Journal of Education and Practice                                                         www.iiste.orgISSN 2222-1735 (Pap...
Journal of Education and Practice                                                          www.iiste.orgISSN 2222-1735 (Pa...
Journal of Education and Practice                                                        www.iiste.orgISSN 2222-1735 (Pape...
Journal of Education and Practice                                                       www.iiste.orgISSN 2222-1735 (Paper...
Journal of Education and Practice                                                         www.iiste.orgISSN 2222-1735 (Pap...
Journal of Education and Practice                                                          www.iiste.orgISSN 2222-1735 (Pa...
Journal of Education and Practice                                                       www.iiste.orgISSN 2222-1735 (Paper...
Journal of Education and Practice                                                       www.iiste.orgISSN 2222-1735 (Paper...
Journal of Education and Practice                                                   www.iiste.orgISSN 2222-1735 (Paper) IS...
Journal of Education and Practice                                                          www.iiste.orgISSN 2222-1735 (Pa...
Journal of Education and Practice                                                               www.iiste.orgISSN 2222-173...
Journal of Education and Practice                                                           www.iiste.orgISSN 2222-1735 (P...
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[16 27]effect of problem solving teaching strategy on 8th grade students’ attitude towards science

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[16 27]effect of problem solving teaching strategy on 8th grade students’ attitude towards science

  1. 1. Journal of Education and Practice www.iiste.orgISSN 2222-1735 (Paper) ISSN 2222-288X (Online)Vol 1, No 3, 2010 Effect of Problem solving teaching strategy on 8th Grade students’ attitude towards Science Mushtaq Ahmad Malik (Corresponding author) Vice Principal Islamabad Model School for Boys, Islamabad Pakistan. mamalik27@yahoo.com Zubair Ahmad Shah Senior Subject Specialist (Education) Chak #49 NB, Tehsil and District Sargodha, Pakistan. zashah101@yahoo.com Zafar Iqbal Ph. D. Scholar Department of Education, National University of Modern Languages, Islamabad Muhammad Rauf Lecturer, Institute of Education and Research, University of the Peshawar, Pakistan rauf_ier@hotmail.comAbstract The study was conducted to explore, ‘The effects of problem solving teaching strategies on 8thgrade students’ attitudes toward science’. Pre-test, post-test design was selected for this study.Experimental group was exposed to problem solving teaching strategies, while the control group wasinstructed using traditional teaching methods. The study was conducted with 60 students 30 in eachexperimental and control group at a public high school at Islamabad the federal capital of Pakistan. A scaleregarding attitude towards science learning (AtSL) with Cronbach’s alpha 0.86 was administered to thestudents of both experimental and control groups. Data obtained was analyzed using t test. The findingsindicated that student in experimental group made positive improvement in attitude towards sciencelearning as compared to students in control group. Hence, it is recommended that science teachers’ mayincorporate problem solving teaching strategies in their teaching to improve students’ attitude towardsscience. Key words: problemsolving, attitude towards science learning (AtSL) 1. Introduction In this century, one can not conceive to live with out scientific gadgets. A handsome knowledge ofscience is necessary to lead a better life. Like developed countries imparting scientific knowledge is amongthe major objectives of education in Pakistani curricula especially at elementary level (Govt. of Pakistan,2006). Achieving objectives of science education completely and fully have never been possible in anycountry and so is the situation in Pakistan. As Mattern and Schau, (2002) described the situation, “Indeveloped countries, it has been determined that goals of science are never fully realized, that students donot like science lectures and that most have no preference for science”. Though scientific concepts arefunctioning in daily life but these are difficult and complex in nature. In learning these concepts, students’attitude and interests could play a substantial role among pupils studying science (Normah & Salleh, 2006).Students can succeed in science subject if they have attitude towards science (Erdemir, 2009). In scienceeducation, “The affective outcomes of instruction are as important as the cognitive outcomes. The affective 16
  2. 2. Journal of Education and Practice www.iiste.orgISSN 2222-1735 (Paper) ISSN 2222-288X (Online)Vol 1, No 3, 2010domain is characterized by a variety of constructs, such as attitudes, preferences, and interests. But negativeattitude toward a given subject leads to a lack of interest and avoidance of the subject” (Nurulazam,Rohandi, & Jusoh, 2010). It means, a positive attitude toward science will leads to a positive commitmentto science that will effect students’ lifelong interest and learning in science. According to Salta & Tzougraki, (2004), “Attitude is a tendency to think, feel, and act positivelyor negatively toward objects in our environment”. Attitude organizes thoughts, emotions and behaviorstowards a psychological object. Some attitudes are based on people’s own experiences, knowledge andskills, and some are gained from other sources (Erdemir, 2009). It can be concluded in words of Craker(2006) that attitudes are learned, not inherited. The attitudes toward science change with exposure to science, but that the direction of change maybe related to the quality of that exposure, the learning environment, and teaching method” (Craker, 2006).It can be said that a negative attitude towards a certain subject makes learning or future-learning difficult.As conceived by Nurulazam, Rohandi, & Jusoh, (2010), “A positive attitude toward science leads to apositive commitment to science that influences students’ lifelong interest and learning in science”. But oncethe attitudes are formed they are long lasting and difficult to change (Ajzen & Fishbein, 1980). Almost all researchers agreed that for science education one of the critical problems is thenegative attitude towards science (Ramsden, 1998), so to overcome this problem, study of attitude towardsscience and science learning should be conducted. The importance and role of attitude towards science canbe recognized from the researches’ findings showing positive relationship of attitude towards science andachievement, and students with more positive attitude towards science has sustainable learning, and alsowant to continue with those subjects they enjoy (Pell & Jarvis, 2001). Students’ attitude towards science atsecondary and elementary schools were extensively studied by Frazer and Walberg (1981); Ramsden(1998); Morrell and Lederman (1998); Myers and Fouts (1992) either by quantitative or qualitative method.These researchers provided revealing insight regarding attitude towards science and most of them havereported positive attitude of students towards science (Osborne, Simon, & Collins, 2003). Acquiring attitudes especially towards science is possible with student-centered education (Dede,2006). In this regard, detection of students’ attitudes can have a contribution to make interests and curiositylively and increase the success of students. Studies have revealed that teaching methods influence onstudents’ attitudes towards science (Adesoji, 2008; Gok and Sılay, 2008; Erdemir, 2009). On the other handattitudes, whether positive or negative, affect learning in science. Teaching methods in science educationinfluences attitudes and also predict achievement (Siegel, & Ranney, 2003; Erdemir, 2009). However, apositive attitude toward science can be developed through hands-on activities and other methods ofinstruction that excite students and encourage them to learn like problem solving teaching strategies. Gök,& Sılay (2010) were of the view that “One of the fundamental achievements of education is to enablestudents to use their knowledge in problem solving”. Problem-solving involves knowing what to do in the situation of not knowing what to do.Problem-solving is a process which covers a wide range of mental abilities. Students should realize whatand why they are doing, and know the strengths of these strategies, in order to understand the strategiescompletely and be able to select appropriate ones (Telli, Brok, Tekkaya, & Cakiroglu, (2009). In the wordsof Erdemir, (2009), “Problem-solving also involves a student’s willingness to accept challenges. Acceptinga challenge in this context means that the student is willing to find appropriate methods to solve aproblem”. Normah and Salleh (2006) discovered that students who can successfully solve a problempossess good reading skills, have the ability to compare and contrast various cases, can identify importantaspects of a problem, can estimate and create analogies and attempt trying various strategies. It can beconcluded in the words of Hetherington and Parke (1999), “Problem solving involves a higher level ofinformation processing than the other functions and mobilizes perception, attention and memory in aconcerted effort to reach a higher gaol”. 17
  3. 3. Journal of Education and Practice www.iiste.orgISSN 2222-1735 (Paper) ISSN 2222-288X (Online)Vol 1, No 3, 2010 Woolfolk (2004) describes problem solving process with two arguments; general problem solvingrelated to general areas and domain specific problem solving unique to some specific area such as maths orscience etc. People, with respect to the situation and level of their expertise, move between general anddomain specific approaches. On acquiring more domain knowledge, the general strategies are used less andproblem solving becomes more domain specific. Portolés and López (2008) concluded that problemsolving is a situational and context bound process that depends on the deep structures of knowledge andexperience”. Many surveys indicate that most of students are not able enough in acquiring knowledgeindependently and in the application of this knowledge to solve everyday life problems (Csapo &Korom,1998 in Molnar, 2003). In the process of teaching problem solving is suitable approach to involve studentsin higher order thinking operations like analysis, synthesis and evaluation (Kyurshunov, 2005). Erdemir,(2009) indicated “Many researchers argue that teaching methods have a great impact on students’ attitudeto learn a subject”. That’s why it is opted to find out the effects of problem solving teaching on students’attitude towards science learning because students will not be able to learn science concepts properly without having suitable level of attitude towards science. Sherman, Richardson & Yard, (2009) suggested aproblem solving strategy to use in classroom setting, described in detail as follows: 1. Establishing a context for interest incorporating problem solving in lessons. 2. Teaching a variety of heuristics e.g. organizing data in tables make drawings or diagrams, working back toward solutions may be helpful in solving the problems. The similar solutions can be applied to new problems. 3. Starting with simple problems make it easy for students to solve the next problem quickly as their confidence is raised. 4. Reward students for small successful steps as small words of praise again and again and giving positive comments are like rewards for students. On the other hand during the problem solving process suggestions or hints can also help the students. 5. Record of used tactics for problem solving in a journal way may be compiled with the help of students. 6. Provide sufficient time to solve problem 7. Guide the students in simplifying numbers given in the problem. 8. Help students to reduce reading difficulties This strategy helps the teacher to develop attitude towards science among the students. Gok andSılay (2008) worked on the effects of directive and non-directive problem-solving on attitudes andachievement of students in a developmental science course; the result was that attitude becomes morepositive after instruction. Pakistan, being a developing country, has always focused on science education in everyeducational policy. Science subject is compulsory only till 8th grade, while from 9th grade, enrollment inscience subjects is not compulsory. Unfortunately educational researchers focused less on scienceeducation and only a few research studies are available that explore the attitude towards science and effectof problem solving teaching on Pakistani students. This study is aimed to explore effect of problem solvingteaching strategy on students’ attitudes towards science leanings in Pakistani perspective because Machinaand Gokhley (2009) were of the view that “maintaining the levels of positive attitude towards science inearly years is easier than transforming the negative attitude to positive attitude in the following years”.1.1 Statement of the Problem 18
  4. 4. Journal of Education and Practice www.iiste.orgISSN 2222-1735 (Paper) ISSN 2222-288X (Online)Vol 1, No 3, 2010 Positive attitude towards science and science learning not only has strong positive relationshipwith achievement but also help students to make his career in science. In developing positive attitude,teaching methods are more effective than any thing else. The study aimed to find out the effect of problemsolving teaching on students’ attitude towards science learning. It was hypothesized that “There is no significant difference among the gain score of the students ofexperimental and control group on attitude towards science learning scale”. 19
  5. 5. Journal of Education and Practice www.iiste.orgISSN 2222-1735 (Paper) ISSN 2222-288X (Online)Vol 1, No 3, 2010 2. Method The study was experimental in nature and pre-test post-test design was found suitable. From theaccessible population of 150 students 60 students were selected randomly. These students were arranged indescending order on the basis of their previous exam scores. Then two groups each of 30 students wereformulated selecting students alternatively from the list. One group was taken randomly as control groupand the other was taken as experimental group. Both the groups were administered attitude towards sciencelearning scale as pre-test. Then the experimental group was treated with problem solving strategy in thesubject of general science and the other group was taught traditionally. To teach the experimental groupthrough problem solving strategy, lesson plans for each unit were developed according to problem solvingteaching method. Exemplary lesson plans are given in the appendix. Larger units were divided into two orthree parts, as per the 40 minutes duration of class period. Different problematic situations were developedfor students to solve in the class or for home work keeping in view the requirement of content and level ofstudents. Afterwards solutions were discussed in the class. This experiment was carried out for approximately 06 months. The long duration treatment wasgiven for the better change in attitude of the students. At the end of the experiment, both experimental andcontrol groups were again administered attitude towards science learning scale as post-test.2.1 Research Instrument Attitude towards science learning scale was used for this study. Much research has attempted tomeasure attitudes at different grade levels in schools especially towards science and science learning(Weinburgh (1995); Remin, Raymonan, Susan and Hanexia (1998); TOSRA by Frazer (1982); Krogh &Thomsen (2005); Salta & Tzougraki (2004); and Parkinso, Hendley, Tanner and Stables (1998)). Researchinstruments reported in these papers were developed in their own perspectives to measure attitudequalitatively or quantitatively. Blalock et al (2008) were of the view that most of the research instrumentsmeasuring attitude towards science during 1935-2005 lack adequate psychometric properties. So an attitude towards science learning in national language was developed and pilot tested.Exploratory Factor Analysis was used to identify subscales within the instrument and the internalconsistency of each scale (Cronbach alpha value) was found. Following the trial, a set of 23 statements (18positive and 5 negative statements) were selected. They seemed to fall into 4 subscales detail is given intable 1.2.2 Data Analysis Data were analyzed after taking gain score of the students subtracting pre-test score from post-testscores using SPSS software. The t-test was applied to find out the difference between the mean scores onthe gain scores. 3. Results There was significant difference between the mean gain scores of the experimental group andcontrol group and the hypothesis that “there is no significant difference between the mean gain scores ofthe students of experimental and control groups” was rejected as the t-value is 2.278 which is significant atα = 0.05. The mean gain score of students of experimental group (4.3) is higher than the mean gain score ofstudents of control group (2.33). The difference between the means shows that attitude of students ofexperimental group who were treated with problem solving teaching strategy improved more than theattitude of students of control group (Table 2). 4. Conclusion and Discussion The results of the study showed that attitude of students of experimental group treated withproblem solving teaching strategy improved more than students of control group who were taught through 20
  6. 6. Journal of Education and Practice www.iiste.orgISSN 2222-1735 (Paper) ISSN 2222-288X (Online)Vol 1, No 3, 2010traditional methods. It means that the problem solving teaching strategy is better teaching strategy toenhance the students’ attitude towards science learning. The findings of the studies Adesoji (2008),Akınoğlu and Tandoğan (2007), and Akay and Boz (2008) also favour the findings of this study as theyalso concluded that students in the experimental group developed more positive attitude towards sciencesubjects after the treatment of problem solving teaching. On the basis of the results of this study and othersit is recommended that the science teachers may incorporate the problem solving teaching strategy duringteaching science to improve the attitude of the students towards science learning so that students may beable to work better in the field of science.ReferencesAdesoji, F.A. (2008). Managing Students’ Attitude towards Science through Problem Solving Instructional Strategy. Anthropologist, 10(1): 21-24 (2008). Retrieved on June, 2010 from www.krepublishers.com/...Adesoji.../Anth-10-1-021-08-452-Adesoji-F-A-Tt.pdfAjzen, I., & Fishbein, M. (1980). Understanding Attitudes & Predicting Social Behavior. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Akay and Boz (2008). The Effect of Problem Posing Instruction on the Attitudes toward Mathematics & Mathematics Self-Efficacy. Retrieved on April, 2010 from ietc2008.home.anadolu.edu.tr/ietc2008/260Hayri%20Akay-1.doc.Akınoğlu, O., & Tandoğan, R. O. (2007). The Effects of Problem-Based Active Learning in Science Education on Students’ Academic Achievement, Attitude & Concept Learning. Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science & Technology Education, 2007, 3(1), 71-81. Retrieved April, 2010 from www.ejmste.com.Blalock, C.L., Lichtenstein, M.J., Owen,S., Pruski, L., Marshall, C. and Toepperwein, M. (2008). In Pursuit of validity: A Comprehensive Review of Science Attitude Instruments 1935-2005. International Journal of Science Education. 30: 7, 961-977.Craker, D. E. (2006). Attitudes toward Science of Students Enrolled in Introductory Level Science Courses at UW-La Crosse. UW-L Journal of Undergraduate Research IX, 1-6. Retrieved on May, 2010 from www.uwlax.edu/urc/JUR-online/html/2007.htmDede, Y. (2006). Mathematics Educational Values of College Students Towards Function Concept. Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science & Technology Education Volume 2, Number 1, February 2006. Retrieved on May, 2010 from www.ejmste.comErdemir, N. (2009). Determining Students’ Attitude towards Physics through Problem-Solving Strategy. Asia-Pacific Forum on Science Learning & Teaching, Volume 10, Issue 2, Article 1, p.5 Retrieved on May, 2010 from www.ied.edu.hk/apsfltHetherington, E. M. & Parke, R. D. (1999). Child Psychology.Boston: McGraw-Hill. Retrieved on July, 2010 from library.auckland.ac.nz/subjects/med/course-pages/psychiat747.htmGök, T., & Sılay, Đ (2010). The Effects of Problem Solving Strategies on Students’ Achievement, Attitude and Motivation. Lat. Am. Journal of Physics Education. Vol. 4, No. 1, Jan. 2010 Retrieved on July, 2010 from http://www.journal.lapen.org.mxGovt. of Pakistan (2006). National Curriculum for General Science IV-VIII. Ministry of Education.Krogh, L. B. & Thomsen, P.V. (2005). Studying Students’ Attitude towards Science from Cultural Perspective but with the Qualitative Methodology: Border Crossing into the Physics Classroom. International Journal of Science Education, 27:3, 281-302. Retrieved on July, 2010 from www.tandf.co.uk/journals/titles/09500693.asp 21
  7. 7. Journal of Education and Practice www.iiste.orgISSN 2222-1735 (Paper) ISSN 2222-288X (Online)Vol 1, No 3, 2010Kyurshunov (2005) Problem Solving. Science Education. Retrieved on July, 2010 from www.educ.umu.se/~popov/visby/Alexey_mc_paper.pdfMachina, K., Gokhley, A. (2009) Maintaining Positive Attitudes toward Science & Technology in First- Year Female Undergraduates: Peril & promise. International Journal of Science Education Volume 32, Issue 4 March 2010, pages 523 – 540. Retrieved on July, 2010 from www.informaworld.comMattern, N. & Schau, C. (2002). Gender Difference in Attitude-Achievement Relationships over time among White Middle-School Students. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 39(4), 324-340. Retrieved on December, 2010 from www.ied.edu.hk/apfslt/v10_issue2/erdemir/erdemir8.htmMolnár, G (2003). Study of Complex Problem-Solving in Real Life Problems. Ph. D thesis University of Szeged. Faculty of Arts. Retrieved on December, 2010 from www.staff.u- szeged.hu/~gymolnar/thesis.pdf.Morrell, P. D., & Lederman, N. G. (1998). Students Attitudes toward School & Classroom Science: Are They Independent Phenomena? School Science & Mathematics, 98, 76-82. Retrieved on December, 2010 from onlinelibrary.wiley.comMyers, R. E., & Fouts, J. T. (1992). A Cluster Analysis of High School Science Classroom Environments & Attitude toward Science. Retrieved on December, 2010 from onlinelibrary.wiley.comNormah. Y. & Salleh, I. (2006). Problem Solving Skills in Probability among Matriculation Students. Paper presented at National Educational Research Seminar XIII, 40-55. Retrieved on December, 2010 from www.ied.edu.hk/apfslt/v10_issue2/erdemir/erdemir8.htmNurulazam. A., Rohandi, & Jusoh, A. (2010). Instructional Congruence to Improve Malaysian Students’ Attitudes & Interests toward Science in Low Performing Secondary Schools. European Journal of Social Sciences – Volume 13, Number 1 (2010). Retrieved on December, 2010 from www.eurojournals.com/ejss_13_1_10.pdfOsborne, J., Simon, S., Collins, S. (2003). Attitude towards Science: A Review of the Literature & Its Implications. International Journal of science Education,25:9, 1049-1079. Retrieved on December, 2010 from opas.ous.edu/Committees/.../AttitudesOsborne_IntJSciEduc_2003.pdfParkinson, J. Hendley, D., Tanner, H. and Stables, A. (1998). Pupil’s Attitudes to Science in Key Stage 3 of the National Curriculum: A Study of Pupils in South Wales. Research in Science & Technological Education, 16:2, 165-176. Retrieved on December, 2010 from www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/0263514980160206Pell, T. & Jarvis, T. (2001) Developing Attitude to Science Scales for use with Children of Ages from Five to Eleven Years. International Journal in Science Education 23(8), 847-862 retrieved on October, 2009 from www.informaworld.com/index/713864602.pdfPortolés, J. J. S. and López, V. S. (2008). Types of Knowledge & their Relations to Problem Solving in Science: Directions for practice. Educational Science Journal. No,6 May/Aug. 08 ISSN 1 6 4 6‑6 5 0 0, Retrieved on January, 2011 from sisifo.fpce.ul.pt/pdfs/6_eng_otherarticles.pdf.Ramsden, P. (1998). Learning to Lead in Higher Education. London: Routledge.Renmin, Y., Raymonds, W.R., Susan, T. and Hanxia, R. (1998). Student Attitudes toward Science Learning: A Cross-National Study of American and Chinese Secondary school students. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the National Science Teachers Association (Las Vegas, NV, April 16-19, 1998). Retrieved on January, 2011 from www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/recordDetail?accno=ED425061 22
  8. 8. Journal of Education and Practice www.iiste.orgISSN 2222-1735 (Paper) ISSN 2222-288X (Online)Vol 1, No 3, 2010Salta, K., & Tzougraki, C. (2004). Attitudes towards Chemistry among 11th Grade Students in High Schools in Greece. Science Education, 88, 535- 547. Retrieved on January, 2011 from onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/sce.10134/pdfSherman, H.J., Richardson, L.I. & Yard, G.J. (2009). Improving Students Problem Solving Ability. Pearson Allyn Bacon Prentice Hall. Retrieved on January, 2011 from www.education.com/partner/articles/pearsonSiegel, M. A., & Ranney, M. A. (2003). Developing the Changes in Attitude about the Relevance of Science (CARS) Questionnaire and Assessing Two High School Science Classes. Journal of Research in Science Teaching Vol. 40, NO. 8, PP. 757–775 (2003). Retrieved on January, 2011 from www.interscience.wiley.com.Telli, S. Brok, P. D. Tekkaya, C., & Cakiroglu, J. (2009). Turkish Students’ Perceptions of their Biology Learning Environments: The Effects of Gender and Grade Level. Asian Journal of Educational Research & Synergy. Retrieved on January, 2011 from http://tue.academia.edu/documents/0094/2928/2009_Telli_den_Brok_Tekkaya_Cakiroglu.pdfWeinburgh, M. H. (1995). Gender Differences in Student Attitudes toward Science: A Meta analysis of Literature from 1970 to 1991. Journal of Research in Science Teaching. 32, 387-398. Retrieved on January, 2011 from onlinelibrary.wiley.comWolfolk, A. (2004). Educational Psychology. (9th Ed.). Delhi: Pearson Education Inc. Indian Branch.Table 1: Psychometric Properties of the Attitude ScaleFactor* Statement Number in Cronbach Example of item the scale Alpha1- Enthusiasm in science 1,3,6,7,8,11,12, 5,10 0.75 I can focus on the science topics during learning the class.2- Feeling pleasure 2,9,13,15,24 0.73 I really enjoy science lessons.3- Teacher interaction 14,17,18,20,21 0.65 Whenever I need to know any thing about science, I consult my teacher4- Disliking science subject 16,19,22,23 0.63 Science lessons are boring to me.Cronbach alpha for the whole scale 0.86* Rotation method – Varimax with Kaiser Normalization* Rotation converged in 8 iterations. 23
  9. 9. Journal of Education and Practice www.iiste.orgISSN 2222-1735 (Paper) ISSN 2222-288X (Online)Vol 1, No 3, 2010Table 2Showing mean score standard deviation and t-value for experimental and control groups Mean Std. Std. Error Groups N gain t df Sig. Deviation Mean score Control Group 30 2.33 12.3 2.25 2.278 58 0.026* Experimental Group 30 4.3 10.14 1.85Significant at p< 0.05 24
  10. 10. Journal of Education and Practice www.iiste.orgISSN 2222-1735 (Paper) ISSN 2222-288X (Online)Vol 1, No 3, 2010 Appendix PROBLEM SOLVING LESSON PLAN GENERAL SCIENCE (8TH GRADE) UNIT 31. Lesson Plan Title Liquid Pressure2. Subject Science3. Grade Level 8th4. Teaching Method Problem Solving The lesson will be completed with in two periods each of 35 minutes5. General Objectives After the lesson the students will be able to: i. Develop problem solving ability and higher order thinking ii. Solve different scientific problems / situations iii. Evaluate the solution of any problem iv. Reason about the correct solution of a problem.6. Specific Objectives Students will be able to: i. Describe the term ‘pressure in liquids’ ii. Explain the phenomena of ‘pressure at varying depth’. iii. State the properties of ‘liquid pressure’.7. Required Materials i. A tin with holes at different heights ii. A tin with holes at equal depth level. iii. A U-shape tube with a valve in the middle and two funnels8. Step-By-Step Procedure a. Brain Storming (10 minutes) Teacher will ask the following questions to make students think about the problem and lesson i.e. i. You might have read behind the heavy vehicles (trucks etc) “pressure breaks, keep distance” why it is written? ii. Which is heavier and why, an empty bucket or bucket full of water? iii. If you take out a cup of water from bucket full of water. No hole occurs in water, why? b. Presentation of the problem (05 minutes) Teacher will put the following problem before the students regarding liquid pressure. c. Problem: Ashfaq went to his friend, there he used wash room. He noticed that water coming from the tapwas with good pressure. He thought why water pressure of tap in my house is not good? How can youexplain him this phenomena. 25
  11. 11. Journal of Education and Practice www.iiste.orgISSN 2222-1735 (Paper) ISSN 2222-288X (Online)Vol 1, No 3, 2010 d. Appropriate context knowledge (20 minutes) After noting down the different solutions (reasons) given by the students, teacher will announcethat today’s topic is ‘Liquid Pressure’ and discuss the contents with the students (given on the page no 85-86 of the science textbook) which include following topics: a. Pressure in liquids b. Pressure in liquids varies with depth. c. Water keeps its own surface level. d. Liquid exerts pressure in all directions. Teacher will help the students to understand the concepts. Teacher will encourage the students toask questions to understand the text. Time for the following steps ‘e’ to ‘i’ is 15 minutes e. Identifying the goal After fifteen minuets, the teacher will ask the students that what the problem which they are tosolve is. f. Relevant starting conditions for the problem Following activities given in the content will be arranged for the students to understand the liquidpressure, its properties and find the solution of the problem. a. Activity about “pressure varies with depth”. b. Activity about “water keeps its own level”. c. Activity about “liquids exert pressure in all directions”. g. Solution search Solution search will include the discussion among the students to analyze the appropriateness ofevery solution presented by the students in which the whole class will take part and one solution will betaken as the best solution based on the content knowledge. h. Developing a plan of action to reach the goal Teacher will ask the students to state the liquid pressure and its properties in their own words. i. Implementing the Solution In this step, teacher will ask the students to analyze the selected solution and check its suitability. j. Evaluate the result (10 minutes) At the end, the teacher will ask the students to consider, whether the solution upon which theyagreed is correct. Time for the steps 8 and 9 is 10 minutes8. Assessment Based On Objectives For assessment of the students’ comprehension teacher will ask the questions like: i. Why liquid exerts pressure? ii. What are the properties of liquid pressure? 26
  12. 12. Journal of Education and Practice www.iiste.orgISSN 2222-1735 (Paper) ISSN 2222-288X (Online)Vol 1, No 3, 2010 iii. Explain through an activity that water exerts equal pressure in all directions.9. Home work For the extension purpose, and for the possible connections to other subjects, teacher will assignthe home work to the students. Write an example in your notebooks from your daily life other than given inthe textbook, that water exerts pressure in all directions. (You can discuss with your parents and relativesabout this). 27

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