 2013

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exploring the ...
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environment, p...
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3. Study Desig...
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addition, a si...
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expressed by t...
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This study rev...
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Journal of Dru...
Developing Country Studies
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Table 2 Age of...
Developing Country Studies
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Table 8 Types of crimes (N=18...
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Drug crime nexus explored-a study on the youths of selected urban areas in munshiganj district, bangladesh

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Drug crime nexus explored-a study on the youths of selected urban areas in munshiganj district, bangladesh

  1. 1. Developing Country Studies ISSN 2224-607X (Paper) ISSN 2225-0565 (Online) Vol.3, No.9, 2013 www.iiste.org Drug-Crime Nexus Explored: A Study on the Youths of Selected Urban Areas in Munshiganj District, Bangladesh Tauhid Hossain Khan1* Dr. Md. Ziaur Rahman2 1. Lecturer, Department of Sociology, Jagannath University, Dhaka-1100, Bangladesh 2.M.A. Calgary, Ph.D. Calgary (Canada) ,Professor, Department of Sociology, University of Dhaka, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh, E-mail: zia_soc71@yahoo.com * E-mail of the corresponding author:thkhan85@gmail.com Abstract The literatures on the ‘drug abuse–crime’ connection reveal that there is a causal relationship between abusing drugs and involvement in criminal activities. The findings of this study affirmed that relationships exist between drug abuse and involvement in criminal offences indeed vis-à-vis studying a selected sample of one hundred and eighty two drug addicted youths in Munshiganj district, Bangladesh. This study found that a significant number of respondents (73.54%) addicted by the influence of peer groups while a considerable number of addicts (37.87%) took drugs because of broken family or family conflicts. This study also reveals that a significant number of the drug addicts have experience of committing property crimes while more than half the addicts are involved in personal crimes. In addition, it shows that specific types of crimes are related to the particular content of drugs. The findings of the study have been explained through sociological, psychological and biological theories. Keywords: Drug abuse, Crime, Bangladesh, Sub culture. 1. Introduction Criminal activities committed by youths are not only a national issue but also a global phenomenon. Likewise, drug addiction is a growing national concern in Bangladesh. Drug-crime nexus is well known issue ; “The association between drugs and crime in the public mind is so strong that a recent psychology experiment showed the word “drug” tightly linked to such words as “choke,” “knife,” “fight,” and “wound” in participants’ associative memory networks (Bushman, 1996:811)”. In the context of Bangladesh, there are millions of drugaddicted people and most of them are young (Shemul, 2009). In a same manner, addicted people are found in all strata of the society. According to a daily newspaper of Bangladesh(BSS, 2013:3), “The trend of drug consumption is higher in youth and teenagers , their age spanning between 15 and 30 years .They come from all strata of society”. As a result, the country is going to be transformed into potential users of drugs with the rapid increase in the number of addicts among the young population. During the initial stage of drug addiction by youths, it is the premature stage (on the way to commit crime), drugs become a habit, and the abuser seeks to have more. Gradually the abuser takes drugs at-least 4-5 times a week. At the outset, the drug users manage the money for purchasing drugs. They take money from their family, and sometimes from the other sources; they take drugs with their friends. And after a few days they desire to take more and become dependent on it both psychologically and physically. In dealing with the drug-crime nexus, a metaphor ‘reflexive action’ can be stated. For example, we can’t imagine fire without smoke or vice versa. Inciardi , Horowitz and Pottieger (1993),Baron (1999), and Karofi (2012) argue that the drug-crime relationship is interactive. Crime, they think, finances the use of drugs. Continuous use of drugs encourages more use of drugs and more use of drugs in turn encourages more crimes. There have been mounting literatures that revealed the marriage between the using drugs and getting involved in criminal activities. Some socio demographic factors have special momentum in this regard. For example, age of the drug addicted has drawn the attention of the global scholars. Scholars argued that many young offenders commit a wide variety of crimes which are caused by drug use. Even if it is assumed that the use of drug is not a direct cause of crime, it is interesting that a large proportion of youth who get involved in criminal justice agencies (the police, the courts and custodian institutions) are usually regular drug users (Karofi, 2012). A United Nation Report (1989) indicated criminal activities as an apparent aftermath of drug abuse. In many cases, drug users literally do any negative acts to obtain enough money to satisfy their drug use habits (Karofi,2012).It is found that drug abusers tend to gain most income by theft, prostitution and drug peddling. There is a clear evidence that as a person‘s drug use increases his involvements in criminal activities (Bennett, 1998 and 2000), albeit it is not necessarily true in all situations. Even in those situations where they are engaged in criminal activities, it is not sufficient to justify drug abuse as the sole cause of criminal behavior (Karofi, 2012). In this regard, some micro and macro factors predisposing drug abusers to criminal behaviors can be considered for an adequate understanding of crime as a dependent variable. This study aims at 69
  2. 2. Developing Country Studies ISSN 2224-607X (Paper) ISSN 2225-0565 (Online) Vol.3, No.9, 2013 www.iiste.org exploring the drug-crime nexus in the context of urban youths of Bangladesh. In doing so, this study investigates the causes of drug addiction and content of drugs, explores the nature of criminal activities committed by the drug addicted youths. It also attempts to identify the type of drug use associated with the type of crime. There is a welcome growth of literature in recent years revealing the causal relationships between drug abuse and criminal behavior. Bennett (2000) identified five arresting explanations on ‘drug abuse- crime nexus’. As per the first view, drug abuse causes crimes. In terms of the first view by Bennet, Goldstein, Rosonis and Heald (1992), Baron(1999),Mackesy-Amitir and Fendrick(l999) offered some examples of this explanation. The second one is that crime causes drug use. It is further explained and illustrated by Bennett (1998 and 2000). The third one is that both drug abuse and crime are caused by other factors. A ground breaking interpretation is provided by Becker (1963) in this regard. The fourth one is that, the relationship between drug-abuse and crime is reciprocal (Inciardi, et al. 1993). Finally, drugs and crime are not causally connected, but simply coexist within a complex setting of events that include both (Bennett, 2000: 54; Karofi, 2012). There have been mounting arguments in the discourse of drug-crime causation. Some argue that most addicts commit economic-associated crimes to sustain their addictive behavior. Others opine that drug users are more frequently involved in personal crimes like assault, family quarrels, violent crimes, and prostitution. In this regard, Goldstein (1985) thinks that there is a causal relationship between drug use and violence. In this perspective, micro factors are those that are learned in the process of interaction. Social deviation and criminality are learned through peer pressure, family members, on the street, at school, contact with criminal justice agents, mass media, individual frustration etc. On the contrary, macro factors predisposing people to social deviation and criminality are structural. Some of well known structural factors are social disorganization, weak social control, a host of social problems caused by social structure, population heterogeneity, environmental factors, inequality, unemployment, poverty, broken homes etc (Goldstein,1985). Whereas the connection between drug use and crime involves with illicit drug sales , illicit drug use is a necessary prerequisite to illicit drug sales. It therefore follows logically that the drug market is one mechanism by which substance abuse causes crime. Mernard‘s (2001) findings comply with Goldstein’s(1985)Tripartite Conceptual Framework in this regard. He shows that psychopharmacological inducements to commit offence were evidently attributed to alcohol use and other illicit drug usage. For example , among street addicts, economic compulsive motivation played a great role in their participation in property offences. Furthermore, involvement in illicit drug sales leads to violence. Many researchers, for example, Spunt and Goldstein (1994) , Sommers and Baskin (1999) concluded that the drug distribution market is deemed as just another domain of community life that is troubled with violence; where violence is a general culture. On the contrary, there has been a couple of studies conducted by the scholars like Bennet (1998), Otero-lopez,Martin,Miron-Redondon,Carrillo-De-la-Pena and Romero-Trinanes (1994), and Hser, Anglin and Chous (1992) unearthing correlation of the criminals to drug use was involve in income generating crimes viz. multiple types of theft, many shopliftings and handling stolen goods, and supplying drugs. In the case of child development process from adolescent to adulthood, children learnt patterns of behavior whether pro social behavior (that is condoned) and /or antisocial behaviors (deemed as anti-social).This process undergoes the socializing agents like family, school, religious and other community institutions and their peer groups. Socialization then follows the same processes of learning that produces pro social or antisocial behavior. To Mernard (2001:6), Children are socialized through processes involving four constructs: (a) perceived opportunities for involvement in activities and interactions with others, (b) the degree of involvement and interaction, (c) the skills to participate in these involvements and interactions, and (d) the reinforcement they perceive as forthcoming from performance in activities and interactions. When socializing processes are consistent, a social bond develops between the individual and the socializing agent. This social bond, once strongly established, has the power to affect behavior independently by creating an informal control on future behavior (Mernard, 2001). This control inhibits deviant behaviors through the establishment of an individual's "stake" in conforming to the norms and values of the socializing unit (Mernard 2001: 6). The arguments of Catalano and Kosterman (1996) comply with Mernard (2001) in the case of the effects of the predictors or factors learnt from the socialization agencies. They further empirically revealed that multiple biological, psychological, and social factors at different levels in different social domains (i.e., within the individual and in the family, school, peer group, and community) all contribute in some degree to the development of such problems as delinquency and drug use (Catalano and Kosterman, 1996).There have been welcome growth of empirical evidences, conducted by Navaratnam and Foong (1988), Baron (1999), Acarid , Burton and Cullen (2000), Miethe and Meier (1994), and karofi( 2006), revealed that peer pressure, learning and sub-culture as important determiner of associating drug use and criminal behavior. On the contrary, a group of scholars like Ramsay and Percy (1996), Johnson, Golub and Fagan (1995), Leslie (1989), Miller, Downs and Gondoli(1989), McCarthy and Hagan, (1991) proved that socio-economic factors including 70
  3. 3. Developing Country Studies ISSN 2224-607X (Paper) ISSN 2225-0565 (Online) Vol.3, No.9, 2013 www.iiste.org environment, poverty, broken homes, urbanization, and improper family socialization are responsible for both drug abuse and criminal behavior ; causation between drug abuse and crimes or vice versa. In Western societies, the plethora of disclosing drug and deviant or criminal behavior connection was both recorded and fuelled by a particular theoretical approach regardless of sociological, biological and psychological perspectives within the social sciences. This study deems Becker’s (1963) learning/sub-culture point of view to explain the drug-crime connection. To Becker (1963), deviant behaviors in general are not only learned through interaction, but are also enhanced through career. In the first stage peer groups train the deviant how to deviate. The second stage is that he/she is rejected by his/her society. After the rejection he/she joins a deviant group in a form of a sub-culture. A beginner of marijuana use must first learn how to use it. Becker (1963), a prominent sub-culture theorist, in his study of how marijuana is used, found that beginners must have learned three things: (a) how to smoke the drug in a way that will produce real effects; (b) how to recognize the effects and connect them with drug use (learning in other words, to get high); and finally (c) learning to enjoy the sensations he perceives and to interpret the sensations as pleasurable. In explaining drug-crime linkage, Paul Goldstein’s (1985) conceptual essay offered a tripartite classification of drugs-crime connections. The Psychopharmacological views argued that many people associate drug intoxication with crime, sometimes even violent crime. This so-called psychopharmacological link implies that people may commit crimes or sometimes violent crimes after using certain substances recognized as undermining judgment and self-control, generating paranoid ideas and/or distorting inhibitions and perceptions (Single, 1998). Although all drugs that have an impact on the nervous system may cause these kinds of reactions, the scientific literature suggests that some drugs are more strongly associated than others with violence of this type. Those drugs include alcohol, PCP (phencyclidine), cocaine, amphetamines and barbiturates (Wright and Klee, 2001). Inversely, Heroin and cannabis are generally associated with a weaker desire to use violence to resolve disputes. Another well known aspect of his theory , by Goldstein’s (1985) , regarding the drug crime connection ‘economic-compulsive link’ stated that drug users commit crimes to finance their drug use. More specifically, according to this explanatory model of the drug-crime relationship, the compelling and recurrent need for drugs and their high price lead some users to commit crimes to obtain the money they need to buy drugs. This model focuses on individuals who have developed a dependence on expensive drugs and assumes that the large amounts of money associated with frequent use of certain illegal drugs constitute an incentive for criminal action. Finally, systematic aspect implies that violence associated with the marketing of illicit drugs is turf battles, contract disputes, and so on. However, the above mentioned empirical review prompted the conduct of this study, to make a study with a view to exploring the relationship between drug addiction and criminal behavior of the youths in the context of Bangladesh. Much has been researched and written about the epidemiology of drugs, causes of drug addiction or nature of drug addiction in Bangladesh, but there was no single local study devoted to the understanding and explanation of the criminal behavior of the youths as consequence of drug addiction. While the use of certain categories of drugs cannot be attributed to some kinds of criminal offences, literature suggests that those who abuse expensive drugs like marijuana, ganja (Cannabis), heroin, cocaine and other illicit drugs, often command funds to sustain their addictive behaviors, which, in turn lead them to a wide range of criminal behaviors in order to sustain their drug addictions. Other crimes associated with drug addiction of course include those crimes that result in the distribution and marketing of drugs and or crimes like corruption, fraud, embezzlement, money laundering that are linked to drug trade in general. In addition, it is estimated that the number of addicts in Bangladesh is more than six million who spend over TK 70 million every day on illegal narcotics (BSS, 2013). In this regard , a particular age group is momentous to explain the drug – crime issues in Bangladesh because the most vulnerable groups are youths and teenage while the average age of the drug addicts in Bangladesh is 22 years (BSS , 2013) ; by various traits they are mostly students, male, poor, unmarried and many more (BSS , 2013). According to police (BSS, 2013:3), “in the last two or three years, many more teens have been arrested for using drugs than ever before”. Under these circumstances, questions can be raised: whereas youths are the future builder of our nation, why are they being addicted? What are the newly added narcotics available to the urban youths of Bangladesh? Although the nexus between drug and criminal behavior or vice versa is taken for granted, what are the newly added crimes committed by the youths beyond traditional one? 2. Research Questions This study focused on the following questions: • What is the relationship between drug abuse and criminal activities? • To what extent are drug abusers involved in criminal activities? • Why are drug abusers involved in criminal activities? • What is the relationship between the particular type of drugs and particular type of Crimes? 71
  4. 4. Developing Country Studies ISSN 2224-607X (Paper) ISSN 2225-0565 (Online) Vol.3, No.9, 2013 www.iiste.org 3. Study Design and Participant The study is about one hundred and eighty two drug addicts who were drawn from two local government unit of Munshiganj sadar upazila , Bangladesh called Munshiganj Pourashava and Panchasar union ,using snowball sampling. The population was unknown because no organization or institutions like rehabilitation centre or hospital was found from where the exact figure of the total addicted could be found. Based on this rationale, snowball sampling was adopted to collect data. The unit of analysis was the all male and female drug addicted youths whose age do not exceed 30 years old. This age group was specified in this rationale that this group is prone to drug addiction, which has access to information about newly emerged drugs and show the most violent or criminal conduct. The survey was conducted with the help of interview schedule, for present study was conducted for a period of three months during October –December 2012. There were 10 interviewers including the researcher were responsible for data collection. All of the field interviewers were recruited from the study area. Some of them had experiences of conducting survey-interview and case study. In terms of having quality of data, the interviewers were were trained on data collection mechanism, the art of data collection and were briefed comprehensively on the data collection instruments (e.g. interview schedule, case study guideline etc). After getting the training, the interviewers went to the field. The researcher himself along with other interviewers administered the survey among the respondents according to the sampling plan set out earlier. The time limit of the accomplishment of an interview was not specified because it depended upon the rapport they could build. Before approaching the respondents, the interviewers informed them about the purpose of this study, topics under study and the need for collecting data. The data collection team then sought their cooperation and formal permission to administer survey. The quality of data, quantitative or qualitative, largely depends on the interviewer’s skill and in wider sense on the overall nature of the study and its subjects (Patton, 1990; Khan, 2011). To maintain the richness, originality and authenticity, the researchers use the cross verification technique to obtain quality data from the respondents. In this case interviewees’ freedom and rights were considered to maintain the ethical standard of the research. By validity it is commonly understood the need to use the most appropriate research design for what you are studying (Blalock, 1985; Khan, 2011). What the researcher have done is to design the research to ensure internal validity, hoping that the consistency between the patterns observed in the data and the explanatory arguments proposed will be a clear test for that. In this regard, we triangulated data from different sources. However, validity cannot be achieved without the research first being reliable. Reliability has to do with the consistency of findings and, in that sense, is directly related to procedures of data handling and analysis. Along the process of analysis of data, reliability was a constant concern and all efforts were made to guarantee reliability of findings. The efforts were concentrated around two specific issues perceived as the most relevant threats to reliability (and to validity) within the research carried out - avoiding ambiguity in the analysis, namely not taking correlation for causation; controlling for interaction, i.e. controlling for co-occurring effects that may render some phenomena invisible. 4. Findings of the Study 4.1 Background characteristics of the participants Among the sampled population, most of the respondents 98.6% were male. By the marital status of the respondents, majority of the respondents (68%) were unmarried whereas a significant number of respondents were married (24%) and other (8%). The maximum age was 30 years and minimum age was 15 years with average 19 years and standard deviation 4.89 years. In terms of respondent’s level of education, most of the respondents (56.1%) passed secondary school certificate exam (SSC). On the contrary, a considerable number of respondents (16.4%) passed HSC and only 2.3 % respondents completed graduation. A significant number of respondents who has no education and completed primary education are 20% and17% respectively. In terms of respondents’ occupations, most of the respondents (55.2%) are students. But a considerable number of respondents (16%) are neither student nor employed with any sort of job. In terms of total monthly family income, the majority of the respondents’ (53.1%) family income ranges between less than Tk.10, 000-Tk.20, 000 per month. On the contrary, a significant number of respondents’ (33.9%) monthly family income is between Tk.20, 000-Tk.30, 000. Of the respondents surveyed, in terms of their religious affiliation, majority of the respondents (84.4%) are Muslim. 4.2 Nature of Grown up Table 1 shows that majority of the respondents (65%) have been growing up with their parents. On the contrary, a significant number of respondents have been growing up in the absence of either father (38%) or mother (16%). The respondents who have residential experience of hostel or hall or mess are 36%. 4.3 Age of first use of drug Table 2 reveals that more than half of the respondents (53%) who took drug at the age of 20 -25 years old. In 72
  5. 5. Developing Country Studies ISSN 2224-607X (Paper) ISSN 2225-0565 (Online) Vol.3, No.9, 2013 www.iiste.org addition, a significant number of respondents (21+8=29%) experienced initial drug use at the age of 20-25 years old. On the other hand, a considerable number of respondents (18%) are aged to 25-30 years age group when they experienced to have drug at first. 4.4 Contents of drug Respondents were asked ‘what are the drugs they generally take? According to table 3, all most all of the respondents (96%) reports that they take Yaba. Likewise, a significant number of respondents take phensidyl (89%) and cannabis (67%). The rate of Heroine and Viagra use are 45% and 57% respectively. 4.5 Causes of drug addiction Participants were asked ‘why they were addicted to drugs or alcohol? Most of the respondents reported that drug use was learnt from peer group. In addition, a significant number of respondents (59.76%) reported that they took drug because of curiosity or making fun. Broken family or family conflict was responsible for 37.87 % of the respondents while the major structural variable unemployment played very trivial role. 4.6 Attitude toward the drug-crime connection or vice versa A couple of questions were asked to solicit information from the respondents based on the relationship between their use of drugs and involvement in criminal activities. For example, ―Did you commit any crime to confirm your drug use habit? Table 5 below describes the responses provided by the respondents. The table 5 shows that most of the respondents (67%) attributed their involvement in criminal activities to support their use of drug habit while 33% of the re3spondents answered negatively .This means the respondents’ involvement in criminal activities had nothing to do with their drug habit. But beyond this habit, this big differences between the yes and no responses of the subjects indicate that abusing drugs might not in all situations predispose the drug abusers to commit crime .Concerning those who answered positively, drug abuse is one of the influential factors among a series of factors that lead addicts to be involved in criminal activities .do not commit crimes at all, or their involvement in criminal activities had nothing to do with their drug use habit. But beyond this, the big differences between the yes and no responses of the subjects‘ indicate that abusing drugs might not in all situations predispose the drug abusers to commit crime. Concerning those who said yes, abusing drugs might thus be among a series of factors that lead addicts to be involved in criminal activities Additionally, there were two other items that were added in the questionnaire. In this regards, the two additional statements (items) were: Item I -There is a relationship between your casual drug(s) use and your criminal activities. Item II- There is a causal relationship between your criminal activities and casual drug use. The responses to the above two items are presented in Table 6 and 7 respectively. Tables 6 and 7 reveal that a significant number of respondents (54%) and (33.9%) reported that a relationship exists between the respondents’ drug use habit and their engagement in criminal activities. However, in both cases a considerable number of respondents (11% and 18.8%) were neither agree nor disagree or undecided about the relationship. Putting together ―Disagree and ―Strongly Disagree – a significant number of respondents 44.2% and 38.1% respectively might either not have had any criminal involvements or found no relationship between their drug use and criminal activities and vice versa. From Tables 6 and 7 the results indicate that the respondents understood the two items because the percentages obtained in both the tables are quite similar. This interpretation shows acceptance of the view that there might be other factors rather than drugs could be responsible for causing drug users to commit crimes. Drug abuse might not be a major contributing factor but might be one among many factors. 4.7 Types of committed crimes Finally, to find out what type of crime the respondents were involve in, the type of crime the respondents were involved in, respondents were asked to state which type of offences they committed. Based on the nature of crimes, these are opertionalised under three umbrella –personal, property and drug related . According to table 8, all most all of the respondents were involved in property and drug related crimes .In addition, a significant number of respondents were involved in personal crimes. This is an indication that the drug addicts might resort to income generating criminal activities i.e. economic-associated crimes in order to sustain their use of drugs. Moreover, the data above show that the relationship might exist between drug use and involvement in criminal behaviours. Thus, it is further assumed that what is illustrated in the table 8 supports the theoretical argument that involvements in criminal activities by drug using population might be economiccompulsive. 4.8 Type of Drugs associated with Type of Crimes An additional calculation based on the drug use and committed crimes revealed that the respondents (74.5%) who addicted by Heroine, Yaba, Cannabis, Phensydl, Alcohol, Pethydrin ,Vayagra are likely to commit property crimes. On the other hand, people using Yaba, alcohol, Viagra are likely to commit personal crimes by 62.33% .Similarly the respondents who take Phensydl and Yaba are likely to commit drug related crimes. As presented above, it can be concluded that the evidence provided by data combined with the opinions 73
  6. 6. Developing Country Studies ISSN 2224-607X (Paper) ISSN 2225-0565 (Online) Vol.3, No.9, 2013 www.iiste.org expressed by the respondents suggested the existence of a relationship between drug abuse and criminal activities. 5. Discussion The findings of this study revealed a relationship between drug abuse and involvement in criminal activities. This result is in accord with both the national and international empirical studies. As documented by the research results, Yaba, Heroine and Cannabis, alcohol were the most popular drugs being abused by the respondents . At the national level, Feroz (2013) also ascertain that the major abusing drugs in Bangladesh were Heroine, Phensydyle, ganja(Cannabis), Pethedine, tranquilizers, and poly drug abuse, especially by young and adolescents using inhalants or psychotropic substances in varying combination with or without alcohol. Government data in Bangladesh also documented that recently added drug, yaba, generally addicted by the youths was rising and alarming (Annual Drug Report of Bangladesh-2010, 2011). Currently, Yaba has become popular and fashionable drug among youths in Bangladesh. On the contrary, cough syrup Phensedyl remains the most popular among the masses because of its low price and easy availability (BSS, 2013). The concerned of Bangladesh government is also supported by the findings of this study (Table 3). At the international level, the National Drug Research Centre of University Science Malaysia( Karofi, 2012), in presenting the Patterns and Trends of Drug Abuse in Selected South Asian Cities, acknowledged that heroin was the main drug abused in Colombo, Dhaka and New Delhi. The findings of this research are also consistent with those found in the United States by Jones (1999) . On the other hand, Bernholz (2002), Karofi (2012) presenting the drug abuse scenario in Africa found that cannabis was used extensively in all 10 countries which is consistent with our study. The findings of the present study reveals that drug addicted are involved in criminal activities .It is found that 67% respondents reports that they committed crime as an output of drug use, although all most all of the respondents agree with items indicating causal relation of drug and crimes (table 6 and 7). According to the types of crime, the study reveals that 87.54% respondents are involved in income generating or property crimes. These discoveries are similarly consistent with mounting national and internal evidences, e.g., Hossain and Mamun (2006), Karofi( 2012) and BSS(2013). Makkai and Doak (2000) also indicated in their sample of police detainees in Australia, who are criminally active that participants were most frequently detained for property offences (40.9 %) which are also similar to the findings of this research. The range of offences indicates that drug use is a factor predisposing persons to a variety of crimes. Makkai and Doak (2000) thus conclude that a large number of police detainees, regardless of their offence types were drug users. The findings, above reviewed, are also accorded with the ‘economic- compulsion’ crime as mentioned by Goldstein (1985) in related to drug/violence nexus. Thereby, if drug addicted people involve in crime relation to drug trade and trafficking, it will be nothing anomaly. Similarly, our study also shows significant number of drug related crimes (table 8) which is consistent with the available literature at the national and international level. This study unearths some facts about Bangladesh that are matter of concerned for policy makers, researchers, and intellectuals. This study reveals that personal crimes were reported by the more than half of the respondents (56.83%). This therefore requires some sociological interpretation in the case Bangladesh. Bangladesh is facing the frequent incidence of sexual harassments, rapes, unemployment, campus violence, domestic violence, and abuses of communication and information technology (viz. internet, satellite, mobile phone). These features might be related to the structural variables such as cultural lag, detradionalization , lumpen development , unbridled industrialization and urbanization. Personal crimes, albeit it ever and anon happens silently, are not less dangerous for a society than other types of crime. The data of this research indicates that socio-economic factors such as family stricture, role of family in socialization, peer group association ,frustration and unemployment have influence on getting involved in criminal activities in order to support drug use habit by the drug abusers. However, it is worth noting here that, as was anticipated, these factors are crucial predictors of criminal behavior in general. Many studies identified poverty as crucial predictors of criminal activities ,e.g., Hossain and Mamun ( 2006), Karofi( 2012), Cabrera (1999) , Baron (1999), Pfeffer and Cole (1998). Interestingly, the data of this study are not consistent with the conclusion, although some respondents (only 6.8%) reported that they took drugs because of joblessness. On the contrary, this study reveals that broken family or family conflicts, curiosity and frustration are responsible for drug use. So, on the one hand, constant need of funds to ensure availability of drugs and alcohol among youth necessitates the undertaking of criminal activities. On the other hand, curious youths take drug as a fun in association with their addicted peers at the outset. In addition, Frustration might be produced from broken family that causes drug use which result in committing crime. Under these circumstances, according to the findings of the study, it is worthless to say poverty causes drug use. The causes of drug use and criminal behavior explored by these study findings are consistent with Becker’s (1963) ‘sub culture’ theoretical perspective. 74
  7. 7. Developing Country Studies ISSN 2224-607X (Paper) ISSN 2225-0565 (Online) Vol.3, No.9, 2013 www.iiste.org This study reveals that the respondents who generally take the drugs such as Heroine, Yaba, Cannabis, Phensydl, Alcohol, Pethydrin Vayagra are likely to commit property crimes (Table 9).This finding is consistent with Goldstein’s (1985) assertion of ‘economic –compulsion’, because all are related to money consuming and fuel to commit income generating crimes. According to our study, 62.33 % respondents who are addicted by Yaba, alcohol, Vayagra are likely to commit personal crimes. This is also accord with the Goldstein’s (1985) psychopharmacological aspect of his theory. Since the peopled addicted by the drug such as Yaba, alcohol, Vayagra are likely to commit personal crimes which are generally taken place when people lose self control undermining self judgment as well as originated from paranoid ideas. This study also reveals that the respondents who take Phensydl and Yaba are likely to commit drug related crimes complying with the available reports of the daily newspaper of Bangladesh. The Department of Narcotics Control (DNC) of Bangladesh government expressed frequent concern about this issue taking an alarming factor into account –“around 10,000 cases are filed and 9000 people are arrested every year in connection with drug-related violence and crimes (BSS, 2013:3)”. 6. Concluding Remarks This paper is based on a research conducted to study the relationship between drugs abuse and criminal behavior using data collected from urban youths of Munshiganj district, Bangladesh. To answer the questions as well as to achieve the objectives, a quantitative methodology was adopted. Drawing a sample from the study area, this study found support for the initial assumption that a relationship exists between drug abuse and criminal activities. The objectives of the research have also been achieved. The study respondents attributed their involvement in criminal activities to both micro factors and the macro factor. The findings suggest that major causes and reasons of criminal activities among the sample are peer group pressure, broken family/family conflicts , curiosity or fun and frustration. The results of this study are consistent with previous empirical studies such as Becker (1963), Baron (1999), Otero-lopez, Martin , Miron-Renondon, Carillo-Dela-pena, and Romero-Trainnens (1994) Goldstein, Rosonis and Heald (1992), and Karofi (2012).The results have been discussed in the context of the sociological perspective, adopting the ‘Integrative Theoretical Framework’ that merged micro and macro explanations attributes as causal model for deviant or criminal behavior including abusing illicit drugs and getting involved in criminal activities. References Acarid, L. F., BurtonJr,V. S. and Cullen, F. T.(2000). Gender and Crime among Felony Offenders: Assessing the Generality of Social control and Differential Association Theories. Crime and Delinquency, 37(2): 171. Baron, S. N. (1999). Street Youth and Substance Abuse. Youth and Society, 3(1):3-24. Bennett, T. (1998). Drugs and Crime: The Results of Research on Drug Testing and Interviewing Arrestees. Home Office Study 183. London: Home Office. Bennett, T. (2000). Drugs and Crime: The Results of the Second Development of the New- ADAM Programs. Home Office Study 205. London: Home Office. Becker, H. S. (1963). Outsiders: Studies in the Sociology of Deviance. New York: Free Press. BSS-A news agency of Bangladesh (2013). Drug Abuse Alarmingly Rising in Bangladesh. The Daily Star, 14 Aug ,p.3. Bushman, B.J. (1996).Individual Differences in the Extent and Development of Aggressive Cognitiveassociative Networks. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 22: 811–8. Cabrera, S. S. (1999). Drug Use Among Hispanic Youth: Examining Common and Unique Contributing factors. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences 21(1):9-18. Inciardi, J. A., Horowitz, R. and Pottieger, A. E. (1993). Street Kids, Street drugs, Street Crimes. Belmont, CA: Wads Worth. Johnson, B. D., Golub, A. and Fagan, J. (1995). Careers in Crack, Drug Use, Drug Distribution and nondrug Criminality. Crime and Delinquency, 41(1): 275- 295. Leslie, J. R.(1989). Family Dysfunctions and Female Delinquency.Crime and Delinquency 35(1): 31-44. Ramsay, M. and Percy, A. (1996). Drug Misuse Declared: Results of the 1994 British Crime Survey: Home Office Research Studies. No.151. London: Home Office Single, E. (1998).The Economic Costs of Illicit Drugs and Drug Enforcement. Policy Options, 19(October):2335. Wright, S. and Klee, H. (2001). Violent Crime, Aggression and Amphetamine: what are the implications for drug treatment services? Drugs: education, prevention and policy, 8(1): 73-90. Feroz, R. A. (2013).Drug Abuse in Bangladesh. Retrieved from: http://www.newstoday.com.(on 12.02.2012). Goldstein, P. (1985). The Drug/violence Nexus: A tripartite conceptual framework. 75
  8. 8. Developing Country Studies ISSN 2224-607X (Paper) ISSN 2225-0565 (Online) Vol.3, No.9, 2013 www.iiste.org Journal of Drug Issues, 14: 493–506. Goldstein, J., Rosonis, E. S. and Heald, E. P. (1992). A Comparison of Inner City and Upper-middle Class Youths’ Exposure to Violence. Journal of Adolescent, 13: 275-280. Hser, Y., Anglin, M. D. and Chous, C. P. (1992). Narcotics Use and Crime among Addicted Women: Longitudinal Patterns and Effects of Social Interventions; In Drug, Crime and Social Policy. (Mieczknowki, T. ed.), London: Ally and Bacon. Khan, T.H.(2011).Globalization and Transformation of Intimate Relationships: A Case Study of Peri-Urban Areas of Munshiganj District of Bangladesh , Germany: Lambert Academic Publishing(LAP). Makkai, T., Fitzgerrald, J., and Doak, P. (2000). Drug Use among Police Detainees. Bulletin on Crime and Justice. Caberra: Australian Institute of Criminology. Mackesy-Amiti, M. and Fendrich, M. (1999). Inhalant Use and Delinquent Behaviour among Adolescents: A Comparison of Inhalant users and other drugs users. Addiction 94(4): 555. McCarthy, B. and Hagan, J. (1991). Homelessness: A Criminogenic Situation. British Journal of Criminology Delinquency and Deviant Social Behaviour. 31(4): 393- 410. Mernard, S. (2001). The Tripartite Conceptual Framework in Adolescence and adulthood: Evidence from National Sample. Journal of Drug Issues ,31(4) . Miethe, T. D. and Meier, R. F. (1994). Crime and its social context. Albany: State university of New York Press Miller, B. A., Downs, W. R. and Gondoli, D. M. (1989). Delinquency, Childhood Violence and the Development of Alcoholism in Women. Crime and Delinquency. 35(1): 94-108 . Ministry of Home Affairs, Department of Narcotics Control (2011) Annual Drug Report of Bangladesh -2010, Dhaka: Government of the people’s republic of Bangladesh . Navaratnam, V. and Foong, L. (1988). Natural History of Heroin Addiction and Adjunctive Use. Research Report Series. No. 16. Penang: National Drug Research Centre, University Science Malaysia. Otero-lopez, J. M., Martin, A. L., Miron-Redondon, L., Carrillo-De-la-pena, M. T.and Romero-Trinanes, (1994). An Empirical study of the relation between Drug Abuse and Delinquency among Adolescents. British Journal of Criminology, 19:34-.46 Pfeffer, B. and Cole, K. (1998). Attributions of Youth Crime among British and Nigerian PrimarySchool children. Journal of Social Psychology , 138(2). Robert, A. T. Brezin, T., Paul, W. J. and Cullen, T. F. (2002). Strain, Personality traits, and delinquency: Extending general strain theory. Criminology: American Society of Criminology. 40(1): 29-43-29. Shemul, H.T. (2009) The Impacts of Drugs on Young Generation of Bangladesh. Retrieved from: www.modernghana.com, Access on: 23.02.2013. Spunt, B. and Goldstein, P. (1994). Alcohol and Homicide: Interview with Prison Inmates. Journal of Drug Issues 24(1&2). Sommers, I. and Baskin, D. R. (1999). Situational or Generalized Violence in Drug Dealing . Journal of Drug Issues 27(4) Stephen G. Tibbette, A. and Piquero R (1999). The influence of Gender, Low Birth Weight, and Disadvantage Environment in Eredicting Early Onset of Offending: A test of Moffit‘s interactional hypotheses. Criminology, 37(4):843-878. United Nations (1989). The United Nations Drug Control. New York: United Nations Annexure Table 1 Distribution of the respondents by the nature of bringing up (N=182) With whom/where they have grown up Per cent* With parents 65 Absentee father 38 Absentee mother 16 Step mother 22 Hostel /Hall/ Mess 36 Relatives 9 *These percentages add up to more than 100 because of respondents appeared in more than one category. 76
  9. 9. Developing Country Studies ISSN 2224-607X (Paper) ISSN 2225-0565 (Online) Vol.3, No.9, 2013 www.iiste.org Table 2 Age of first use of drug (N=182) Age ( in years) 10-15 15-20 20-25 25-30 Per cent 8 21 53 18 100.0 Total Table 3 Contents of drugs (N=182) Contents of drugs Per cent* Alcohol 87 Heroin 45 Phensidyl 89 Pethidine 31 Cannabis 67 Chorosh 34 Yaba 96 Vayagra 57 Sleeping pill 49 Seduxene 27 * These percentages add up to more than 100 because of respondents appeared in more than one category. Table 4 Distribution of the respondents by causes of drug addiction (N=182) Causes of drug addiction Per cent* Peer group 73.54 Broken family /family conflict 37.87 Frustration 17.34 Curiosity or fun 59.76 Unemployment 6.8 Failure in love 17.45 * These percentages add up to more than 100 because of respondents appeared in more than one category. Table 5 Committing crime to support drug use (N=182) Committing Crime to support drug use Per cent Yes 67 No 33 Total 100.0 Table 6 Relationship between your drug use and criminal activities (N=182) Level of agreement with item I Strongly agree Agree Neither agree nor disagree Disagree Strongly disagree Total Table 7 Relationship between your criminal activities and drug use (N=182) Level of agreement with the item II Strongly agree Agree Neither agree nor disagree Disagree Strongly disagree Total 77 Per cent 41 13 11 27 8 100.0 Per cent 20.1 13.8 18.8 17.2 30.1 100.0
  10. 10. Developing Country Studies ISSN 2224-607X (Paper) ISSN 2225-0565 (Online) Vol.3, No.9, 2013 Table 8 Types of crimes (N=182) Types of crimes Personal crime www.iiste.org Contents of Crimes Sexuality out of marriage (premarital and extramarital); Dowry; Domestic violence; Rap; Campus violence; Self made pornography and blackmailing; Child marriage. Per cent* 56.83 Mugging /hijacking; 87.54 chadabaji ; Forced prostitution; Gambling; Kidnapping ; Theft; Shoplifting ; Armed robbery/robbery; Frauding ( in or out of family) ; Pick pocketing; Illegal arms possessing and trading. Illegal Drug and alcohol trading. 92.72 Drug related crimes * These percentages add up to more than 100 because of respondents appeared in more than one category. Table 9 Type of drugs associated with type of crimes (N=182) Property crime Types of drugs Heroine Yaba Cannabis Phensydl Alcohol Pethydrin Vayagra Yaba, Alcohol Vayagra Phensydl Yaba Types of Crimes Property crimes Per cent* 74.5 Personal crimes 62.33 Drug related crimes 89.76 * These percentages add up to more than 100 because of respondents appeared in more than one category. 78
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