Electrophysiological Responses to Errors
and Feedback in the Process of Action
Don M. Tucker1,2,
Marjorie Reed3 and
+ Author Affiliations
1. 1Electrical Geodesics, Inc., Eugene, Oregon
2. 2University of Oregon
3. 3 Oregon State University
1. Phan Luu, Electrical Geodesics, Inc., 1850 Millrace Dr., Eugene, OR 97403; email:email@example.com.
The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is believed to be involved in the executive control of actions, such as
in monitoring conflicting response demands, detecting errors, and evaluating the emotional significance of
events. In this study, participants performed a task in which evaluative feedback was delayed, so that it
was irrelevant to immediate response control but retained its emotional value as a performance indicator.
We found that a medial frontal feedback-related negativity similar to the error-related negativity (ERN)
tracked affective response to the feedback and predicted subsequent performance. Source analysis of
the feedback-related negativity and ERN revealed a common dorsomedial ACC source and a
rostromedial ACC source specific to the ERN. The oscillatory nature of these sources provides further
evidence that the ERN reflects ongoing theta activity generated in the mediofrontal regions. These results
suggest that action regulation by the cingulate gyrus may require the entrainment of multiple structures of
the Papez corticolimbic circuit.