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Theories of management and organization

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Discussion at the Ukrainian National Academy of Public Administration in Kharkov, Dec. 2012.

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Theories of management and organization

  1. 1. Leading. Managing. Organizing.Theories and approaches.
  2. 2. An in depth look at theory Theories of management Micro Macro The focus is on The focus is on individual organizations and elements of an other elements organization. within an industry. Alex Gorelik, Ph. D. | Tweet me: @Doc_G_
  3. 3. Recap: The different roles ofmanagers • Entrepreneur Decision- • Resource allocator making • Disturbance handler • Negotiator • Planning • Organizing • Monitor • Informati- Leading • Disseminator onal • Controlling • Spokesperson • Leader Inter- • Figurehead personal • Liaison Alex Gorelik, Ph. D. | Tweet me: @Doc_G_
  4. 4. Recap: The challenge ofconvergence"the flow of content across multiple media platforms, the cooperation between multiple media industries, and the migratory behaviour of media audiences." Henry Jenkins, DeFlorz Professor of Humanities and the Founder and Director of the Comparative Media Studies Program at MIT. Alex Gorelik, Ph. D. | Tweet me: @Doc_G_
  5. 5. Recap: The challenge ofconvergence communica cultural corporate Trends: forms tions ownership systems Alex Gorelik, Ph. D. | Tweet me: @Doc_G_
  6. 6. Recap: The challenge ofconvergence story Marketing job Levels: alliances description telling techniques Alex Gorelik, Ph. D. | Tweet me: @Doc_G_
  7. 7. Recap: The challenge ofconvergence Existing business models are no longer viable Changing requirements for skill sets Changing requirements for organizational structure Changing market alignment Changing profile of customers Alex Gorelik, Ph. D. | Tweet me: @Doc_G_
  8. 8. Recap: manager profileBackgroundEducationMedia trainingDemographicsRecruitmentDecision makingSuccess factors Alex Gorelik, Ph. D. | Tweet me: @Doc_G_
  9. 9. Recap: manager profile The tragedy of media managers is that they tend to get promoted to managerial positions because they are “really good reporters”. Alex Gorelik, Ph. D. | Tweet me: @Doc_G_
  10. 10. Recap: Major schools of thoughtClassical  Scientific management (Frederic Taylor)  Bureaucratic (Administrative) management Alex Gorelik, Ph. D. | Tweet me: @Doc_G_
  11. 11. Recap: Major schools of thoughtBehavioral  Behavioral science  Human relations • (Douglas McGregor)  Theory of attitude and attitude change • Management as the facilitator of development. • Behaviorist vs. internalist position Alex Gorelik, Ph. D. | Tweet me: @Doc_G_
  12. 12. Recap: Major schools of thoughtContingency school  Arguably, an organic organization is more responsive to change and has more chances of survival in conditions of high environmental uncertainty. Alex Gorelik, Ph. D. | Tweet me: @Doc_G_
  13. 13. Recap: Strategic questions Alex Gorelik, Ph. D. | Tweet me: @Doc_G_
  14. 14. Q?Alex Gorelik, Ph. D. | Tweet me: @Doc_G_
  15. 15. An in depth look at theory Theories of management Micro Macro The focus is on The focus is on individual organizations and elements of an other elements organization. within an industry. Alex Gorelik, Ph. D. | Tweet me: @Doc_G_
  16. 16. The micro view“Media management is a simple task since it involves only two resources: people and money”. Clark Pollack, retired board member of Nationwide Communications. Alex Gorelik, Ph. D. | Tweet me: @Doc_G_
  17. 17. The micro view: management skillsTechnical• Content production• Content presentation• Marketing; audience management; research; advertisingHuman• Organizing• Motivating• Hiring and developing• Forging alliancesConceptual• Problem solving• Decision makingAlex Gorelik, Ph. D. | Tweet me: @Doc_G_
  18. 18. The micro view: Functions & roles • Entrepreneur Decision- • Resource allocator making • Disturbance handler • Negotiator • Planning • Organizing • Monitor • Informati- Leading • Disseminator onal • Controlling • Spokesperson • Leader Inter- • Figurehead personal • Liaison Alex Gorelik, Ph. D. | Tweet me: @Doc_G_
  19. 19. Management functions: Planning ??? Alex Gorelik, Ph. D. | Tweet me: @Doc_G_
  20. 20. Management functions: Planning Revision Goals Built-in feedback Planning Objectivesmechanism Built-in controls Sequence of steps Alex Gorelik, Ph. D. | Tweet me: @Doc_G_
  21. 21. Management functions: Planning Retain the status quo Expand within the industry Diversify into a related industry Diversify into a new industry Divest or “sell out” Alex Gorelik, Ph. D. | Tweet me: @Doc_G_
  22. 22. Management functions: Organizing ??? Alex Gorelik, Ph. D. | Tweet me: @Doc_G_
  23. 23. Management functions: Organizing Revising Communicating objectivesProviding the Orga- necessary nizing Getting technology the buy-in Determining Assigning relationships responsibilities Alex Gorelik, Ph. D. | Tweet me: @Doc_G_
  24. 24. Management functions: Organizing Structuralization Departmentalization Delegation Alex Gorelik, Ph. D. | Tweet me: @Doc_G_
  25. 25. Management functions: Leading ??? Alex Gorelik, Ph. D. | Tweet me: @Doc_G_
  26. 26. Management functions: Leading Developing Revising organizational philosophyInnovating Leading Setting the goals Staffing Motivating Alex Gorelik, Ph. D. | Tweet me: @Doc_G_
  27. 27. Management functions: Leading Internal factors External factors Alex Gorelik, Ph. D. | Tweet me: @Doc_G_
  28. 28. Management functions: Controlling ??? Alex Gorelik, Ph. D. | Tweet me: @Doc_G_
  29. 29. Management functions: Controlling Designing the Revising feedback loop Correcting / Establishing using Controlling standards / deviations metrics Measuring Communicating performance standards / metrics Alex Gorelik, Ph. D. | Tweet me: @Doc_G_
  30. 30. How they manage: X, Y and Z Z = relationships + authority Y = the X “human = absolute needs” authority approach Alex Gorelik, Ph. D. | Tweet me: @Doc_G_
  31. 31. Theory X (Douglas McGregor, 1960) Alex Gorelik, Ph. D. | Tweet me: @Doc_G_
  32. 32. Theory Y (Douglas McGregor, 1960) Alex Gorelik, Ph. D. | Tweet me: @Doc_G_
  33. 33. Theory Z (William Ouchi, 1987) Alex Gorelik, Ph. D. | Tweet me: @Doc_G_
  34. 34. Relevant to a media company? Z = “the family” Y X = “the = “absolute empowered authority” employee” Alex Gorelik, Ph. D. | Tweet me: @Doc_G_
  35. 35. Q?Alex Gorelik, Ph. D. | Tweet me: @Doc_G_
  36. 36. An in depth look at theory Theories of management Micro Macro The focus is on The focus is on individual organizations and elements of an other elements organization. within an industry. Alex Gorelik, Ph. D. | Tweet me: @Doc_G_
  37. 37. The macro viewManagement is optimizing for “market structure, market conduct and market performance”. Richard Caves, 1987. Alex Gorelik, Ph. D. | Tweet me: @Doc_G_
  38. 38. MN: the convergent newsroom is… Alex Gorelik, Ph. D. | Tweet me: @Doc_G_
  39. 39. Recap: Business modelsHistorically:  Advertising only  Combination of advertising, subscription and retail sales  Subscription only  Combination of sponsorship, membership/subscription, grants/public funding Alex Gorelik, Ph. D. | Tweet me: @Doc_G_
  40. 40. Recap: Enter participatory media • Author / audience model The "free - • News for profit" aggregator axis model • News agency model Alex Gorelik, Ph. D. | Tweet me: @Doc_G_
  41. 41. Recap: Enter participatory media • Publisher The model "professiona • Audience l media - ecosystem participatory model media" axis Alex Gorelik, Ph. D. | Tweet me: @Doc_G_
  42. 42. Recap: Enter participatory media Author / Audience modelPublisher Audience model ecosystem model Alex Gorelik, Ph. D. | Tweet me: @Doc_G_ Author / Audience model
  43. 43. The macro view X Y ZInternal factors External factors• Ownership• Budget / Financial Management • Consumer dynamic • Distribution• Structural / Employee • Competitors• Programming • Regulation• Marketing / Sales • Labour unions• PR • Industry groups Alex Gorelik, Ph. D. | Tweet me: @Doc_G_
  44. 44. Industry analysis Media industry Market components Market Market Market perfor-structure conduct mance Alex Gorelik, Ph. D. | Tweet me: @Doc_G_
  45. 45. Market structure Market structure  Economic features of a market which affect the behaviour of the industry supplying this market.  Example: Broadcasting vs. Cable.  Example: Google..? Elements of market structure  Seller concentration  Product differentiation  Barriers to entry  Buyer concentration  Costs  Demand Alex Gorelik, Ph. D. | Tweet me: @Doc_G_
  46. 46. Market conduct Market conduct  Company policies toward its consumers and competitors Elements of market conduct  Price-setting  Competitive policies  Quality control Alex Gorelik, Ph. D. | Tweet me: @Doc_G_
  47. 47. Market performance Market performance  Comparing the performance of a company (or industry) with its potential in: Efficiency in Growth using resource Stability of Fairness prices Stability of employment Alex Gorelik, Ph. D. | Tweet me: @Doc_G_
  48. 48. Q?Alex Gorelik, Ph. D. | Tweet me: @Doc_G_
  49. 49. David Gillespie: Digital Strangelove Main ideas: Is David right? Alex Gorelik, Ph. D. | Tweet me: @Doc_G_
  50. 50. For Week 3 session: Be prepared to discuss Chapter 1 of Redmond and Trager.  Pay special attention to the major changes in technology and the social fabric, that shaped each of the traditional media industries in the U. S. Make a timeline of such changes (categorized as either tech. or social) for one chosen industry, and be prepared to discuss it. Read and watch the Lessons from the Rocky Mountain News presentation by John Temple, the former editor of the Rocky Mountain News, which folded in Feb. 2009, after a century and a half of consecutive operation.  Prepare an 800 words briefing of the RMN case. Concentrate on 1). A summary of the main events described in the presentation; 2). management miscalculations that, in your opinion, contributed to the demise of the newspaper; 3) three “lessons” that were the most relevant to your career or career| aspirations. Alex Gorelik, Ph. D. Tweet me: @Doc_G_

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