11.vol 0003www.iiste.org call for paper no 2 pp 180-201
Issues in Social and Environmental AccountingVol. 3, No. 2 Dec 2009/Jan 2010Pp 180-201 Corporate Social Performance of Indian FMCG Companies Introduction of CSR, framework and Karmayog CSR Ratings with three top Indian FMCG companies CSR initiatives Saeed Khan The Jamnalal Bajaj Institute of Management Studies, Mumbai IndiaAbstractEffective Corporate Social Responsibilities or CSR initiatives shall be taken keeping all thestakeholder’s issues in mind including the legal, ethical, commercial and other expectationssociety has for the business. CSR initiatives in India are now taken by many companies. Espe-cially for the FMCG companies, where the major challenge is reduction of packaging materials,these companies are doing work in the field of Environment, Health care, Education, Commu-nity welfare, Womens empowerment and Girl Child care. Companies like Hindustan Unileverstarted work on CO2 reduction also. The websites of these companies are providing informa-tion about their CSR initiatives but are found not updated regularly. For checking their CSRperformance, Karmayog Rating is taken. The rating gives good insight on CSR ratings of majorFMCG companies of India. The method of calculating the rating also discussed. In appendices,India’s top three major FMCGs companies overall CSR initiatives are discussed.Keywords: Corporate Social Performance, Indian Companies, Corporate Social Responsibil-ity, CSR RatingsCorporate Social Responsibility wherever the organization does business– An Introduction – and includes responsibility for current and past actions as well as future im-What is CSR? pacts. CSR involves addressing the le- gal, ethical, commercial and other ex-Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) pectations society has for business, andis viewed as a comprehensive set of making decisions that fairly balance thepolicies, practices and programs that are claims of all key stakeholders. Effectiveintegrated into business operations, sup- CSR aims at “achieving commercialply chains, and decision-making proc- success in ways that honour ethical val-esses throughout the organization – ues and respect people, communities,Saeed Khan is a lecturer at The Jamnalal Bajaj Institute of Management Studies, Mumbai 164, Backbay Reclamation,HT Parekh Marg, Mumbai 200 020, India, email: firstname.lastname@example.org
181 S. Khan / Issues in Social and Environmental Accounting 2 (2009/2010) 180-201and the natural environment.” Simply welfare of society; takes into account theput, it means “what you do, how you do expectations of stakeholders; is in com-it, and when and what you say.” Several pliance with applicable law and consis-terms have been used interchangeably tent with international norms of behav-with CSR. They include – business eth- iour; and is integrated throughout theics, corporate citizenship, corporate ac- organisation.”3countability, sustainability and corporateresponsibility. The issues that represent As CSR issues become increasingly in-an organization’s CSR focus vary by tegrated into modern business practices,size (small, medium and large), sector there is a trend towards referring to it as(for example, financial institutions, in- “responsible competitiveness” orfrastructure providers, textile manufac- “corporate sustainability.”turers, agri-producers, supermarket re-tailers, etc.) and even by geographic re- A key point to note is that CSR is angion. In its broadest categories, CSR evolving concept that currently does nottypically includes issues related to busi- have a universally accepted definition.ness ethics, community investment, en- Generally, CSR is understood to be thevironment, governance, human rights, way companies integrate social, environ-the marketplace and the workplace.1 mental and economic concerns into their values, culture, decision making, strat-Defining the CSR egy and operations in a transparent and accountable manner and thereby estab-Corporate Social Responsibility is a con- lish better practices within the company,cept whereby companies integrate social create wealth and improve society. Asand environmental concerns in their issues of sustainable development be-business operations and in their interac- come more important, the question oftion with their stakeholders on a volun- how the business sector addresses themtary basis. ‘European Commission’ and is also becoming an element of CSR.the commitment of business to contrib-ute to sustainable economic develop- Above all, CSR is about sensitivity toment, working with employees, their context—both societal and environ-families, the local community and soci- mental—and related performance. It isety at large to improve their quality of about moving beyond declared inten-life. World Business Council on Sus- tions to effective and observable actionstainable Development.2 and measurable societal impacts. Per- formance reporting is all part of trans-“Social responsibility (is the) responsi- parent, accountable—and, hence, credi-bility of an organisation for the impacts ble—corporate behaviour. There is con-of its decisions and activities on society siderable potential for problems if stake-and the environment through transparent holders perceive that a company is en-and ethical behaviour that is consistent gaging in a public relations exercise andwith sustainable development and the cannot demonstrate concrete actions that lead to real social and environmental1 (Research Capsule: The Status of Corporate Social benefits.Responsibility in India – A Note by Environmental Man-agement Centre (May2005) p1) Corporate Social Responsibility?" p52 3 Corporate Watch Report (2006); "What’s wrong with Working definition (February 2007), ISO 26000 Working Group on Social Responsibility, Sydney
S. Khan / Issues in Social and Environmental Accounting 2 (2009/2010) 180-201 182CSR can involve a wide range of stake- According to the 10th Pricewaterhouse-holders Coopers Annual Global CEO Survey, 81 per cent of CEOs surveyed (betweenA corporation’s stakeholders can in- September and December 2006) agreedclude: shareholders, non-governmental or agreed strongly with the statement:organisations, business partners, lenders, “My company s development pro-insurers, communities, regulators, inter- gramme focuses increasingly on equip-governmental bodies, consumers, em- ping leaders to take a role in creating aployees and investors. sustainable business environment.” A similar percentage of respondents in aImportance of CSR for the companies U.S. Chamber of Commerce survey con- ducted in late 2005 agreed that compa-Many factors and influences have led to nies need to make corporate citizenshipincreasing attention being devoted to the a priority.role of companies and CSR.These include: Potential benefits of implementing a Sustainable development CSR approach Globalization Governance The key potential benefits for companies Corporate sector impact implementing CSR include: Communications Finance Better anticipation and management of Ethics an ever-expanding spectrum of risk. Ef- Consistency and Community fectively managing governance, legal, Leadership social, environmental, economic and Business Tool other risks in an increasingly complex market environment, with greater over-A 2004 GlobeScan CSR survey of more sight and stakeholder scrutiny of corpo-than 23,000 individuals in 21 countries rate activities, can improve the securitysuggests that the public expects more of supply and overall market stability.from the corporate sector: Considering the interests of parties con- cerned about a company’s impact is oneIn industrialized countries, trust in do- way of better anticipating and managingmestic (49% ) and global companies risk.(38% ) was lower than that of non-governmental organizations (68%), the Improved reputation management. Or-United Nations (65%), national govern- ganizations that perform well with re-ments (52%) and labour unions (50%). gard to CSR can build their reputation,While more recent surveys, including while those that perform poorly canthe 2007 Edelman Trust Barometer damage brand and company value whenshow a rise in public trust in business, exposed. Reputation, or brand equity, istrust in CEOs remains low. For their founded on values such as trust, credibil-part, CEOs see the importance of sus- ity, reliability, quality and consistency.tainability and CSR. Even for companies that do not have direct retail exposure through brands,
183 S. Khan / Issues in Social and Environmental Accounting 2 (2009/2010) 180-201their reputation for addressing CSR is- operation can reveal opportunities forsues as a supply chain partner— both turning waste streams into revenuegood and bad—can be crucial commer- streams (wood chips into particle board,cially. for example) and for system-wide reduc- tions in energy use, and costs.Enhanced ability to recruit, develop andretain staff. This can be the direct result Improved ability to attract and buildof pride in the company’s products and effective and efficient supply chain rela-practices, or of introducing improved tionships. A company is vulnerable tohuman resources practices, such as the weakest link in its supply chain. Like“family-friendly” policies. It can also be -minded companies can form profitablethe indirect result of programs and ac- long-term business relationships by im-tivities that improve employee morale proving standards, and thereby reducingand loyalty. Employees are not only risks. Larger companies can stimulatefront-line sources of ideas for improved smaller companies with whom they doperformance, but are champions of a business to implement a CSR approach.company for which they are proud to For example, some large apparel retail-work. ers require their suppliers to comply with worker codes and standards.Improved innovation, competitivenessand market positioning. CSR is as much Enhanced ability to address change. Aabout seizing opportunity as avoiding company with its “ear to the ground”risk. Drawing feedback from diverse through regular stakeholder dialogue isstakeholders can be a rich source of in a better position to anticipate and re-ideas for new products, processes and spond to regulatory, economic, socialmarkets, resulting in competitive advan- and environmental changes that maytages. For example, a company may be- occur. Increasingly, companies use CSRcome certified to environmental and so- as a “radar” to detect evolving trends incial standards so it can become a sup- the market.plier to particular retailers. The historyof good business has always been one of More robust “social licence” to operatebeing alert to trends, innovation, and in the community. Improved citizen andresponding to markets. Increasingly, stakeholder understanding of the com-mainstream advertising features the en- pany and its objectives and activitiesvironmental or social benefits of prod- translate into improved stakeholder rela-ucts (e.g., hybrid cars, unleaded petrol, tions. This, in turn, may evolve into14 ethically produced coffee, wind tur- more robust and enduring public, privatebines, etc.). and civil society alliances (all of which relate closely to CSR reputation, dis-Enhanced operational efficiencies and cussed above). CSR can help buildcost savings. These flow in particular “social capital.”from improved efficiencies identifiedthrough a systematic approach to man- Access to capital. Financial institutionsagement that includes continuous im- are increasingly incorporating social andprovement. For example, assessing the environmental criteria into their assess-environmental and energy aspects of an ment of projects. When making deci-
S. Khan / Issues in Social and Environmental Accounting 2 (2009/2010) 180-201 184sions about where to place their money, “My company’s development pro-investors are looking for indicators of gramme focuses increasingly oneffective CSR management. A business equipping leaders to take a role inplan incorporating a good CSR approach creating a sustainable business envi-is often seen as a proxy for good man- ronment.” A similar percentage ofagement. respondents in a U.S. Chamber of Commerce survey conducted in lateImproved relations with regulators. In a 2005 agreed that companies need tonumber of jurisdictions, governments make corporate citizenship a prior-have expedited approval processes for ity.”companies that have undertaken socialand environmental activities beyond There is general evidence that compa-those required by regulation. In some nies are beginning to benefit from theircountries, governments use (or are con- CSR activities. This can be seen fromsidering using) CSR indicators in decid- such things as positive media profileing on procurement or export assistance (e.g., winning awards, receiving atten-contracts. This is being done because tion), surveys of employee, communitygovernments recognize that without an and customer satisfaction, and from theincrease in business sector engagement, success of CSR-driven business lines.government sustainability goals cannotbe reached. Here are some examples.A catalyst for responsible consumption. The Indian TATA group is engagedChanging unsustainable patterns of con- in a wide variety of activities di-sumption is widely seen as an important rected at helping community devel-driver to achieving sustainable develop- opment. The company Web site listsment. Companies have a key role to play examples of the positive media thisin facilitating sustainable consumption has generated. http://patterns and lifestyles through the goods tata.com/0_our_commitment/ com-and services they provide and the way munity_initiatives/index.html.they provide them. “Responsible con-sumerism” is not exclusively about There are now high-profile lists ofchanging consumer preferences. It is the most responsible companies. Thealso about what goods are supplied in Innovest firm “100 Most Sustainablethe marketplace, their relationship to Companies in the World” list, forconsumer rights and sustainability is- example, has been released annuallysues, and how regulatory authorities me- at the World Economic Forum sincediate the relationship between producers 2005.http://innovestgroup.com/and consumers. Study shows benefits of CSRAccording to the 10th Pricewaterhouse-Coopers Annual Global CEO Survey, 81 Based on a two-year study, the Worldper cent of CEOs surveyed (between Business Council for Sustainable Devel-September and December 2006) agreed opment has drawn several conclusionsor agreed strongly with the following about the benefits of CSR to companies”statement:
185 S. Khan / Issues in Social and Environmental Accounting 2 (2009/2010) 180-201 A coherent CSR strategy, based on growth that gather together the natural integrity, sound values and a long- resources, spreads the fruits of the global term approach, offers clear business economy and contributes to fair and eq- benefits to companies and helps a uitable social development. Over the them make a positive contribution to past several years, the business commu- society; nity has devoted considerable attention A CSR strategy provides businesses to corporate responsibility, bringing a with the opportunity to show their spirit of innovation and partnership. In human face; many cases, however, these programmes Such a strategy requires engagement have focused on symptoms rather than in open dialogue and constructive addressing root causes. partnerships with governments at various levels, intergovernmental or- The CSR initiative should be taken in ganizations, non-governmental or- such way to have more universal impact. ganizations, other elements of civil The business has to play an important society and, in particular, local com- role when Leadership is concerned. The munities; framework discussed here has the poten- When implementing a CSR strategy, tial to create the conditions in which companies should recognize and re- businesses can flourish, governments spect local and cultural differences, can more effectively deliver public while maintaining high and consistent goods and social protection and, most global standards and policies; and importantly, societies can enjoy the Being responsive to local differences fruits of sustainable economic growth. means taking specific initiatives.4Implementing CSR: The framework 1. Provide leadershipfor action Include public governance ap-There is no fix format of the CSR frame- proaches in corporate responsibilitywork or method for implementing CSR and corporate global citizenshipin any organisation. However, we will strategies.study below simple framework de- Use opportunities for dialogue withscribed by World Economic Forum public sector leaders to raise thisGlobal Corporate Citizenship. topic and communicate with civil society.Leadership Challenge and the Frame- Communicate the business case forwork for Action strengthening public governance, in- cluding global governance.The opportunity to leverage business Support public-private-civil societyactivity to create sustainable economic collaboration as an essential tool forgrowth has never been so good. Today, addressing core questions.the business community recognizes, theessential imperative to deliver economic 2. Define what it means for your com-4 Hohnen, Paul and Potts, Jason; International Institute panyof Sustainable Development (IISD) “Corporate SocialResponsibility, An Implementation Guide for Busi- Identify the opportunities for impactness”. p4-14
S. Khan / Issues in Social and Environmental Accounting 2 (2009/2010) 180-201 186 that are most relevant to your com- Foods products like biscuits, jams, fruit pany. juices, etc. The main CSR challenges for Implement strategies based on your these companies are reduction in the use company’s areas of greatest compe- of packaging material, environment pro- tence. tection and health care of direct stake- holders at the manufacturing areas, recy-3. Make it happen cling of the waste material, etc. Make public governance an element With the help of Karmayog ratings and of all corporate global citizenship information made available on their activities. websites by these companies, we try to Align government affairs and corpo- analyse how Indian FMCG companies rate global citizenship activities in are doing in the field of Corporate Social support of essential business strategy. Responsibility or CSR. Set goals, measure performance and review progress. Build industry coalitions/ Karmayog CSR Rating for 2007-8 collaborations to address universal issues. The problems and issues that confront society today are too large and complex4. Be transparent about it to be solved by government and NGOs alone. Sustainable solutions to society’s Report publicly on progress and chal- problems can only be found through the lenges. collaboration and involvement of all Engage in dialogue with the public who are part of it. sector and civil society on how to address barriers and increase positive Companies have tremendous strengths; impacts.5’ they have extremely capable people, technology, access to money, the ability of geographical reach, etc. Many compa-Corporate Social Performance of In- nies worldwide and now even in Indiadian FMCG Cos. are more powerful than governments and even countries, and thus corporatesIndian FMCG companies include do- are important stakeholders in society.mestic as well multinational companies. CSR Ratings are important to variousThese companies are doing business of stakeholders for different reasons: - gov-selling FMCG products ranging from ernment bodies can use CSR Ratings toPersonal Care like shampoos, hair oil, develop industry-wise CSR guidelines,body lotions, soaps, Home & Fabric industry associations can use them to setCare like detergents, laundry soaps, to benchmarks of CSR for companies to follow, NGOs get to know about the5 Partnering to Strengthen Public Governance (January CSR undertaken by companies, thus2008), The Leadership Challenge for CEOs and Boards, enabling partnerships with them, andWorld Economic Forum Global Corporate Citizenship companies themselves learn about andInitiative in partnership with Business for Social Re-sponsibility; John F Kennedy School of Management - from the CSR initiatives of other compa-Harvard University; International Business Leaders nies. The Karmayog Corporate SocialForum and AccountAbility p6
187 S. Khan / Issues in Social and Environmental Accounting 2 (2009/2010) 180-201Responsibility Study and Ratings of In- The Karmayog CSR Ratings also help todian Companies provides to explore and identify areas where corporates, govern-understand the role that corporates are ment and civil society organizations canplaying and can play in finding mean- work together.ingful solutions to the problems facingIndia today. Usually corporates are in- Karmayog CSR Ratings criteriavited to enter or nominate themselves forCSR awards, and hence only the good List of 1000 largest Indian companiescompanies are highlighted, whereas a is taken as per Sales figures from therating enables a comparative study BSE Sensex as in June 2008across all companies. Karmayog under- Information on the 1000 companiestook a CSR study and rating to under- was collated from the company’sstand the CSR activities of all companies website and Annual Report of 2007-on an equal level, thus showing up com- 2008panies doing no CSR, as well as show- Impact of the products and processescasing companies doing good work. of the company is taken into accountA) Minimum Necessary CriteriaNecessary parameters that make a company eligible for a particular rating level:Necessary Criteria Explanation Rating Level If undertaking any CSR Activity Where any kind of social, devel- opmental or community work is Level 1 done If CSR is linked to reducing the CSR activities that aim to im-negative impacts of company’s prove processes and products of Level 2own products or processes the company. If CSR initiatives are for the lo- CSR activities that are focused oncal community those who are affected directly by Level 3 the companyIf CSR is embedded in the busi- CSR activities form a part of theness operations daily business activities of the Level 4 company. If innovative ideas and practices CSR activities enable sustainableare developed for CSR and replicable solutions to prob- Level 5 lems faced by society. CSR initiatives of the company for All companies were informed of the the current period are studied, includ- assigned rating and requested to re- ing a comparison with previously spond with further information, if listed CSR initiatives. necessary Companies are rated from Level 0 to The Karmayog CSR Rating of any Level 5 (Level 5 being the highest) company is open to review whenever Rating is based on Sufficient, Neces- new information is provided by the sary and Negative Criteria for differ- company ent levels
S. Khan / Issues in Social and Environmental Accounting 2 (2009/2010) 180-201 188B) Sufficient Criteria for Minimum RatingIf the company is doing this, they automatically get this rating at leastSufficient Criteria What this means Rating Level Company fulfilling the basic The products and services of theneeds of society company are useful and benefits Level 1e.g. manufacture of food society Unique CSR activity which would The CSR activity being under-not otherwise happen taken by the company is not be- Level 1e.g. Developing a mapping and ing done by government, NGOs,tracking software for adoption in etc.India Company reducing negative im- The company’s products or ser-pact of others vices provide solutions to miti- Level 1e.g. A company that makes water gate harm caused by actions ofpurification & waste recycling sys- companies, their products, etc.tems The company is committed toCompany adopting the GRI measuring and reporting its CSR Level 2Framework for CSR reporting initiatives as per a voluntary globally accepted framework. The company is committed to aCompany’s annual expenditure on minimum expenditure on CSR Level 3CSR = 0.2% of sales annually, and thus considers CSR as an integral part of its businessC) Negative Criteria that usually determine the maximum possible RatingCompanies in this category will not normally get a higher rating than the one shownNegative Criteria Reason Rating LevelCompanies that make liquor, These products are not needed by so-tobacco, genetically modified ciety, and cause harm to people and Level 0crops the environment. The CSR to do is to stop making these products.Companies that violate laws/ CSR is not limited just to how a com-rules/regulations pany spends its money, but also to Level 1 how it makes that money in the first placeCompanies engaged in high Processes that severely damage theimpact processes environment require extraordinary Level 1 efforts by the company to reduce and repair the damage, and require greater contributions to benefit society
189 S. Khan / Issues in Social and Environmental Accounting 2 (2009/2010) 180-201 Level 5 (Level 5 being the highest) CSR is linked to the company’s proc- Rating is based on Sufficient, Neces- esses. It is recommended that the section sary and Negative Criteria for differ- on CSR reporting should come after the ent levels EHS (Environment Health and Safety) All companies were informed of the section in the Annual Report. assigned rating and requested to re- spond with further information, if 3) Other recommended steps for CSR necessary The Karmayog CSR Rating of any a) Adoption of industry guidelines for company is open to review whenever improving processes new information is provided by the company The first step is to identify and adopt methods to minimize the environmental damage caused by the products andMandatory Recommendations processes. A comprehensive set of guidelines, both general as well as sectorThere are 3 mandatory recommendations -specific, have been drawn up by theflowing from the premise that ‘every World Bank. These are known as thecompany must do CSR’, and these are: Environment, Health and Safety Guide- lines (EHS) of the International Finance1) Minimum annual CSR expenditure Corporation (IFC). The EHS Guidelines are technical reference documents withEvery company must spend a minimum general and industry-specific examplesof 0.2% of its sales on CSR activities of good international industry practice.(i.e. Rs. 20 lakhs per Rs. 100 crores).The scale of operations of a company b) CSR linked to the skills of a com-and its impact is connected with its turn- panyover and not with its profit. The largerthe company the greater is the damage it Companies must use their core compe-is doing to the environment. Conversely tence, skills and strengths while under-the greater is the company’s ability to do taking CSR activities, as CSR is not anwell. un-related activity2) CSR Reporting c) CSR linked to the location of a com- panyA Corporate Sustainability sectionshould be included in the Annual Report Companies must first undertake CSRand preferably a separate Corporate Sus- activities in the areas they are located in.tainability Report (as per the Global Re- (factories, plants, offices, etc.) Theporting Initiative framework) should be greatest impact (in terms of land, pollu-published by the company. tion, livelihoods, etc.) is on the local environment and community, and henceCSR reporting should also include de- companies must focus on improvingtails of CSR expenditure by the com- conditions in the communities in whichpany. they operate.
S. Khan / Issues in Social and Environmental Accounting 2 (2009/2010) 180-201 190Non Mandatory Recommendations CSR spending. 3. There are indications that CSR initia-Karmayog has also made 8 non- tives are for the local communities,mandatory recommendations on CSR to however few companies are movingenable companies to make their CSR towards business embedded CSR ini-programmes more meaningful and effec- tiatives.tive. 4. Almost all 16 companies are doing CSR activities.1. CSR philosophy to be defined 5. Analysing these companies websites,2. Ensure responsibility of suppliers its found that Indian FMCG compa-3. Create inclusive employment nies are energy conscious and work-4. Link CSR initiatives to government’s ing reducing energy consumption and development plans also earning the carbon credits.5. Involve employees in CSR 6. Companies like Hindustan Unilever,6. CSR activity to improve the industry Tata Tea, and Dabur are more CSR sector active.7. Expand Reach to benefit society 7. CSR challenge to these companies is8. Support areas and issues that are ne- reduce use of packaging material, glected recycle and use waste material, be energy conscious.Analysis of CSR Performance of Indian 8. Companies like Tata Tea are moreFMCG Cos. Based on Karmayog ratings CSR conscious and publishes Sus-and information made available on their tainability Report every year.websites by these companies. 9. The websites are not updated about the latest CSR initiatives they had1. Only three companies got the rating taken. of 3 and three companies got the rat- 10.Many FMCG companies are involved ing of 1. No company out of 16 got in environment protection CSR initia- more than 3 rating. tives.2. No companies have mentioned their Sales (07-08) Recommended CSR CSR Rat- in crores. (0.2% of sales) in ing Sr No. Company (Rs.) crores (Rs.) (07-08) CSR areas Community welfare, 1 Dabur India Ltd. 2120 4.2 3 Environment Community welfare, Health care, Women, Hindustan Unilever Education, Environ- 2 Ltd 14000 28.0 3 ment Environment, Health care, Education, Community welfare, Womens empower- 3 Tata Tea Ltd. 1150 2.3 3 ment, Girl Child Britannia Indus- 4 tries Ltd 4600 9.2 2 Community welfare Colgate-Palmolive Health care, Educa- 5 (India) Ltd 1500 3.0 2 tion Community welfare, 6 Emami Ltd 580 1.2 2 Health care
191 S. Khan / Issues in Social and Environmental Accounting 2 (2009/2010) 180-201 7 Gillette India Ltd 600 1.2 2 Water GlaxoSmithkline Consumer Health- Environment, commu- 8 care Ltd 1300 2.6 2 nity welfare 9 Henkel India Ltd 390 0.8 2 Environment Mcleod Russel Environment, Educa- 10 India Ltd. 655 1.3 2 tion, Health care Community welfare, 11 Nestle India Ltd. 1000 2.0 2 Environment Procter & Gamble 12 Hygiene & Health 645 1.3 2 Care Ltd. Education 13 Tata Coffee Ltd. 360 0.7 2 Community welfare, Health care, Education Godrej Consumer 14 Products Ltd 880 1.8 1 Environment Community welfare, 15 Marico Ltd. 1500 3.0 1 Disaster relief Community welfare, 16 Nirma Ltd. 2300 4.6 1 EducationThe rating system as adopted from Karmayog CSR Ratings available on their website http://www.karmayog.orgReferences cial Responsibility, An Implemen- tation Guide for Business”. p4-14;Environmental Management Centre PricewaterhouseCoopers – reports data (May 2005); Research Capsule: from http://www.pwc.com "The Status of Corporate Social US Chamber of Commerce – reports Responsibility in India" – A Note from http://www.uschamber.com by Environmental Management Partnering to Strengthen Public Govern- Centre p1; ance (January 2008), The Leader-Corporate Watch Report (2006); ship Challenge for CEOs and "What’s wrong with Corporate Boards, World Economic Forum Social Responsibility?" p5; Global Corporate Citizenship Ini-European Commission Green Paper tiative in partnership with Busi- (July 2000) Promoting a Euro- ness for Social Responsibility; pean Framework for Corporate John F Kennedy School of Man- Social Responsibility ; agement - Harvard University;World Business Council on Sustainable International Business Leaders Development (January 2000), Forum and AccountAbility p6; Corporate Social Responsibility: Karmayog CSR Ratings available on Making Good Business Sense, w e b s i t e h t t p : / / www.wbcsd.org; www.karmayog.org;Working definition (February 2007), Dabur corporate website http:// ISO 26000 Working Group on www.dabur.com; Social Responsibility, Sydney; Hindustan Unilever corporate websiteHohnen, Paul and Potts, Jason; Interna- http://hul.co.in; tional Institute of Sustainable De- Tata Tea corporate website http:// velopment (IISD) “Corporate So- www.tatatea.com.
S. Khan / Issues in Social and Environmental Accounting 2 (2009/2010) 180-201 192AppendicesDabur India Ltd:Daburs major initiatives in the Social sector include: Establishment of the Sustainable Development Society, or Sundesh, in 1993 - a non-profit organisation to promote research and welfare activities in rural areas; Promotinghealth and hygiene amongst the underprivileged through the Chunni Lal MedicalTrust; and Organising the Plant for Life programme for schoolchildren - to create envi-ronmental awareness amongst young minds.Daburs commitment to EnvironmentDabur values nature’s bounty and committed to ecological conservation and regenera-tion. Dabur follows the principles of ancient texts, which say:"Dehi me dadami te" - "you give me, and I give you".Plants for LifeDabur has set up the Plants for Life project in the mountainous regions of the Himala-yas. Under the project, a high-tech greenhouse facility has been set up for developingsaplings of rare and endangered medicinal plants. Fully computer-controlled and moni-tored, this greenhouse maintains the highly critical environmental parameters requiredfor their survival. They are also developing quality saplings of more than 20 herbs, 8of them endangered, through micro propagation.In addition, satellite nurseries spread across mountain villages and contract cultivationof medicinal herbs helps in maintaining the ecological balance. These measures havealso helped provide local cultivators the scientific knowledge for harvesting herbs anda steady source of income. So they are not forced to exploit the environment to earn alivelihood.Conservation of EnergyDabur has been undertaking a host of energy conservation measures. Successful imple-mentation of various energy conservation projects have resulted in a 13.8% reductionin the Company’s energy bill in the 2008-09 fiscal alone. What was noteworthy wasthe fact that this reduction has come despite an 8-9% volume increase in manufactur-ing, and an average 11.7% increase in cost of key input fuels.The host of measures – key among them being use of bio-fuels in boilers, generationof biogas and installation of energy efficient equipment – helped lower the cost of pro-duction, besides reduce effluent and improve hygiene conditions & productivity.Technology AbsorptionDabur has also made continuous efforts towards technology absorption and innovation,which have contributed towards preserving natural resources.These efforts include:Minimum use of water in process by pre-concentration of herbal extract and reduction
193 S. Khan / Issues in Social and Environmental Accounting 2 (2009/2010) 180-201in concentration time.Uniform heating in VTDs by hot water as against steam earlier, resulting in 30% re-duction in bulk wastage by using non-stick coating and formulation change.Improvement in water treatment plant through introduction of RO (Reverse Osmosis)system for DM water, reutilization of waste water from pump seal cooling and ROreject waste-water management.Introduction of water efficient CIP system with recycling of water in fruit juice manu-facturing. Development of in-house technology to convert fruit waste into organic ma-nure by using the culture Lactobacilus burchi.The Company has achieved a host of significant benefits in terms of product improve-ment, cost reduction, product development, import substitution, cleaner environmentand waste disposal, amongst others.Health Safety & Environmental ReviewRenewing the commitment to Health Safety and Environment, Dabur has formulated apolicy focusing on People, Technology and Facilities. A dedicated “Safety Manage-ment Team” has also been put in place to work towards the prevention of untowardincidents at the corporate and unit level, besides educate & motivate employees onvarious aspects of Health, Safety and Environment.The Company is also continuously monitoring its waste in adherence with the pollu-tion control norms. In pursuance of its commitment towards the society, efforts havealso been initiated to conserve and maintain the ground water level. The efforts includeimplementation of rainwater harvesting, which has delivered encouraging results andhas put the company on the path to becoming a Water-Positive Corporation.Dabur also initiated a Carbon Foot Print Study at the unit level with an aim to becomea carbon positive Company in years to come.[Dabur corporate website http://www.dabur.com]Hindustan Unilever Ltd:Hindustan Unilever Ltd. (HUL) is engaged different CSR programs. These include:Water Conservation and Harvesting;Project Shakti;Lifebuoy Swasthya Chetna;Fair & Lovely Foundation for the economic empowerment of women (scholarships);Happy Homes: Asha Daan, Ankur, Kappagam, Anbagam;Sanjivani - Medical Care to Rural India;
S. Khan / Issues in Social and Environmental Accounting 2 (20092010) 180-201 194Water Conservation and HarvestingWater scarcity is one of the biggest crises facing India. Water management has been afocus area for HUL, and has been made one of the key performance indicators of allHUL factories. HUL is also committed to extending its efforts on water managementto the larger community, and has engaged in community projects in water adjacent tomanufacturing sites.In association with an NGO, Vanarai, HULs Silvassa manufacturing hub (in the UnionTerritory of Dadra & Nagar Haveli) embarked on a long-term project of water harvest-ing, which aimed to dramatically change water availability, taking it up to year-roundavailability from 4 months.One of the first steps taken in the community was the awareness building process,which was accomplished with Vanarai’s help, reaching out to every corner of the vil-lage and involving every member of the village. Although it was a slow, difficult proc-ess, getting buy in of the village and the Union Territory government was the key tosustained success of the programme. Once HUL had their commitment, the villagerswere trained by Vanarai at Pune in areas including building of watershed structures.The partners and teachers also visited the agriculture centres around Gujarat.From their learning, the community built 14 Vanarai bunds (structures made of sacksfilled with sand) in 2003, 33 Vanarai bunds in 2004, 31 Vanarai bunds in 2005 ,18 Va-narai bunds in 2006, 19 Vanarai bunds in 2007 and 6 Vanarai bunds in 2008 (some ofVanarai Bunds were made by villagers themselves). Approximately 5 % of total runoff was harvested in 2007. This enabled the community to sow a second crop, therebysignificantly increasing their incomesThe bunds increased the availability of water in a year itself from 4 monsoon monthsto 8 months. The region for the first time in its history saw the second crop, rabbi be-ing planted. It consisted of wheat, pulses, and seasonal vegetables. Bund plantations inthe village helps generate timber, firewood and also demonstrates the benefits of greencover. Continuous Water Trenches reduced the speed of water and soil erosion. Theyalso reduced wind erosion, increasing moisture holding capacity of soil, increasing itsfertility as well as supporting water percolation and ground water recharge.From 2004 to 2008, 133 Bunds were created as a part of the water harvesting initiative.Under community welfare initiatives, credit cards were distributed to farmers. As apart of the afforestation activity, 58000 trees were planted covering 43 hectare landand over 8000 Mango plants were distributed to farmers as a part of the Horticulturedevelopment programme.In 2008, HUL in partnership with NGO Vanarai and Aide et Action started a projectcalled project Samruddhi (meaning prosperity). Under this project the watershed de-velopment activities have been extended to other villages like Dapada & Patti villagein Silvassa, Dadra and Nagar Haveli. As a part of the project so far 18 Vanarai bundshave been created in Dapada, Patti and Karchond villages.
195 S. Khan / Issues in Social and Environmental Accounting 2 (20092010) 180-201HUL’s Khamgaon factory is located in a dry and arid region of Maharashtra. Around12 years ago the factory started a pilot on ‘Watershed Management’ on a 5-hectareplot to prevent soil degradation and conserve water. The efforts have resulted in thecreation of a green belt, which is now a veritable forest of about 6300 trees.Encouraged by the results, HUL extended the model to a neighbouring village, Park-hed, in association with the TERI and the Bharatiya Agro Industries Foundation.The community at Parkhed has constructed 47 percolation bunds, 1600 trenches, 6000running metres of continuous contour trenching over 100 hectares and 5 permanentcheck dam. About 7000 saplings have been planted in 2006 in addition to 10000planted in 2004 and 20,000 saplings were planted during the 2003 monsoon.Total 5 check dams have been built since the inception. This has increased the area forsecond crop to over 400 acres, but the cluster of check dams will lead to general in-crease in ground water level in the village. The check dams ensure water availabilitythroughout the year and now over 40% of the village wells will be benefited throughthe check dams.350 families benefited by taking second crop. The annual income of the farmers in thevicinity of 5 check dams was approximately Rs. 36000/- on an average before the con-struction of the check dam. After the construction of the check dams, the annual in-come has risen to approx. Rs. 85000/- per annum per farmer. This has been attributedto the availability of water in the wells during the Rabbi season and also increase inlevel of water in the wells during the Kharif season.The initiative received appreciation at the Johannesburg World Summit on SustainableDevelopment.Project Shakti: Changing lives in rural IndiaHULs Project Shakti is a rural initiative that targets small villages populated by lessthan 2000 individuals. It is a unique win-win initiative that catalyses rural affluenceeven as it benefits business.Project Shakti impacts society in two ways – the Shakti Entrepreneur program createslivelihood opportunities for underprivileged rural women and the Shakti Vani programimproves quality of life by spreading health and hygiene awareness. Project Shaktibenefits business by significantly enhancing HUL’s direct rural reach, and by enablingHUL’s brands to communicate effectively in media-dark regions.The Shakti Entrepreneur program recognises that while micro-credit plays a key rolein alleviating poverty, its ability to do so depend on the availability of investment op-portunities. Shakti contributes by creating profitable micro-enterprise opportunities forrural women. Armed with micro-credit, rural women become Shakti entrepreneurs:direct-to-home distributors in rural markets. This micro-enterprise offers low risks andhigh returns. The products distributed are some of the country’s most trusted brands ofconsumer goods, and include a range of mass-market products especially relevant to
S. Khan / Issues in Social and Environmental Accounting 2 (20092010) 180-201 196rural consumers. Moreover, HUL invests its resources in training the entrepreneurs,helping them become confident, business-savvy professionals capable of running theirown enterprise.Shakti entrepreneurs typically earn between Rs. 600 to Rs. 800 per month. As most ofthese women are from below the poverty line and live in extremely small villages(population between 2000-5000), this earning is very significant, and often doublestheir household income.Poor hygiene practices are the single largest cause of common diseases such as diar-rhoea. Lack of awareness of basic health and hygiene practices kills over 500,000 chil-dren every year in rural India. The Shakti Vani Program educates rural communityabout basic health practices. Rural women are appointed as Vanis (communicators)and trained to communicate in social fora such as schools and village get-togethers.The Vani program covers areas including pre and post-natal care, infant nutrition, sani-tation, good hygiene practices, and the prevention of common diseases. By end 2007,the Vani programme had covered over 50,000 villages, reaching out to over 50 millionpeople.Various central and state government agencies, including the governments of AndhraPradesh, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Chhatisgarh, Uttar Pradesh, and Orissa haveextended support to Shakti. Over 300 NGOs are actively involved in the project. Anational MOU has been signed with CARE India, covering the fields of health andhygiene awareness and functional adult literacy.Shakti’s impact on society is far-reaching. The Shakti entrepreneur program createslivelihood opportunities for underprivileged rural women. It has already improved thelives of over 45,000 families of Shakti entrepreneurs. The Shakti Vani program worksto improve the quality of life in rural India, by spreading awareness of best practices inhealth and hygiene.Shakti operates in fifteen states: Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Gujarat,Madhya Pradesh, Chattisgarh, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana, Rajast-han, West Bengal, Bihar, Jharkhand and Orissa. There are over 45,000 Shakti entrepre-neurs covering over 100,000 villages across 15 states. The Vani program has coveredover 50,000 villages.Lifebuoy Swasthya Chetna, Health & Hygiene EducationLifebuoy Swasthya Chetna (LBSC) is a rural health and hygiene initiative which wasstarted in 2002. LBSC was initiated in media dark villages (in UP, MP, Bihar, WestBengal, Maharashtra, Orissa) with the objective of spreading awareness about the im-portance of washing hands with soap.According to a study done by the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine,the simple practice of washing hands with soap and water can reduce diarrhoea by as
197 S. Khan / Issues in Social and Environmental Accounting 2 (20092010) 180-201much as 47%. However, ignorance of such basic hygiene practices leads to high mor-tality rates in rural India.Being India’s leading personal wash health brand, Lifebuoy saw a role for itself inpropagating the message of hygiene and health in villages. HUL launched LifebuoySwasthya Chetna initiative keeping this rationale in mind.LBSC is a multi-phased activity which works towards effecting behaviour changeamongst the rural population it touches. It demonstrates that “visible clean is not reallyclean” thereby proving the importance of washing hands. It targets children as they arethe harbingers of change in society and mothers since they are the custodians of health.The Indian postal department released a special postal cover on Lifebuoy SwasthyaChetna on the occasion of World Health Day (April 7) in 2006.The programme has touched 50676 villages and 12 crore people since 2002. In 2008alone LBSC contacted 15,000 villages in UP, MP, Maharashtra, Bihar, Karnataka.Fair & Lovely Foundation for the economic empowerment of women(scholarships)The Fair & Lovely (FAL) Foundation aims at economic empowerment of womenacross India by providing information, resources and support in the areas of education,career and enterprise. It specifically targets women from low-income groups. TheFoundation has renowned Indian women, from various walks of life, as its advisors.Among them are educationists, NGO activists, physicians. The Foundation is imple-menting its activities in association with state governments. The series of projects thathave been drawn up to achieve the vision include the following:• Fair & Lovely ScholarshipsFair & Lovely Foundation has awarded over 600 deserving girls since 2003. Fair &Lovely Scholarships awards scholarships to women with aptitude, drive and the ambi-tion to carve a place of pride for themselves in society, but do not have the financialstrength to realize their dreams. In its third year these scholarships was extended tograduate studies owing to requests from HULs consumers. Scholarships of up to Rs 1lakh each (approximately 1818 euros) are awarded to deserving young girls fromacross the country, for any graduate, post- graduate and doctorate courses within India.•Fair & Lovely Career FairsOver 6,00,000 students have benefited from Career Fairs conducted in all over cities inIndia. Fair & Lovely Career Fairs are designed to address the needs of girl studentspassing out of Class X and XII. The project aims to answer the various career relatedquestions that students face at the crossroads of their life. Fair & Lovely Career Fairinfluences career decisions through proper guidance and relevant information, trans-mitted through mass media, and by direct contact with students.•Fair & Lovely ShikharFair & Lovely Shikhar, an initiative by Fair & Lovely, aimed to explore the inspiring
S. Khan / Issues in Social and Environmental Accounting 2 (20092010) 180-201 198stories of women achievers who have overcome all obstacles with their strong will andpositive attitude and “changed their destinies”. Fair & Lovely Shikhar is a unique con-cept based on a real life scenario of women from various walks of life. The thirteenepisode series were aired on Sony Entertainment Television, between August 28th toNovember 20th, 2005.• Fair & Lovely Project SuvarnaProject Suvarna is an identification and training activity aimed at harnessing availabletalent in selected events in Women Athletics in the age groups of under 12, 14, under16 and under 18. This activity was conducted in 2 states in India - Maharashtra andTamil Nadu - in the year 2005.Participants in this programme were selected strictly based on relative superiority ofathletic abilities among the competing girls at the selection trial as judged by PT Usha,the renowned Indian international athlete. Out of the 5000 girls who participated, 173were selected. These 173 underwent training under the guidance of Ms. P. T. Usha ather Academy.• Fair & Lovely Project SwayamProject Swayam is an initiative in the area of education and enterprise for women byFair & Lovely Foundation in association with VRDC (Vanasthali Rural DevelopmentCentre). Under this project women were trained to become Pre-school teachers. Posttheir training, these women, with help from VRDC could start their own schools, pro-viding them with an earning opportunity. This project was replicated in Bihar in asso-ciation with local NGO – Jan Jagran Sansthan, in the year 2005.Happy Homes, Special Education & RehabilitationUnder the Happy Homes initiative, HUL supports special education and rehabilitationof children with challenges.• Asha DaanThe initiative began in 1976, when HUL supported Mother Teresa and the Missonariesof Charity to set up Asha Daan, a home in Mumbai for abandoned, challenged chil-dren, the HIV-positive and the destitute. HUL bears the capital and revenue expensesfor maintenance, upkeep and security of the premises.At any point of time, about 370 inmates comprising of boys, girls, men and women arehoused at the Home. Food, clothing and medicines required by inmates are taken careof by the donations received from the locals of Mumbai city.Till November 2008, 15933 numbers of individuals have benefited from Ashadaan.• AnkurIn 1993, HULs Doom Dooma Tea Plantation Division set up Ankur, a centre for spe-cial education of challenged children. Since 2006, HUL Personal Products Factory,Doom Dooma took over the reign from the Tea Divisions. The centre takes care of
199 S. Khan / Issues in Social and Environmental Accounting 2 (20092010) 180-201children with challenges, aged between 5 and 15 years. Ankur provides educational,vocational and recreational activities to over 50 children with a range of challenges,including sight or hearing impairment, polio related disabilities, cerebral palsy andsevere learning difficulties. These children are taught skills, such as cookery, painting,embroidery, bamboo crafts, weaving, candle making, stitching, etc. depending on theiraptitudes. The centre has rehabilitated 10 children, including self-employment for 6children by providing them with shops, and 3 girls have been provided employment ascrèche attendants. It has also helped 18 children in moving them to normal schools.Since inception it has covered more than 80 children. Ankur received the LawrieGroup’s Worldaware Award for Social Progress in 1999 from Her Royal Highness inLondon.Other shelter houses started by HUL are Kappagam, South India in 1998 and Anba-gam in 2003.Sanjivani - Medical Care to Rural IndiaHUL started Sanjivani – a free mobile medical service camp in the year 2003 near itsDoom Dooma factory in Assam. The aim was to provide free mobile medical facilityto the interior villagers in Assam. This was done keeping in mind the lack of qualitymedical facilities available in the villages in and around Doom Dooma.In a year, approximately 400 medical camps are conducted under the Sanjivani project.Along with the regular consultancy and treatment given at the medical camps, San-jivani also undertakes activities like awareness campaigns on hygiene, child immuni-zation camps, iron supplement therapy, free eye check ups, family planning awarenesscamps, anti-tobacco education and anti-alcoholism camps, based on the requirement ofthe villagers. Moreover, Sanjivani team has also helped in supporting Governmentagencies and held camps in collaboration with Indian Medical Association also, in Tin-sukia district.Villages falling within the radius of 30 kms have been identified for the project andthey are centrally located with many bordering villages. Although government primaryhealth centers are available in and around the areas identified but the necessary medi-cal facilities are not available. Sanjivani is a big relief to villagers in this region.The Sanjivani project has provided medical assistance to more than 1, 54,500 patientssince its inception and in 2007 alone in 344 camps more than 22,395 patients weretreated. In 2008 through 438 camps, 32,000 patients have been treated.[Hindustan Unilever corporate website http://hul.co.in]CO2 Reduction ProgramHUL harnesses agro waste in a move to turn green, earn more greenbacks. HUL hopesto piggyback on nondescript agricultural waste as it sets out to achieve multiple objec-
S. Khan / Issues in Social and Environmental Accounting 2 (20092010) 180-201 200tives of strengthening its bottom-line and reducing harmful emissions. The companyhas an ambitious target to reduce carbon-dioxide emission (CO2) in its manufacturingoperations by 25 per cent in the next four years by using agri-waste to fuel its boilersin factories.The company also has set out a 10-year plan to earn lucrative carbon credits throughemission reduction technologies.” Our energy costs have come down by 30 per cent inthose factories where we are using agri waste to run boilers," HUL executive directorDhaval Buch told Hindustan Times.Agricultural waste such as groundnut shells, bagasse (from sugarcane), saw-dust, co-conut shells, cashew kernels etc. do not have any primary use. What these waste prod-ucts do have, is a fair amount of calorific value -- the ability to burn and impart heat --which comes in handy if one looks at them as potential fuels.HUL first used agri-waste in its factory in Chiplun, Ratnagiri district, Maharashtra, andfollowed it up with another plant in Pondicherry. Buch said the exercise would be ex-tended to plants located across the country.The company has also developed a process of manufacturing soap based on PloughShare Mixer technology, which eliminates the need for steam in soap-making. Thatcuts carbon emissions by 15,000 tonnes a year.HUL is also expecting additional revenue by trading carbon credits regulated by theUnited Nations Framework of Climate Change (UNFCC). The UNFCC has put inplace all the rules and the required apparatus. Authorised agencies certify the reductionin carbon emissions through a particular technology or project in terms of "units." Theprice of carbon is fixed on a per tonne basis and determined by market forces. Buchsaid the projects would help the company earn carbon emission reduction (CER) ofapproximately 27,000 a year for the next 10 years. Under UNFCC norms one CER isequivalent to reduction in emission of one tonne of carbon dioxide.[Karmayog CSR Ratings available on website http://www.karmayog.org]Tata Tea Ltd.:The welfare and the well being of Tata Teas large workforce - about 34,000 employ-ees and their families drawn largely from the weaker sections of the society is of para-mount importance to the company. The company has put in dedicated effort and largeexpenditure, entirely voluntary, that has gone into upgrading the quality of life of theworkforce. Significant contribution to the countrys social, cultural and environmentaldevelopment.Comprehensive labour welfare programmes that offers free housing, healthcare andcommunity development facilities.Manages estate hospitals and 2 large referral hospitals.
201 S. Khan / Issues in Social and Environmental Accounting 2 (20092010) 180-201Manages adult literacy centres, and childcare centres.Has established schools to educate children of estate employees, and has institutedscholarships for these children.Manages a programme for physically disadvantaged children in its estateTata Tea have won several CSR awards and have well structured process for identify-ing key communities and implementing social welfare plans.Tata Tea continues to support and take responsibility for the General Hospital, Shrishtiwelfare centre, and High Range school at Munnar.Shrishti welfare centre setup for differently abled children of the tea community runs aDARE school for special children, Strawberry Preserve Unit, Athulya Hand-made Pa-per Unit, and Aranya – a dying unit specialising in shibori dying, a Japanese tie anddye art form.Tata Tea – Supporting and strengthening communities in below areas:Health CareReproductive healthChild care educationEducationAIDS awareness/Adult literacyEmployment of women and physically challengedCommunity participationEnvironmental preservationNatural calamities[Tata Tea corporate website http://www.tatatea.com]
Issues In Social and EnvironmentalAccounting Associate Editors: Hussain, Mostaq M., University of New Burnswick, Canada Komsiyah, University of Trisakti, Indonesia(Issues in SEA) Editors Advisors: Fuglister, Jayne, Cleveland State University, USA Gray, Rob, St. Andrews University, Scotland UK Na’im Ainun, Gadjah Mada University, IndonesiaISSN : 1978-0591 Syakhroza, Akhmad, University of Indonesia, IndonesiaHasan Fauzi, Sebelas Maret University, Indonesia Members of Boards: 1. Adams, Carol, La Trobe University, Australia 2. Al-Khadash Husam Aldeen, Hashemite University, Al-Khadash, Jordania 3. Aras, Guler Yıldız Technical University, Turkey Guler, CALL FOR PAPERS (7th ISSUE) 4. Ball, Amanda University of Canterbury, New Zealand 5. Berman Shawn, University of New Mexico, USA Berman, 6. Brown Judy, Victoria University of Wellington, New Brown,Issues in SEA is an international journal as networking and dis- Zealandsemination means of practices and theory of social and environ- 7. Brown, Alistair, Curtin University of Technology, Australia Brownmental accounting. Since Problems of social and environmental 8. Campbell David, New Castle University, UK Campbell,in general and in accounting context in specific have been global 9. Choi Jong-Seo, Pusan National University, Korea Choi, Jong- 10. Crowther David. De Montfort University, United King- Crowther,issue, it is necessary for us to share and cooperate to make bet- domter the corporate financial, social and environmental perform- 11. Donleavy, Gabriel D., University of Macau, Chinaance. Issues in SEA publishes rigorous, original and innovative 12. Freeman, Edward University of Virginia, USA Edward,scholarly papers dealing with theoretical, empirical, applied, 13. Georgakopoulos, Georgios University of Amsterdam, Georgios,surveys, and case studies providing meaningful insights into the The Netherlandssubject areas. 14. Ghazali, Imam University of Diponegoro, Indonesia Imam, 15. Guthrie, James The University of Sydney, Australia James, 16. Husted, Bryan ITESM/Instituto de Impresa, Mexico Bryan, 17. Ibrahim, Daing N University of Sains Malaysia, Malaysia N.,Subject Coverage 18. Idris, Kamis Universiti Utara malaysia Kamis,Topics include but are not limited to: 19. Jasch Christine Maria, The Institute for Environmental Jasch, Environmental accounting Management and Economics, Austria Social accounting 20. Kent, Pamela Bond University, Australia Kent 21. Kokubu, Katsuhiko Kobe University, Japan Katsuhiko, Ethical issues in accounting and financial reporting 22. Lawrence, Stewart University of Waikato, New Zealand Stewart, Corporate governance and accountability 23. Mahoney, Lois, Eastern Michigan University, USA Accounting for the Costs and Benefits of CSR-related Activities 24. Murray Alan, Sheffield University, UK Murray, Accounting and Disclosure of Environmental Liabilities 25. Maunders, Keith, University of the South Pacific, Fiji Corporate Environmental Strategy 26. Magness ,Vanessa Ryerson University, Toronto Canada Vanessa Corporate Social Performance 27. Nik Ahmad Nik Nazli, International Islamic University Ahmad, Malaysia, Malaysia Corporate social responsibility and management control 28. O’Donovan Garry, University of Tasmania, Australia O’Donovan, Corporate social responsiveness 29. Orlitzky Marc, University of Redlands, USA Orlitzky, Triple bottom line performance 30. Palliam, Ralph American University of Kuwait Ralph, 31. Parker, Lee University of South Australia Lee, 32. Pondeville, Sophie Marquet Université University of Marquet, Namur, BelgiumSpecific Notes for Authors 33. Rahman, Azhar A Universiti Utara Malaysia, Malaysia A.,Submitted papers must not have been previously published nor 34. Roberts, Robin, University of Central Florida, USA Robertsbe currently under consideration for publication elsewhere. All 35. Rasheed, Abdul A., University of Texas at Arlingtonpapers are refereed through a double blind process. Issues in 36. Schaltegger, Stefan University of Lueneburg Stefan, GermanySEA is published biannually in June and December, so each con- 37. Sen Swagata, University of Calcutta, India Sen,tributor is encouraged to submit the papers before 30 May and 38. Savage, Deborah EMA Research & Information Center Deborah,30 November. See information for contributors and submission (EMARIC), USA 39. Suharjanto Djoko, Sebelas Maret University, Indonesia Suharjanto,guidelines to submit your paper. The contributors are required to 40. Stapleton, Pamela, University of Manchester UKsubmit their paper electronically, using Microsoft word, to this 41. Svensson, Goran, Oslo School of Management, Norwayaddress: email@example.com or firstname.lastname@example.org 42. Elijido-Ten Evangeline Swinburne University of Technol- Elijido-Ten, Evangeline, ogy, Australia 43. Belal, Ataur, Ashton University, UKContact: +62271827003 fax +62271827003 44. Freedman, Martin Towson University, USA Martin, 45. Chen, Jennifer C Brigham Young University, Hawai, USA C.,Web Address: http://isea.icseard.uns.ac.id and 46. Cho, Charles H Concordia University, Canada H.,http://web.ebscohost.com 47. Patten, Den, Illonois State University, USA Den 48. Larrinaga-González, Carlos Burgos University, Spain Larrinaga- Carlos, 49. Laine, Matias, University of Tampere, FinlandPublication of Indonesian Centre for Social and Environ- 50. Tarta, Monica The Academy of Economic Studies, Monica,mental Accounting Research and Development (ICSEARD) Bucharest, Romaniaand EBSCO Publishing 51. Tilt, Carol A., Flinders University, South Australia 52. Koleva, Petia University of Nantes, France Petia, 53. Yusoff, Haslinda UiTM, Malaysia Haslinda,Faculty of Economics 54. Zein, Mustaffa M UiTM, Malaysia M.,Sebelas Maret University, 55. Selvam, V VIT University, India V.,Jl. Ir Sutami 36 A 56. Jardat, Rémi ISTEC, Paris, France Rémi,Solo 57126 57. Caliyurt, Kiymet Tunca Trakya University, Turkey Tunca,Indonesia 58. Momin, Mahmood Ahmed Auckland University of Ahmed, Technology, NZ
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