11.production of cellulose from barley husks as a partial ingredient of formulated diet for tilapia fingerlings
Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare www.iiste.orgISSN 2224-3208 (Paper) ISSN 2225-093X (Online)Vol 2, No.2, 2012 Production of Cellulose from Barley Husks as a Partial Ingredient of Formulated Diet for Tilapia Fingerlings Keri Alhadi Ighwela¹ ,٭Aziz Bin Ahmad 1, A.B. Abol-Munafi 2 1. Faculty of Science & Technology, University Malaysia Terengganu, Kuala Terengganu, Malaysia 2. Institute of Tropical Aquaculture, University Malaysia Terengganu, Kuala Terengganu, Malaysia * E-mail of the corresponding author: Keri_Gwallah@Yahoo.com.AbstractCellulose is the most abundant renewable polysaccharide on earth and it is widely used in many aspectand industries such as food industry, pharmaceutical, and many more. Due to the increasing demand inthe market, studies and work to produce cellulose are still rapidly developing. In this study, barleyhusks was pretreated in hot water at 100°C and followed with liquid oxidation process with 30% H2O2at 60°C. Through the hot water treatment, cellulose in the barley husks was successfully recovered asglucuronic acid, saccharides, cellulose and thus leaving fats. Results obtained also show that aftertreatment, the barley husks is made up 66.00% cellulose. This cellulose can be used as source of thedigestible carbohydrate in fish feed which can help in reducing the cost of feed production.Keywords: Barley husks, hot water treatment, liquid phase oxidation, cellulose1. IntroductionThe current study was focused on the utilization of barley husk as a feedstock to produce a value-addedproduct, namely cellulose .However, barley husk, a by-product of the barley germination. Barley is avaluable agricultural crop, grown in large quantities around the world (Nilan and Ullrich, 1993). Thethe barley husk amounts to 15–20% of the dry weight of the grain (Bhatty, 1993; Palmer and Bathgate,1976). More than one third of the husks consist of celluloses (Höije et al., 2005). The cellulose can beseparated by various extraction and isolation methods, and then utilized in a number of ways, such aspharmaceutical, and formulation of good quality diets .The aims of the present study was focused onthe extraction and determination of cellulose from barley husks, (by- product of the barley germination)for the use of fish feed formulation, which can help in reducing the cost of feed production.2. Material and methods2.1. Raw materialFor this study, samples of barley seeds of varieties De-canter and Chariot. Where were harvested in2010 were imported from Libya. The barley husks was washed, and then dried in an oven at constanttemperature. Oil from barley husks was removed by using conventional Soxhlet extractor. The 19
Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare www.iiste.orgISSN 2224-3208 (Paper) ISSN 2225-093X (Online)Vol 2, No.2, 2012extractive-free sample (barley husks) was dried in an oven at 60°C for 18 hours and stored inrefrigerator before use.2.2. Isolation of celluloseExtraction of cellulose from barley husks was involving a two-step modified liquid phase oxidationmethod of Kazuhiro Mae et al (2000). Hot water treatment is pretreatment step of cellulose extraction.Hot water treatment was performed in cooking pot, which filled with barley husks and of distilledwater. The reaction was heated to a temperature of 100°C. After 30 min of hot water treatment, thecooking pot was soaked into cooling water in order to terminate the reaction. The pretreated barelyhusks was washed with distilled water and ethanol to remove the organic acid and saccharides, thendried and sieved to 600 µm.Liquid phase oxidation was the performed to remove any residue material like organic compounds andsolid residue from barley husks and remain the pure cellulose, by washed with 30% H2o2 treatment andKept for 24 hours at temperature of 60-80 °C in oven. The scheme of extraction stages for cellulosefrom barley husks is shown in figure.1.2.3. Analyses of products and yield measurement2.3.1. Analytical ReagentsThe reagents (0.255N sulfuric acid and 0.313N sodium hydroxide) were prepared in Laboratory ofanalytical chemistry of chemistry department, Faculty of Science and Technology, University MalaysiaTerengganu (UMT), Kuala Terengganu, Malaysia2.3.2. Procedural Schematic3 g sample +200 ml H2SO4 solution, boiling 30 minutes. Filtration. Re dissolve residue in 200 mlNaOH solution. Boiling 30 minutes. Filter. Dry, weight (P1) Calculate. Re weight (P2) Cellulose % = (P1-P2) x100 / 32.4. Statistical analysisThe data were getting from this study subjected to analysis of t-test to determined the percent ofcellulose in barley husk by using Gen stat 5 program3. Results and DiscussionBased on the experiments and modifications, the cellulose concentrations were calculated with thecalculated and Weende methods. The results observed that concentration of cellulose was 66% byusing calculated and Weende without any significant different at 0.01 between the methods .This resultis agreement with Microwave irradiation as a screening method (Roos et al; 2009). The results indicatea rapid, easy and low costly in determination of cellulose e in barley husk. Therefore, an experimentaldesign was performed to improve the cellulose determination in barley husk by modifying, the changes 20
Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare www.iiste.orgISSN 2224-3208 (Paper) ISSN 2225-093X (Online)Vol 2, No.2, 2012in preparation of extraction method. In this case good agreement was obtained by krawczyk et al(2008) and commonly used method based on chemical methods. Good agreement between theseprocedures was also found in the analysis of cellulose from several barley husk products.4. ConclusionsLiquid phase oxidation using H2O2 was presented for separating and recovering cellulose from barleyhusks. The method consists of hot water treatment and oxidation with H2O2 in liquid phase. As anoption, water soluble organic compounds obtained in oxidation stage. Cellulose from barley husks wasconverted as saccharides through the hot water treatment, leaving cellulose for oxidation stage. Theresidue materials like organic compounds and solid residue from barley husks was dissolved as solubleorganic compound after the oxidation with H2O2 and remain the pure cellulose. This method has beenshown to be a possible method for extraction of cellulose from barley husks. The result shows, theaverage of cellulose yield about 66%. The Barley husk is good source of cellulose .This material wouldprovide a useful addition at feed formulation already using barley husks for cellulose production.5. RecommendationThis study has provided valuable baseline data on the extraction of cellulose frombarley as a partial ingredient of formulated diet for tilapia fingerlings (Oreochromisniloticus) a freshwater fish species and has also been able to help in reducing the costof feed production. The proximate composition of experimental diets (g/100/DM)prepared for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) by Ighwela et al (2011) in Table. 1.6. AcknowledgementsFinancial support for this study was provided by scheme scholarship Higher Education of Libya andthese are acknowledged with gratitude.7. References Al-asgah N.A. & Ali A. (1994), " Feeding of Various Carbohydrate Sources on the GrowthPerformance and Nutrient Utilization in O. niloticus" Agribiological Res 47, pp. 1-12 Al-Ogaily S.M;Al-sgah N.A. & Ali A. (1996), "Effect of Different Grain Sources on GrowthPerformance and Body Composition of Tilapia (O. niloticus) " Aquaculture Research 27, pp. 523-529. Bhatty RS (1993), "Nonmalting uses of barley. In Barley: Chemistry and Technology” pp. 355–402(AW MacGregor and RS Bhatty, editors). St Paul, MO: American Association of Cereal Chemists,Inc. Höije, A., Gröndahl, M., Tommeraas, K. & Gatenholm, P. (2005), "Isolation and Characterizationof Physicochemical and Material Properties of Arabinoxylans from Barley Husks" Carbohydrate 21
Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare www.iiste.orgISSN 2224-3208 (Paper) ISSN 2225-093X (Online)Vol 2, No.2, 2012Polym. 61, pp266–275  Ighwela K. A., Aziz A. &Abol-Munafi A.B. (2011), "Condition Factor as An Indicator of Growth and Feeding Intensity of NileTilapia Fingerlings (Oreochromis Niloticus) Feed on Different Levels of Maltose" American-EurasianJ. Agric. & Environ. Sci., 11 (4): pp .559-563. Krawczyk, H., Persson, T., Andersson, A. & Jönsson, A.-S. (2008), "Isolation of Hemicellulosesfrom Barley Husks” Food Bioprod. Process. 86, pp. 31–36. Mae, K.; Hasegawa, I.; Sakai, N. & Miura, K. (2000), “A new Conversion Method for RecoveringValuable Chemicals from Oil Palm Shell Wastes Utilizing Liquid Phase Oxidation with H2O2 underMild Conditions" Energy and Fuels, 14, pp. 1212-1218. Nilan, R.A. & Ullrich, S.E. (1993), “Barley: Taxonomy, Origin, Distribution, Production,Genetics, and Breeding" In: MacGregor, A.W., Bhatty, R.S. (Eds.), Barley Chemistry and Technology.AACC, pp. 1–30. Palmer GH & Bathgate GN. (1976),"Malting and Brewing" Adv Cereal Science Technology 1: pp.237–324 Roos, A.A., Edlund, U., Sjöberg, J., Albertsson, A.-C. & Stålbrand, H. (2008), " Protein Releasefrom Galactoglucomannan Hydrogels: Influence of Substitutions and Enzymatic Hydrolysis by B-Mannanase” Biomacromolecules 9, pp. 2104–2110. Taketa et al. (2008), "Barley Grain with Adhering Hulls is controlled by an ERF FamilyTranscription Factor Gene Regulating a Lipid Biosynthesis Pathway" The National Academy ofSciences of the USA 22
Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare www.iiste.orgISSN 2224-3208 (Paper) ISSN 2225-093X (Online)Vol 2, No.2, 2012 Dried and ground barley husks Oil extraction Hot water treatment (100°C) for 30 min Soaked into cooling water to terminate the reaction Washed with distal water and ethanol Dried and sieved to 600 µm Washed with 30% H2o2 treatment Kept for 24 hours at temperature of 60-80 °C in an oven The residue drying Cellulose Figure1. Scheme for Extraction of cellulose from barley husk 23
Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare www.iiste.orgISSN 2224-3208 (Paper) ISSN 2225-093X (Online)Vol 2, No.2, 2012Table1. Proximate composition of experimental diets (g/100DM) prepared for Nile tilapia(Oreochromis niloticus) by Ighwela et al (2011).Ingredient Feed A Feed B Feed C Feed D Feed EFish meal 12 12 12 12 12Soya bean 38 38 38 38 38Wheat flour 10 10 10 10 10Maltose 0 20 25 30 35Cellulose 35 15 10 5 0Palm oil 3 3 3 3 3Mineral premix 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5Vitamin premix 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5Vitamin C 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4Binder (CMC) 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5Chromic oxide 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1Total (%) 100 100 100 100 100 24
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