Indeed.com searches millions of jobs from thousands of job sites.This job trends graph shows the percentage of jobs we find that contain your search terms.RUP - Rational Unified ProcessCapability Maturity Model (CMM) and CMMICMM is being replaced by CMMI == Capability Maturity Model Integration
SCRUM方法論的用語很多是套用英式橄欖球術語，如果對橄欖球規則稍有涉獵，應該就有助於SCRUM的了解；SCRUM是指雙方爭球，如下圖，暗喻團隊合作的精神。Agile的一個分支ScrumXPKanbanLean software developmentI think we should run as a startup, using Kanban
PO is PMThe Product Owner writes (or has the team write) customer-centric items (typically user stories), prioritizes them, and adds them to the product backlogScrum is facilitated by a ScrumMaster, who ensures that the Scrum process is used as intended.
A very simple DoD might include the following:Code CompleteUnit Test completeFunctional / UI Test CompleteApproved by Product Owner
The stakeholders are the customers, vendors.
They are only directly involved in the process during the
Creates and prioritizes the product backlog
Understands the customer’s needs and the business value
Organizes the process
Keeps track of the teams progress
Removes obstacles from the path of the team
Scrum Team Member
Organizes itself to perform the work and deliver business
As a QA in Scrum
Building Test Cases
Participate In Estimating Stories
Help Keep Vision And Goals Visible
Collaborate With Customers And Developers
Provide Fast Feedback
Automate Regression Testing
Participate In Release Readiness/Demos
Enforce the Definition of Done
As a QA in Scrum
QA tasks are included on every sprint, and
your sprint is not successully completed
unless all QA tasks for that sprint are
QA always runs a sprint behind development,
in which case QA's testing tasks for sprint 1
are done while devs work on sprint 2.
Used to determine the work for the next
A prioritized list of everything needed or
wanted for the entire product
Often written in the form of user stories
Have estimates associated with them
(often Story Points)
Product Backlog Phase
The Product Owner compiles the requirements
The requirements is broken down into segments
Each segment should be part-deliverable and add
business value to the product
The Product Owner personally creates a
The list reflect the order in which the items should be
delivered. This order can change over time.
What is a Sprint
Scrum projects make progress in a series of
Target duration is pre-decided. Scrum
suggests 2 weeks to one month.
Scope does not change within a sprint.
In the beginning of each Sprint, the Product Owner
freezes the foremost items on the list and
summons the Scrum Team to a meeting
List of tasks that are to be completed in
The tasks are created by breaking down
the stories during the planning meeting
Have estimates (often in hours)
associated with them
Sprint Backlog Phase
The first day of the Sprint is reserved to create a
Created from the frozen items of the Product Backlog
When the tasks and required time has been
determined, the Product Owner lets go.
As of now the Scrum Team works under its own
responsibility in a time box
Every day at the same time
Everyone stands - it helps keeping the meeting
Anyone can attend, but only the team may speak
Each participant should answers 3 questions
What have you done since yesterday?
What will you do today?
Is there anything preventing you from doing what you have
Demo and Evaluation
The Sprint ends with a demonstration during
which functioning software is run before a larger
Consisting of, besides the Product Owner, users and
representatives from management as an example.
This is the basis for an Evaluation Meeting that
in turn is the starting block for the next Sprint
All team members reflect on the past sprint
Make continuous process improvements
Two main questions are asked in the sprint
What went well during the sprint?
What could be improved in the next sprint?
Two-hour time limit
This meeting is facilitated by the
Myths about Scrum
Scrum means no documentation
Scrum means no plan
Scrum is easy
Scrum is a silver bullet solution to solve
Scrum is only for team players
Scrum doesn't need up front design
We're doing scrum so we don't need to do
TDD, Refactoring Pair Programming, etc.
As a role
I want something
[so that I get a benefit]
As a User
I want to login
so that I can access personal data on
As a student, I can find my grades
online so that I don’t have to wait until
the next day to know whether I passed.
As a book shopper, I can read reviews
of a selected book so that I can decide
whether to buy it.
As a user, I want to search for my
customers by their first and last names.
Good User Stories
Focus on the user
Keep your stories visible
Use stories to facilitate a conversation
with the team and with the users
Keep your stories simple
Progressively decompose your stories
Don’t forget the acceptance criteria
Consider grouping user stories into
Well-formed User Stories
I – Independent
N – Negotiable
V – Valuable
E – Estimable
S – Small
T – Testable
As Product Owner, I want a list of highly-
rated restaurants on the website.
Drawbacks: It’s not only about you!
Better: Focus on your end users and
stakeholders. “As a gourmet tourist, I want a
list of highly-rated restaurants on the
Write game rules.
Drawbacks: not independent, no business
value, not small.
Better: “As a newbie game player, I want to
know who goes first so we can start the
Think of non-functional requirements as constraints
As a customer, I want to be able to run your
product on all versions of Windows from
Windows 95 on.
As a user, I want the site to be available
99.999% of the time I try to access it so that I
don't get frustrated and find another site to use.
As the CTO, I want the system to use our
existing orders database rather than create a
new one sot that we don't have one more
database to maintain.
Use cases - User Stories: so precious
but not the same !
Non-functional Requirements as User