Complete solution for particles of nonzero rest mass in gravitational fields
Advances in Physics Theories and Applications www.iiste.orgISSN 2224-719X (Paper) ISSN 2225-0638 (Online)Vol.17, 201319Complete Solution for Particles of Nonzero Rest Mass inGravitational FieldsM. M. Izam1D. I Jwanbot2*G.G. Nyam31,2.Department of Physics, University of Jos ,Jos - Nigeria3. Department of Physics, University of Abuja, Abuja - Nigeria* E-mail of the corresponding author: firstname.lastname@example.orgAbstractIn a paper "The Golden Dynamical Equation of Motion for Particles of Nonzero Rest in Gravitational Fields"(Howusu 2004, Physics Essays 17(3)), the planetary orbital equation of motion for particles of nonzero rest mass ingravitational fields was derived. In this paper we used the series method to calculate the angle of deflection for aphoton that grazes the edge of the sun in the suns Gravitational field. Our results were found to fall withinexperimental, measurements.Keywords: Passive mass, Inertial mass, Gravitational field, Gravitational Potential, Deflection angle.1. IntroductionIt is known that the Newtons dynamical law of motion for a particle of nonzero rest mass in a gravitational field maybe stated as(1)In all inertial reference frames, where and are the inertial and passive masses, respectively; is theexternal gravitational field; and u is the instantaneous velocity.According to Newtonian physics, for particle of nonzero rest mass(2)Newton’s equation of motion in a gravitational field was given explicitly by(3)But it is now well established experimentally (Rindler, 1977) that the instantaneous passive and inertial masses for aparticle of nonzero rest mass are given by(4)Where c is the speed of light in vacuum. It therefore follows that according to the experimental facts available today,a most natural generalization of Newton’s dynamical equation for a particle of nonzero mass in a gravitational fieldis given by equation (1) as (Howusu, 1991),(5)The equation (5) clearly completes the corresponding pure Newtonian equation (3) with correction terms of allorders of c- 2. This equation also opened up the doors for theoretical investigation and experimental applications.
Advances in Physics Theories and Applications www.iiste.orgISSN 2224-719X (Paper) ISSN 2225-0638 (Online)Vol.17, 2013202. Theoretical FrameworkNow the instaneous total kinetic energy T for a particle of nonzero rest mass moving with an instantaneousspeed u is given by (Weinberg, 1972)(6)In all inertial reference frames also it follows from (4) that the instantaneous gravitational potential energy Vg for aparticle of nonzero rest mass in a gravitational field is given by (Logunor and Mestuirishvilli, 1989)(7)in all inertial reference frames. In a paper (Howusu, 2004), it was shown that the generalized law of motion (5) canbe written as(8)If we consider a particle of nonzero rest mass m0 moving in the gravitational field of a homogeneous sphericalsun of radius R and rest mass m0, then in spherical polar coordinates (r,θ, )with the origin at the centre of thesun the gravitational scalar potential Φg is given by (Moller, 1982); (9)WhereK=G (10)And G is the universal gravitational constant. If the particle moves in the equatorial plane of the body, then its polarangular coordinates is given by(11)Hence , according to equation (8), the equations of motion for the particle are given by(12)And(13)Now to integrate the azimuthal equation (13), we divide by to obtainor(14)Where is a constant of the motion. This is the instantaneous angular speed of the particle in terms of the radicalcoordinate according to equation (8).In the paper (Howusu, 2004) the planetary orbital equation according to equation (8) was approximated as
Advances in Physics Theories and Applications www.iiste.orgISSN 2224-719X (Paper) ISSN 2225-0638 (Online)Vol.17, 201321(15)In this paper we used the series method to solve the planetary equation (15).3. Mathematical DeductionsIn solving equation (15), we seek a series solution of the form(16)Where are constants to be determined. Differentiating equation (16) and substituting in equation (15)and comparing coefficients we obtain the following resultsFor n=0A0=0; or (17)For n=1, we have four solutions;IfA0=0, (18)(19)and if, (20)(21)For n=2, we have the following results;If A0=0, (22)(23)and, (24)where is an arbitrary constantIf , (25)(26)and, (27)Now we investigate the solutions by substituting in the constants we have determined., andThen the equation (16) becomes
Advances in Physics Theories and Applications www.iiste.orgISSN 2224-719X (Paper) ISSN 2225-0638 (Online)Vol.17, 201322(28)Collecting the first terms of the series and applying grazing condition, i.e., asWe have , (29)or (30)Similarly if, and , andapplying grazing condition and solving using quadratic formula, we obtain two values for as(31)or(32)These values of and gave us two deflection angles and respectively as the photon grazes the edge of thesun in the gravitational field of the sun.x (General Relativity Prediction ) (33)x (General Relativity Prediction ) (34)4. ConclusionIn this paper, we have takenπ/2 as the angle at the point the photon just touches the edge of the sun. It can also beseen that all the possible values obtained using the dynamical equation fall within experimental measurements. Itshould be noted that the results for which the coefficients, and , e.t.chave solutions that are physically unattainable.ReferencesHowusu S.X.K. (1991); On the Gravitation of Moving Bodies, Physics Essays 4(1):82-92Howusu S.X.K. (2004); the Golden dynamical Equation of Motion for Particles of Nonzero Rest Mass ingravitational fields, Physics Essays 17(3):19-22Logunov, A. and Mestvirishvilli M. (1989) the Relativistic Theory of Gravitation. Mir Moscow.Moller, C (1982); The Theory of Relativity. London: Oxford Clarendo Press.Rindler, W. (1977) Essential Relativity; Springer-Verlag, New York.Weinberg, S.W.(1972) Principles and Applications of the General Theory of Relativity John Willey and Sons; NewYork
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