history bri...
twentieth century
the fall of the Berlin wall and geography
BERLIN - GERMANY                                                      architecture

BERLIN - GERMANY                                                   religion, economy, culture

BERLIN - GERMANY                                                         media, festivals, museums, arts

BERLIN - GERMANY                                                     media, festivals, museums, arts

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Still one of the most modern and beautiful cities i've ever seen.

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Publication Berlin

  1. 1. BERLIN - GERMANY history brief and facts... erlin is the capital city and one of B sixteen states of Germany. With a population of 3.4 million within its The metropolis is home to world-renowned universities, research institutes, sporting events, orchestras, an economic and social unit. In 1307, the two cities were united politically. Over time, the twin cities came to be known city limits, Berlin is Germany’s largest city. It is the second most populous city museums and personalities. Berlin’s simply as Berlin.In 1435, Frederick I and the eighth most populous urban area urban landscape and historical legacy has became the elector of the Margraviate of in the European Union. Located in made it a popular setting for international Brandenburg, which he ruled until 1440. northeastern Germany, it is the center of film productions. The city is recognized His successor, Frederick II, established the Berlin-Brandenburg metropolitan for its festivals, diverse architecture, Berlin as capital of the margraviate, and area, comprising 5 million people from over 190 nations. nightlife, contemporary arts, extensive subsequent members of the Hohenzollern public transportation networks and a high family ruled until 1918 in Berlin, first as First documented in the thirteenth quality of living. Berlin has evolved into electors of Brandenburg, then as kings of century, Berlin was successively the a global focal point for young individuals Prussia, and finally as German emperors. capital of the Kingdom of Prussia and artists attracted by a liberal lifestyle In 1448 citizens rebelled in the “Berlin (1701–1918), the German Empire and modern zeitgeist. The name Berlin, is Indignation” against the construction of a (1871–1918), the Weimar Republic of unknown origin, but may be related to new royal palace by Elector Frederick II (1919–1933) and the Third Reich (1933–1945). After World War II, the the Old Polabian stem berl-/birl- Irontooth. city was divided; East Berlin became the “swamp”. capital of East Germany while West This protest was not successful, Berlin became a Western exclave, The earliest evidence of however, and the citizenry lost many of surrounded by the Berlin Wall (1961–1989). Following German settlements in today’s Berlin central areas its political and economic privileges. In reunification in 1990, the city regained its is a wooden beam dated from 1451 Berlin became the royal residence status as the capital of all Germany approximately 1192. The first written of the Brandenburg electors, and Berlin hosting 147 foreign embassies. mention of towns in the area of had to give up its status as a free present-day Berlin dates from the late Hanseatic city. In 1539, the electors and Berlin is a major center of culture, twelfth century. The settlement of the city officially became Lutheran. politics, media, and science in Europe. Its Spandau is first mentioned in 1197, and Frederick the Great was one of Europe’s economy is primarily based on the service sector, encompassing a diverse Köpenick in 1209, though these areas did enlightened monarchs. The Thirty Years’ range of creative industries, media not join Berlin until 1920. The central War between 1618 and 1648 had corporations, environmental services, part of Berlin can be traced back to two devastating consequences for Berlin. A congress and convention venues. The city towns. Cölln on the Fischerinsel is first third of the houses were damaged and the serves as a continental hub for air and rail mentioned in a 1237 document, and city lost half of its population. Frederick transport, and is one of the most visited Berlin, across the Spree in what is now William, known as the “Great Elector”, tourist destinations in the EU. Other industries include traffic engineering, called the Nikolaiviertel, is referenced in who had succeeded his father George optoelectronics, IT, pharmaceuticals, a document from 1244. The former is William as ruler in 1640, initiated a biomedical engineering, and considered to be the “founding date”. policy of promoting immigration and biotechnology. From the beginning, the two cities formed religious tolerance. g
  2. 2. twentieth century BERLIN - GERMANY history brief and facts... W ith the Edict of Potsdam in 1685, Frederick William offered asylum to the French Huguenots. More than 15,000 Huguenots went to Brandenburg, of whom 6,000 into four sectors, analogous to the occupation zones into which Germany was divided. The sectors of the Western Allies (the United States, the United Kingdom, and France) settled in Berlin. By 1700, approximately twenty percent of formed West Berlin, while the Soviet sector formed East Berlin’s residents were French, and their cultural influence on Berlin. The Berlin Wall in 1986, painted on the western side. the city was immense. Many other immigrants came from People crossing the so-called “death strip” on the eastern Bohemia, Poland, and Salzburg. Berlin became the capital of side were at risk of being shot. the German Empire in 1871 and expanded rapidly in the following years. (Unter den Linden in 1900) All four allies retained shared responsibility for With the coronation of Frederick I in 1701 as king (in Berlin. However, the growing political differences Königsberg), Berlin became the capital of the Kingdom of between the Western Allies and the Soviet Union led the Prussia. In 1740 Frederick II, known as Frederick the Great latter, which controlled the territory surrounding Berlin, (1740–1786) came to power. Berlin became, under the rule of to impose the Berlin Blockade, an economic blockade of the philosophically oriented Frederick II, a center of the West Berlin. The allies successfully overcame the Enlightenment. Following France’s victory in the War of the Fourth Coalition, Napoleon Bonaparte marched into Berlin in Blockade by airlifting food and other supplies into the 1806, but granted self-government to the city. In 1815 the city city from 24 June 1948 to 11 May 1949. In 1949, the became part of the new Province of Brandenburg. Federal Republic of Germany was founded in West Germany, and eventually The Industrial Revolution included all of the American, transformed Berlin during the British and French zones, but nineteenth century; the city’s excluded those three countries’ economy and population expanded zones of Berlin, while the dramatically, and it became the main Marxist-Leninist German rail hub and economic center of Democratic Republic was Germany. Additional suburbs soon proclaimed in East Germany. developed and increased the area and West Berlin remained a free population of Berlin. In 1861, city that was separate from the outlying suburbs including Wedding, Federal Republic of Germany, Moabit, and several others were and issued its own postage incorporated into Berlin. In 1871, stamps. Airline service to West Berlin became capital of the newly Berlin was granted only to founded German Empire. On 1 April American, British and French 1881 it became a city district separate from Brandenburg. airlines. The founding of the two German states increased Cold War tensions. West Berlin was At the end of World War I in 1918, the Weimar surrounded by East German territory. East Germany, Republic was proclaimed in Berlin. In 1920, the Greater Berlin however, proclaimed East Berlin (which it described Act united dozens of suburban cities, villages, and estates only as “Berlin”) as its capital, a move that was not around Berlin into a greatly expanded city at the expense of recognized by the Western powers. Although half the Brandenburg. After this expansion, Berlin had a population of size and population of West Berlin, it included most of around four million. On 30 January 1933 (Machtergreifung), the historic center of the city. The West German Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party came to power. Nazi rule government, meanwhile, established itself provisionally destroyed Berlin’s Jewish community, which had numbered in Bonn. 170,000 before 1933. After the Kristallnacht pogrom in 1938, thousands of the city’s German Jews were imprisoned in the The tensions between east and west culminated in the nearby Sachsenhausen concentration camp or, in early 1943, construction of the Berlin Wall between East and West Berlin were shipped to death camps, such as Auschwitz. During the and other barriers around West Berlin by East Germany on 13 war, large parts of Berlin were destroyed in the 1943–45 air August 1961 and were exacerbated by a tank standoff at raids and during the Battle of Berlin. After the end of the war in Checkpoint Charlie on 27 October 1961. West Berlin was now Europe in 1945, Berlin received large numbers of refugees from de facto a part of West Germany with a unique legal status, the Eastern provinces. The victorious powers divided the city while East Berlin was de facto a part of East Germany. g
  3. 3. the fall of the Berlin wall and geography BERLIN - GERMANY history brief and facts... 1. Berlin was completely separated. It at the end of the last ice age. The Spree autumn are generally chilly to mild. was possible for Westerners to pass follows this valley now. In Spandau, Berlin’s built-up area creates a from one to the other only through microclimate, with heat stored by the Berlin’s westernmost borough, the Spree city’s buildings. Temperatures can be strictly controlled checkpoints. For most Easterners, travel to West Berlin meets the river Havel, which flows from 4°C (7°F) higher in the city than in the or West Germany was no longer north to south through western Berlin. surrounding areas. possible. In 1971, a Four-Power The course of the Havel is more like a agreement guaranteed access across chain of lakes, the largest being the Annual precipitation is East Germany to West Berlin and ended Tegeler See and Großer Wannsee. A 22.4 inches (570 mm) with moderate the potential for harassment or closure rainfall throughout the year. Light series of lakes also feeds into the upper of the routes. snowfall mainly occurs from December Spree, which flows through the Großer through March, but snow cover does In 1989, pressure from the East Müggelsee in eastern Berlin. German population broke free across the not usually remain for long. The city’s Berlin Wall on 9 November 1989, which appearance today is predominantly was subsequently mostly demolished. Substantial parts of present-day Berlin shaped by the key role it played in Not much is left of it today; the East Side extend onto the low plateaus on both sides Germany’s history in the twentieth Gallery in Friedrichshain near the of the Spree Valley. Large parts of the century. Each of the national Oberbaumbrücke over the Spree boroughs Reinickendorf and Pankow lie governments based in Berlin — the preserves a portion of the Wall. on the Barnim plateau, while most of the 1871 German Empire, the Weimar Democracy and market economy changed boroughs Charlottenburg-Wilmersdorf, Republic, Nazi Germany, East East Germany and East Berlin. Steglitz-Zehlendorf, Tempelhof- Germany, and now the reunified Schöneberg, and Neukölln lie on the Germany — initiated ambitious On 3 October 1990 the two parts Teltow plateau. The borough of Spandau construction programs, each with its lies partly within the Berlin Urstromtal own distinctive character. Berlin was of Germany were reunified as the Federal and partly on the Nauen Plain, which Republic of Germany, and Berlin became stretches to the west of Berlin. The devastated by bombing raids during World War II and many of the old the German capital according to the highest elevations in Berlin are the buildings that escaped the bombs were unification treaty. In June 1991 the Teufelsberg and the Müggelberge. Both eradicated in the 1950s and 1960s in German Parliament, the Bundestag, voted hills have an elevation of about both West and East. Much of this to move the (West) German capital back 115 metres (380 ft). The Teufelsberg is in destruction was initiated by municipal fact an artificial pile of rubble from the architecture programs to build new from Bonn to Berlin. In 1999, the German ruins of World War II. The outskirts of parliament and government began their Berlin are covered with woodlands and residential or business quarters and main roads. In the eastern part, many work in Berlin. numerous lakes. Plattenbauten can be found, reminders of Eastern Bloc ambitions to create 2. Berlin is located in eastern Germany, Berlin has a temperate/mesothermal complete residential areas with fixed about 70 kilometers (44 miles) west of the climate (Cfb) according to the Köppen ratios of shops, kindergartens and climate classification system. schools. The design of little red and border with Poland in an area with marshy terrain. The Berlin–Warsaw Urstromtal Summers are warm with average high green men on pedestrian crossing temperatures of 22–25°C (mid 70s F) and lights, the Ampelmännchen, are also (ancient river valley), between the low lows of 12–14°C (mid 50s F). Winters are rather spread in Eastern parts. Berlin’s Barnim plateau to the north and the cold with average high temperatures of unique recent history has left the city Teltow plateau to the south, was formed 4°C (upper 30s F) and lows of -2 to 0°C with a highly eclectic array of by water flowing from melting ice sheets (upper 20s and low 30s F). Spring and architecture and buildings. g
  4. 4. BERLIN - GERMANY architecture history brief and facts... The area around Hackescher Markt is T he Fernsehturm (TV tower) at Alexanderplatz in Mitte is the second-tallest structure in the home to the fashionable culture, with countless clothing outlets, clubs, bars, European Union at 368 meters (1,207 ft). and galleries. This includes the Built in 1969, it is visible throughout Hackesche Höfe, a conglomeration of most of the central districts of Berlin. The buildings around several courtyards, city can be viewed from its 204 metres reconstructed around 1996. (670 ft) high observation floor. Starting Oranienburger Straße and the nearby here the Karl-Marx-Allee heads east, an New Synagogue were the center of avenue lined by monumental residential Jewish culture before 1933, and regains buildings, designed in the Socialist being it today. Schloss Charlottenburg Classicism Style of the Stalin era. is the largest existing palace in Berlin. Adjacent to this area is the Rotes Rathaus the Napoleonic occupation of the city, is (City Hall), with its distinctive red-brick bordered by two similarly designed The Straße des 17. Juni, architecture. The previously built-up part cathedrals, the French Cathedral with its connecting the Brandenburg Gate and in front of it is the Neptunbrunnen, a observation platform and the German Ernst-Reuter-Platz, serves as central Cathedral. The Konzerthaus (Concert Hall), East-West-Axis. Its name fountain featuring a mythological scene. home of the Berlin Symphony Orchestra, commemorates the uprisings in East The East Side Gallery is an open-air Berlin of 17 June 1953. stands between the two cathedrals. exhibition of art painted directly on the Approximately half-way from the last existing portions of the Berlin Wall. It The Berliner Dom, a Protestant Brandenburg Gate is the Großer is the largest remaining evidence of the cathedral and the third church on this site, Stern, a circular traffic island on city’s historical division. It has recently is located on the Spree Island across from which the Siegessäule (Victory undergone a restoration. the site of the Berliner Stadtschloss and Column) is situated. This monument, adjacent to the Lustgarten. A large crypt built to commemorate Prussia’s houses the remains of some of the earlier victories, was relocated 1938–39 Prussian royal family. Like many other from its previous position in front of the Reichstag. The Kurfürstendamm buildings, it suffered extensive damage is home to some of Berlin’s luxurious during the Second World War. The stores with the Kaiser Wilhelm Cathedral of St. Hedwig is Berlin’s Memorial Church at its eastern end on Roman Catholic cathedral. Breitscheidplatz. The church was destroyed in the Second World War Unter den Linden is a tree lined and left in ruins. Near by on east-west avenue from the Brandenburg Tauentzienstraße is KaDeWe, Gate to the site of the former Berliner claimed to be continental Europe’s Stadtschloss, and was once Berlin’s largest department store. The Rathaus premier promenade. Many Classical Schöneberg, where John F. Kennedy made his famous “Ich bin ein buildings line the street and part of Berliner!” speech, is situated in The Brandenburg Gate is an iconic Humboldt University is located there. Tempelhof-Schöneberg. West of the landmark of Berlin and Germany. It also Friedrichstraße was Berlin’s legendary center, Schloss Bellevue is the appears on German euro coins (10 cent, street during the Roaring Twenties. It residence of the German President.g 20 cent, and 50 cent). The Reichstag combines twentieth century traditions building is the traditional seat of the German Parliament, renovated in the with the modern architecture of today’s 1950s after severe World War II damage. Berlin. Potsdamer Platz is an entire The building was again remodeled by quarter built from scratch after 1995 after British architect Norman Foster in the the Wall came down. To the west of 1990s and features a glass dome over the Potsdamer Platz is the Kulturforum, session area, which allows free public which houses the Gemäldegalerie, and is access to the parliamentary proceedings and magnificent views of the city. flanked by the Neue Nationalgalerie and the Philharmonic. The Memorial to the The Gendarmenmarkt, a neoclassical Murdered Jews of Europe, a Holocaust square in Berlin whose name dates back to memorial, is situated to the north.
  5. 5. BERLIN - GERMANY religion, economy, culture history brief and facts... contributes around 81.85%, industry technology parks worldwide. Research 18.03%, and agriculture 0.12% .After and development have established Germany´s reunification, significant economic significance, and the Berlin de-industrialization changed Berlin´s economy which is today dominated by the Brandenburg region ranks among the top service sector. The unemployment rate three innovative regions in the EU. Berlin steadily decreased and reached a 13 is among the top three convention cities in year-low with 13.3% in September 2008 the world and is home to Europe’s biggest (German average: convention center in the form of the 7.4%/September/2008). Internationales Congress Centrum (ICC). Among the Forbes Global 2000 It contributes to the rapidly increasing and the 30 German DAX companies, tourism sector encompassing 659 hotels Siemens and Deutsche Bahn control with 97,400 beds and numbered 17.8 headquarters in Berlin. A multitude of 1have no registered religious affiliation. A majority of Berlin residents (60%) German and international companies established secondary departments or million overnight stays and 7.9 million hotel guests in 2008. Berlin has The largest religious groups are established itself as the third most-visited Protestants (mostly belonging to the service offices in the city. Among the 20 Evangelical Church of city destination in the European Union. largest employers in Berlin are the Berlin-Brandenburg-Silesian Upper railway company Deutsche Bahn, the Lusatia, a united church) at 23% of the hospital company Charité, the local population (757,000), Roman Catholics public transport company BVG, the (9%, or 312,000 people), members of service provider Dussmann and the other Christian churches (2.7%), and Piepenbrock Group. Daimler Muslims (6%, or 213,000). Most of the manufactures cars, and BMW builds over 120,000 Jews in Berlin have come motorcycles in Berlin. Bayer Schering from the former Soviet Union. Pharma and Berlin Chemie are major Berlin is seat of both a Roman pharmaceutical companies Catholic bishop (Roman Catholic headquartered in the city. The second Archdiocese of Berlin) and a Protestant most important German airline Air Berlin bishop (Evangelical Church of and the rail company Deutsche Bahn are Berlin-Brandenburg-Silesian Upper headquartered in Berlin. In Germany, Lusatia). The Independent Universal Music and Sony Music are Evangelical-Lutheran Church (former name: Old Lutherans) has eight parishes of different sizes in Berlin. headquartered in Berlin as well. 3institutions, manyitsof which cultural Berlin is noted for numerous enjoy international reputation. The diversity and vivacity of the Zeitgeist Metropolis led to There are 36 Baptist an ever-changing and trendsetting image congregations, 29 New Apostolic among major cities. The city has a very Churches, 15 United Methodist churches, diverse art scene, and is home to around eight Free Evangelical Congregations, an 420 art galleries. Young Germans and Old Catholic church, and an Anglican international artists continue to settle in the church in Berlin. Berlin has eleven city, and Berlin has established itself as a synagogues, two Buddhist temples, and center of youth and popular culture in 76 mosques. There are also a number of Europe. Signs of this expanding role was humanist and atheist groups in the city. the 2003 announcement that the annual Popkomm, Europe’s largest music industry 2based economy of thesector.isThe ICC The on the service city mainly Fast-growing sectors are communications, life sciences, mobility and services with convention, would move to Berlin after 15 years in Cologne. Shortly thereafter, the and the Funkturm are part of the city’s Universal Music Group and MTV also information and communication exhibition and congress center. decided to move their European technologies, media and music, advertising and design, biotechnology and environmental headquarters and main studios to the banks In 2008, the nominal GDP of the citystate Berlin experienced a growth rate of 1.6% services, transportation and medical of the River Spree in Friedrichshain. In (1.3% in Germany) and totaled €83.0 engineering. The Science and Business Park 2005, Berlin was awarded the title of “City ($108) billion, of which service sector of Berlin-Adlershof is among the 15 largest of Design” by UNESCO. g
  6. 6. BERLIN - GERMANY media, festivals, museums, arts history brief and facts... 1television the home stations; the Europeanisand Germanmore Berlin is and radio of many industry. It home to film international, national as well than one thousand film and as regional. The public television production broadcaster RBB has its companies, 270 movie theaters, headquarters there as well as and around 300 national and the commercial broadcasters international co-productions MTV Europe, VIVA, TVB, are filmed in the region every FAB, N24 and Sat.1. German year. The venerable international public Babelsberg Studios and the broadcaster Deutsche Welle production company UFA are has its TV production unit in located outside Berlin in Berlin. Additionally, most Potsdam. The city is also home national German broadcasters of the European Film Academy have a studio in the city. and the German Film American radio programming Academy, and hosts the annual from National Public Radio Berlin Film Festival. Founded NPR is also broadcast on the in 1951, the festival has been underground and carnival Love Parade, club FM dial. Berlin has Germany’s celebrated annually in February counter-culture gatherings. It is transmediale and the largest number of daily since 1978. With over 430,000 also home to many nightclubs, cultural festival Berliner newspapers, with numerous admissions it is the largest including Kunst Haus Festspiele, which include local broadsheets (Berliner publicly attended film festival Tacheles, techno clubs Tresor, the jazz festival JazzFest Morgenpost, Berliner Zeitung, in the world. WMF, Ufo, E-Werk, the Berlin. Several technology Der Tagesspiegel), and three infamous Kitkatclub and and media art festivals and Berghain. The Linientreu, near major tabloids, as well as national dailies of varying 2diverse and one of the most Berlin has vibrant nightlife the Kaiser Wilhelm Memorial conferences are held in the city, including sizes, each with a different scenes in Europe. Throughout Church, has been well known Transmediale and Chaos political affiliation, such as Die the 1990s, twentysomethings since the 1990s for techno Communication Congress. Welt, Junge Welt, Neues from surrounding countries, music. The LaBelle Deutschland, and Die particularly those in Eastern discothèque in Friedenau Tageszeitung. The Exberliner, a monthly magazine, is Berlin’s and Central Europe, made Berlin’s club scene the premier became famous as the location of the 1986 Berlin discotheque 3museums. The ensemble Berlin is home to 153 English-language periodical bombing. Berlin is one of the on the Museum Island is a nightlife destination of Europe. UNESCO World Heritage focusing on arts and After the fall of the Berlin Wall most popular areas for nightlife entertainment. Berlin is also the and DJ-culture in Europe. Site and is situated in the in 1989, many buildings in headquarters of two major Mitte, the former city center of northern part of the Spree SO36 in Kreuzberg originally Island between the Spree German-language publishing East Berlin, were renovated. focused largely on punk music houses: Walter de Gruyter and Many had not been rebuilt and the Kupfergraben. As but today has become a popular early as 1841 it was Springer, each of which since the Second World War. venue for dances and parties of publishes books, periodicals, Illegally occupied by young designated a “district all kinds. SOUND, located from dedicated to art and and multimedia products. people, they became a fertile 1971 to 1988 in Tiergarten and Berlin is an important center in ground for all sorts of antiquities” by a royal today in Charlottenburg, gained decree. Subsequently, the notoriety in the late 1970s for its Altes Museum (Old popularity with heroin users and Museum) in the Lustgarten other drug addicts as described displaying the bust of Queen in Christiane F.’s book Wir Nefertiti, and the Neues Kinder vom Bahnhof Zoo. Museum (New Museum), The Karneval der Kulturen, a Alte Nationalgalerie (Old multi-ethnic street parade National Gallery), celebrated every Pentecost Pergamon Museum, and weekend, and the Christopher Bode Museum were built Street Day, which is Central there.While these buildings Europe’s largest gay-lesbian once housed distinct pride event and is celebrated collections, the names of the the last weekend of June, are buildings no longer openly supported by the city’s necessarily correspond to government. Berlin is also the names of the collections well known for the techno they house. g
  7. 7. BERLIN - GERMANY media, festivals, museums, arts history brief and facts... Apart from theis Museum Lichtenberg, onEast grounds Island, there a wide of the former the German variety of museums. The Ministry for State Security Gemäldegalerie (Painting (Stasi), is the Stasi Museum. Gallery) focuses on the The site of Checkpoint paintings of the “old masters” Charlie, one of the renowned from the thirteenth to the crossing points of the Berlin eighteenth centuries, while the Wall, is still preserved and Neue Nationalgalerie (New also has a museum. The National Gallery, built by museum, which is a private Ludwig Mies van der Rohe) venture, exhibits a specializes in twentieth comprehensive array of century European painting. material about people who The Hamburger Bahnhof, devised ingenious plans to located in Moabit, exhibits a flee the East. The Beate Uhse major collection of modern Erotic Museum near Zoo and contemporary art. In Station claims to be the Komische Oper has named for the orchestra’s spring 2006, the expanded world’s largest erotic traditionally specialized in longest-serving conductor, Deutsches Historisches museum. operettas and is located at Herbert von Karajan. The Museum re-opened in the Unter den Linden as well. The current principal conductor Zeughaus with an overview of German history through the 4 Berlin is home to more than Deutsche Oper opened in 1912 50 theaters. The Deutsches in Charlottenburg. During the is Simon Rattle. The Konzerthausorchester fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989. Theater in Mitte was built in division of the city from 1961 Berlin was founded in 1952 The Bauhaus-Archive is an 1849–50 and has operated to 1989 it was the only major as the orchestra for East architecture museum. The continuously since then, opera house in West Berlin. Berlin, since the Jewish Museum has a standing except for a one-year break Philharmonic was based in exhibition on two millennia of (1944–45) due to the Second There are seven West Berlin. Its current German-Jewish history. The World War. The Volksbühne symphony orchestras in principal conductor is German Museum of on Rosa Luxemburg Platz was Berlin. The Berlin Lothar Zagrosek. The Haus Technology in Kreuzberg has a built in 1913–14, though the Philharmonic Orchestra is one der Kulturen der Welt large collection of historical company had been founded of the preeminent orchestras in presents various exhibitions technical artifacts. The already in 1890. The Berliner the world; it is housed in the dealing with intercultural Museum für Naturkunde Ensemble, famous for Berliner Philharmonie near issues and stages world exhibits natural history near performing the works of Potsdamer Platz on a street music and conferences. g Berlin Hauptbahnhof. It has Bertolt Brecht, was established the largest mounted dinosaur in 1949, not far from the in the world (a brachiosaurus), Deutsches Theater. The and a preserved specimen of Schaubühne was founded in the early bird Archaeopteryx. 1962 in a building in Kreuzberg, but moved in 1981 In Dahlem, there are to the building of the former several museums of world art Universum Cinema on and culture, such as the Kurfürstendamm. Berlin has Museum of Indian Art, the three major opera houses: the Museum of East Asian Art, Deutsche Oper, the Berlin the Ethnological Museum, the State Opera, and the Komische Museum of European Oper. The Berlin State Opera Cultures, as well as the Allied on Unter den Linden is the Museum (a museum of the oldest; it opened in 1742. Its Cold War), the Brücke current musical director is Museum (an art museum). In Daniel Barenboim. The