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### 11.a new computational methodology to find appropriate

1. 1. Mathematical Theory and Modeling www.iiste.orgISSN 2224-5804 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0522 (Online)Vol.2, No.1, 2011 A New Computational Methodology to Find Appropriate Solutions of Fuzzy Equations Shapla Shirin * Goutam Kumar Saha Department of Mathematics, University of Dhaka, PO box 1000, Dhaka, Bangladesh * E-mail of the corresponding author: shapla@univdhaka.eduAbstractIn this paper, a new computational methodology to get an appropriate solution of a fuzzy equation of theform , where , are known continuous triangular fuzzy numbers and is an unknown fuzzynumber, are presented. In support of that some propositions with proofs and theorems are presented. Adifferent approach of the definition of ‘positive fuzzy number’ and ‘negative fuzzy number’ have beenfocused. Also, the concept of ‘half-positive and half-negative fuzzy number’ has been introduced. Thesolution of the fuzzy equation can be ‘positive fuzzy number’ or ‘negative fuzzy number’ or ‘half positiveor half negative fuzzy number’ which is computed by using the methodology focused in the proposedpropositions.Keywords: Fuzzy number, Fuzzy equation, Positive fuzzy number, Negative fuzzy number, half positiveand half negative fuzzy number, of a fuzzy number.1. IntroductionIn most cases in our life, the data obtained for decision making are only approximately known. The conceptof fuzzy set theory to meet those problems have been introduced [11]. The fuzziness of a property lies inthe lack of well defined boundaries [i.e., ill-defined boundaries] of the set of objects, to which this propertyapplies. Therefore, the membership grade is essential to define the fuzzy set theory.The notion of fuzzy numbers has been introduced from the idea of real numbers [4] as a fuzzy subset of thereal line. There are arithmetic operations, which are similar to those of the set of real numbers, such that +,–, . , /, on fuzzy numbers [6 8]. Fuzzy numbers allow us to make the mathematical model of linguisticvariable or fuzzy environment, and are also used to describe the data with vagueness and imprecision.The definition of ‘positive fuzzy number’ and ‘negative fuzzy number’ have been introduced [5, 9]. Theshortcoming of the definitions [5] has been focused [10] and the concept of ‘nonnegative fuzzy numbers’has been introduced [10] as well. None has introduced the notion of ‘half-positive and half-negative fuzzynumber’. In this paper, a different approach of the definitions of ‘positive fuzzy number’ and ‘negativefuzzy number’ have been focused; and a new notion of ‘half-positive and half-negative fuzzy number’ hasbeen introduced. There are another notion in the fuzzy set theory is the concept of the solution of fuzzyequations [8] of the form and , which have been discussed in [1 3, 8]. It is easy tosolve the fuzzy equation of the form , where , are known fuzzy numbers and is anunknown fuzzy number [8], but there are some limitations to solve the fuzzy equation of the form ,where is an unknown fuzzy number. Our main objective is to introduce a new computationalmethodology to overcome the limitations to get a solution, if it exists, of the fuzzy equation of the form where and are known continuous triangular fuzzy numbers. Here it is noted that the core ofa known continuous triangular fuzzy number is a singleton set.2. PreliminariesIn this section, some definitions [1 11] have been reviewed which are important to us for representing 1
2. 2. Mathematical Theory and Modeling www.iiste.orgISSN 2224-5804 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0522 (Online)Vol.2, No.1, 2011our main objective in the later sections. Let be the set of all fuzzy numbers and means that is afuzzy number whose membership function is .2.1 Definition : The of a fuzzy set is denoted by and is defined by , .2.2 Definition : The strong of a fuzzy set is denoted by and isdefined by , .2.3 Definition : The support of a fuzzy set is denoted by and is defined by .2.4 Definition : A fuzzy set is normal if there exist , s.t .2.5 Definition : A fuzzy number is a fuzzy set, whose membership function is denoted by ,which satisfies the conditions as under : (a) is normal fuzzy set; (b) is a closed interval ; (c) support of , i.e., is a bounded set in the classical sense.That is, a fuzzy number satisfies the condition of normality and convexity.2.6 Definition [5] : A fuzzy number is called positive (negative), denoted by ( ), if itsmembership function satisfies .2.7 Definition [10] : A fuzzy number is called positive, denoted by , if its membership function satisfies .2.8 Definition [10] : A fuzzy number is called nonnegative, denoted by , if its membershipfunction satisfies .3. Existence of a Solution of a Fuzzy EquationConsider the fuzzy equation , where , are known fuzzy numbers and is an unknown fuzzynumber. If , and are of , and , respectively, then the fuzzy equation has a solution if and only if theequation (A)has a solution and satisfies the following conditions [8] :Condition 1: . (B)Condition 2 : If then (C)4. New Proposed DefinitionsHere we have introduced some definitions which will help us to solve the fuzzy equation of the form , where , are known continuous fuzzy numbers and is an unknown fuzzy number. Thedefinitions are as follows and will be used in the next section.4.1 Definition : A triangular fuzzy number is called negative, denoted by , if there exist where ), , such that , and .4.2 Example : is a negative fuzzy number which is defined by 2
3. 3. Mathematical Theory and Modeling www.iiste.orgISSN 2224-5804 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0522 (Online)Vol.2, No.1, 2011 ( )= ,where , and .4.3 Definition : A triangular fuzzy number is called positive, denoted by , if thereexist where ), , such that , and .4.4 Example : is a positive fuzzy number which is defined by ( )= ,where , and .4.5 Definition [Half positive and half negative] : A triangular fuzzy number is called ‘half-positive andhalf-negative’, denoted by , if there exist where ), , such that , and .4.6 Example : is a half-positive and half-negative fuzzy number which is defined by ( )=where and .Figure 1 represents the fuzzy numbers which are given in examples 4.2, 4.4, and 4.6.5. Problems, Discussions, and ResultsIn this section, we have proposed some propositions with their proofs, which will help us to solve the fuzzyequation without any difficulties and within a reasonable time. We have also established relatedtheorems. In support of that some problems and their solutions have also been investigated.5.1 Proposition : If are known fuzzy numbers and is any unknown fuzzy number, then thesolution of the fuzzy equation is a positive fuzzy number.Proof : Given that and the fuzzy equation . Then, and , where and .Now, via representation, we have, = .Then, and such that , and . That is, ( )] ( )]is true if each is positive. Hence, the solution of the fuzzy equation is a ‘positive fuzzy number’.5.2 Problem : Suppose that and are two triangular negative continuous fuzzy numbers, where 3
4. 4. Mathematical Theory and Modeling www.iiste.orgISSN 2224-5804 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0522 (Online)Vol.2, No.1, 2011 = ; = .Solve the fuzzy equation for the unknown fuzzy numberSolution : Given the fuzzy equation ,where and are known negative fuzzy numbers and the unknown fuzzy number. Here, and . Now, we solve the following equation forthe unknown ,i.e., (2)Since , , we choose three cases for unknown fuzzy number : .Case (i) : Consider . Then, , where .Therefore, .So, . Since satisfies (A), (B)and (C) , it is a solution of equation (2) and hence, is the solution of the fuzzy equation (1)whose membership function is as follows : .The graphical representation of , and 𝜂 are shown in Figure 2 where the graph of is shown by dashedlines.Case (ii) : Consider . Then, , where .So, , and it does not satisfy theequation (A) for . Therefore, is not a solution of (1).Case (iii) : Suppose that Then, ,where . Now, we have , and it does not satisfy theequation (A) for . So, for the case , is not a solution of (1).5.3 Proposition : If are known fuzzy numbers and is any unknown fuzzy number, then thesolution of the fuzzy equation is a positive fuzzy number.Proof : Given that and the fuzzy equation . Then, and , where and .Now, via representation, we have . Then, and such that , and .That is, is true only if each is positive. Hence, the solution of the fuzzy equation is a ‘positivefuzzy number’.5.4 Problem : Suppose that are two triangular fuzzy numbers, where 4
5. 5. Mathematical Theory and Modeling www.iiste.orgISSN 2224-5804 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0522 (Online)Vol.2, No.1, 2011 ; .Show that the solution of the fuzzy equation is a positive fuzzy number .Solution : Given the fuzzy equation .where and are known positive fuzzy numbers and the unknown fuzzy number. Here, and . Now, we solve the following equation for theunknown , .Since , , we choose three cases for unknown fuzzy number : .Case (i) : Suppose that . Then, . Since satisfies(A), (B) and (C) , it is a solution of equation (2) and hence, 𝜂 is the solution of the fuzzy equation(1) whose membership function is as follows : .The graphical representation of , and 𝜂 are shown in Figure 3 where the graph of is shown by dashedlines.Case (ii) : Suppose that . Then, . Here, satisfiesthe conditions (B) and (C). and does not satisfy the equation (A) for . So, for the case , is nota solution of (1).Case (iii) : Suppose that Then, . Here, satisfies the conditions (B) and (C), but does not satisfy the equation (A) for . So, for the case , is not a solution of (1).5.5 Proposition : If and are known fuzzy numbers and is any unknown fuzzy number, thenthe solution of the fuzzy equation is a negative fuzzy number.Proof : Given that , and the fuzzy equation . Then, and ,where and . Now, via cutrepresentation, we have . Then, and such that , either (i) and ; or (ii) and .That is, is verified only ifeach is negative. Hence, the solution of the fuzzy equation is a‘negative fuzzy number’.5.6 Problem : Suppose that and > 0 are two triangular fuzzy numbers, where 5
6. 6. Mathematical Theory and Modeling www.iiste.orgISSN 2224-5804 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0522 (Online)Vol.2, No.1, 2011 = ; = .Then, show that the solution of the fuzzy equation is a negative fuzzy number.Solution : Given that and the fuzzy equation . (1)That is, (2)We have = [ ] and = [ ]. Since , so wechoose three cases for unknown fuzzy number : .Case (i) : Suppose that . Then, . Here, satisfies the conditions (B) and (C), but does not satisfy the equation (A) for . So, for the case , is not a solution of (1).Case (ii) : Suppose that . Then, . Here, satisfies the conditions (A), (B) and (C) .Therefore, is a solution of (2) and hence is the solution of the fuzzy equation . The membership function is as follows : .The graphical representation of , and 𝜂 are shown in Figure 4 where the graph of is shown by dashedlines.Case (iii) : Suppose that . Then, .Here, does not satisfy the equation (A) for . So, for the case , is not a solution of(2).5.7 Proposition : If and , a half positive and half negative, are known fuzzy numbers and is anyunknown fuzzy number, then the solution of the fuzzy equation is a half positive and half negativefuzzy number.Proof : Given that , is a half positive and half negative fuzzy number, and the fuzzy equation , where is an unknown fuzzy number. Then, = ( )] and , where and .Now, via representation, we have .Then, and such that , and .Which implies that and . Therefore, is thesolution of , that is, thecorresponding fuzzy number , which is a ‘half positive and half negative fuzzy number’, is the solution of .5.8 Problem : Suppose that and , a half positive and half negative, are two triangular fuzzynumbers, where 6
7. 7. Mathematical Theory and Modeling www.iiste.orgISSN 2224-5804 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0522 (Online)Vol.2, No.1, 2011 = ; = .Prove that the solution of the fuzzy equation is a half positive and half negative fuzzy number.Solution : Given the fuzzy equation (1)That is, (2)Case (i) : Suppose that . Then, . Here, satisfies the conditions (B) and (C), but does not satisfy the equation (A) for . So, for the case , is not a solution of (1).Case (ii) : Suppose that . Then, . Here, satisfies the conditions (B) and (C), but does not satisfy the equation (A) for . So, for the case , is not a solution of (1) too.Case (iii) : Suppose that . Then, . Here, satisfies the conditions (A), (B) and (C) .Therefore, is a solution of (2) and hence is asolution of the fuzzy equation . The membership function is as follows : .So, for the case , is the solution of the fuzzy equation . The graphical representationof , and 𝜂 are shown in Figure 5 where the graph of is shown by dashed lines.5.9 Proposition : If and , a half positive and half negative fuzzy number, are known fuzzy numberand is any unknown fuzzy number, then than the solution of the fuzzy equation is a halfpositive and half negative fuzzy number.Proof : The proof is similar to Proposition.5.7.5.10 Problem : Let and , a half positive and half negative be two triangular fuzzy numbers, where = ; = .Then, the solution of the fuzzy equation is a ‘half positive and half negative fuzzy number’ ,where .The graphical representation of , and 𝜂 are shown in Figure 6, where the graph of is shown by dashedlines. 7
8. 8. Mathematical Theory and Modeling www.iiste.orgISSN 2224-5804 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0522 (Online)Vol.2, No.1, 20116. ConclusionIn this paper we have established a new methodology to overcome the discussed shortcomings or limitationsof the method [8] of the solutions of a fuzzy equation of the form , where , are known positiveor negative continuous fuzzy numbers and is an unknown fuzzy number. For this reason, differentapproaches of the definitions of ‘positive fuzzy number’ and ‘negative fuzzy number’ have been introduced.A new notion of ‘half positive and half negative fuzzy number’ has also been innovated. Some propositionswith their proofs and some related problems with their solutions have been discussed. The propositions willhelp to assume the sign of unknown fuzzy number of the fuzzy equation for which we will beable to get a solution of the fuzzy equation easily. After that, some related theorems are presented. There isnone who has discussed these notions yet. Without this notion it is very difficult to solve a fuzzy equation ofthe form discussed above.References[1] Bhiwani, R. J., & Patre, B. M., (2009), “Solving First Order Fuzzy Equations : A Modal IntervalApproach”, IEEE Computer Society, Conference paper.[2] Buckley, J. J., & Qu, Y., (1990), “Solving linear and quadratic fuzzy equations”, Fuzzy Sets andSystems, Vol. 38, pp. 43 – 59.[3] Buckley, J. J., Eslami, E. & Hayashi, Y. , (1997), “Solving fuzzy equation using neural nets”, FuzzySets and Systems, Vol. 86, No. 3, pp. 271 – 278.[4] Dubois, D., & Prade H., (1978), “Operations on Fuzzy Numbers”, Internet. J. Systems Science, 9(6),pp. 13 626.[5] Dubois, D., & Prade H., (1980), “Fuzzy sets and systems: Theory and applications”, Academic Press,New York, p. 40.[6] Gaichetti, R. E. & Young, R. E., (1997), “A parametric representation of fuzzy numbers and theirarithmetic operators”, Fuzzy Sets and Systems, Vol. 91, No. 2, pp. 185 – 202.[7] Kaufmann, A., & Gupta, M. M., (1985), “Introduction to Fuzzy Arithmetic Theory and Applications”,Van Nostrand Reinhold Company Inc., pp. 1 43.[8] Klir, G. J., & Yuan, B., (1997), “Fuzzy Sets and Fuzzy Logic Theory and Applications”, Prentice-Hall of India Private Limited, New Delhi, pp. 1 117.[9] Dehghan, M., Hashemi, B., & Ghattee, M., (2006), “Computational methods for solving fullyfuzzy linear systems, Applied Mathematics and Computation”, 176, pp. 328–343.[10] Nasseri, H., (2008), “Fuzzy Numbers : Positive and Nonnegative” , International MathematicalForum, 3, No. 36, pp. 1777 – 1780.[11] Zadeh, L. A., (1965), “Fuzzy Sets”, Information and Control, 8(3), pp. 338 353.Shapla Shirin The author has born on 16th January, 1963, in Bangladesh. She obtained her M.Sc degree inPure Mathematics from the University of Dhaka in the year 1984. In 1996 she also received M. S. Degree(in Fuzzy Set Theory) from La Trobe University, Melbourne, Australia. Her main topic of interest is FuzzySet Theory and its applications. The author is an Associate Professor of Department of Mathematics,University of Dhaka, Bangladesh. She is a member of Bangladesh Mathematical Society.Goutam Kumar Saha The author has born on 14th October, 1985, in Bangladesh. He is a student of M.S.(Applied Mathematics), Department of Mathematics, University of Dhaka, Bangladesh. His area of interestis Fuzzy Set Theory. 8
9. 9. Mathematical Theory and Modeling www.iiste.orgISSN 2224-5804 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0522 (Online)Vol.2, No.1, 2011 Membership function Membership function Membership function 1 1 1 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.2 0.2 0.2 x x x -10 -8 -6 -4 -2 2 -1 1 2 3 4 5 6 -2 2 4 6 Figure 1 : Graphs of fuzzy numbers which are given in examples 4.2, 4.4, and 4.6. x x Membership function Membership function x 1 1 0.8 0.8 0.6 0.6 0.4 0.4 0.2 0.2 x -10 -8 -6 -4 -2 2 x -1 -0.5 0.5 1 Figure 2 : Graphs of fuzzy numbers , and the solution fuzzy number , respectively. Membership function x x 1 Membership function x 0.8 1 0.6 0.8 0.4 0.6 0.2 0.4 x 0.2 2 4 6 8 10 x -1 -0.5 0.5 1 1.5 2 Figure 3 : Graphs of fuzzy numbers , and the solution fuzzy number , respectively. x Membership function x 1 x Membership function 0.8 1 0.8 0.6 0.6 0.4 0.4 0.2 0.2 x x -20 -15 -10 -5 5 10 15 -3 -2.5 -2 -1.5 -1 -0.5 Figure 4 : Graphs of fuzzy numbers , and the solution fuzzy number , respectively. 9
10. 10. Mathematical Theory and Modeling www.iiste.orgISSN 2224-5804 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0522 (Online)Vol.2, No.1, 2011 x x 1 x 1 0.8 0.8 0.6 0.6 0.4 0.4 0.2 0.2 x x -10 -7.5 -5 -2.5 2.5 5 -1 -0.5 0.5 1 Figure 5 : Graphs of fuzzy numbers , and the solution fuzzy number , respectively. x x 1 1 0.8 0.8 0.6 0.6 0.4 0.4 0.2 0.2 x x -10 -8 -6 -4 -2 2 -0.6 -0.4 -0.2 0.2 0.4 0.6 Figure 6 : Graphs of fuzzy numbers , and the solution fuzzy number , respectively.The above tables and figures have been discussed to the relevant sections of this paper. 10
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