Baroque art history final notes


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Baroque art history final notes

  1. 1. Baroque Art History Final Notes<br />March 15, 2011<br />Rembrandt<br />(1606-1609)<br />was not steeped in the Italianate Classical tradition, and does not fit the model of art evolving from the High Renaissance<br />many Self-portraits<br />born in Leiden and works in Amsterdam <br />Protestant culture; strong work ethic = blessings from God; desire for material wealth<br />Lived close to the Jewish Quarter and identified himself w/ the Jews<br />Hence Old Testament stories<br />A little formal education<br />300 paintings, 600 prints, 1000 drawings<br />Traveled very little<br />Learned Italian art through print collection<br />Art collector of prints, coins, and exotic costume<br />Financial problems due to buying up beautiful things <br />Domestic life<br />complex marital dowry issues’<br />moved a lot due to not being able to pay rent<br />rarely signed paintings; had students and active studio; and later artists started signing his name to increase profits<br />creates controversy of authenticity to some works<br />Rembrandt Research Project<br />1624<br />Age 18<br />Studies w/ Lastman (in Leiden?)<br />Large religious subjects, dramatic emotion (ex. Sacrifice of Isaac) <br />Lastman studied in Italy, influenced by Caravaggio and Utrecht artists<br />1631<br />Lived in the house of Uylenbourgh (in Amsterdam?)<br />Father of the daughter Saskia<br />1633<br />Marries Saskia<br />Her class was higher than his<br />Very good marriage<br />Moved to the Rembrandt House in the Jewish Quarter<br />Poses her as muse subjects (ex. as Flora)<br />Slight Classical suggestion<br />Printmaking<br />Very prolific and loved the possibilities of the medium<br />Can rework and reprint through different States<br />Etching and engraving<br />Metal plate<br />Helps to rework over and over again<br />Etching<br />Cover plate w/ asphaultum rubber which is cut into w/ a sharp tool to create the image, then dipped into acid. The acid cuts into the plate where the asphaultum is cut out<br />Engraving<br />Sharp instrument to cut right into the metal plate (no acid)<br />Drypoint<br />Similar to Engraving<br />Drypoint on metal plate<br />Often combined w/ Etching to create details<br />As small as 3” square prints, <br />1630’s and 1640’s spot-lighting details of costume w/ backlight glow behind figure in background<br />Seen in self-portraits of this time<br />Also large spaces w/ pools of light<br />Light and shadow<br />Caravagesque tenebrism - strong light and dark contrast (especially in 30’s and 40’s)<br />But also symbolical lighting <br />Ex. holy/spiritual figures; philosophers, and other important figures<br />shadows to suggest death<br />Self-portrait<br />1658, Frick Collection<br />As Old Testament king (David or Solomon)<br />As suggested by costume<br />Not interested in accurate Classical Greek and Roman antiquity, but rather Jewish Old Testament subjects<br />Later Self-portriat<br />Less of an external spotlight, less crisp and more of a sense of internal light emanating from the figure<br />Attention to color and fabric<br />Poor and elderly subjects<br />Popular amongst the Dutch culture’s pride in longevity<br />Often biblical narratives<br />Powerful figures in contemplation; history and passing of time<br />Start with specific narrative but not too specific time <br />1631-1636<br />Most prosperous time of his career<br />Group portraits <br />Similar to Hals<br />Natural movement and emotion through use of light<br />Blinding of Samson, 1636<br />Subject emphasizes light<br />Precision and clarity of early Rembrandt<br />Famous in his day<br />People collected his drawings<br />Starts tradition of trading prints with other artists<br />Drawings<br />Used as exercises<br />Outdoor sketching as leisure<br />100 Guilder Print, 1647-49<br />Bought it back from himself for 100 guilders to raise its value <br />Several states exist<br />Christ healing the sick<br />Individual ordinary figure ‘types’<br />Cross-hatching<br />How dark values are created in etching<br />Night Watch, 1642<br />Varnish has darkened it over time<br />Commissioned group portrait<br />Large size (not original, cut on one side to fit the location after it was moved)<br />11’ x 14’<br />Spot-lighting effect <br />March 31, 2011<br />1644<br />Mid-career<br />Biblical subjects <br />Fantastic setting and archetcture<br />Vision of antiquity<br />From Lastman<br />Bibilical figures w/ elaborate costume in elaborate spaces; heavy, rich tapestry costume<br />different than biblical scenes of the Italianate Classical tradition of togas and classical outfits/costumes<br />jewelry or metallic to reflect light<br />Christ and the Woman Taken in Adultery, 1644<br />symbolic expressive glowing light to help define the form<br />light emanating/illuminating/originating from within figures themselves<br />difficult to pinpoint light source<br />Holy Family with Angels, 1645<br />Combines religious subject w/ contemporary domestic subject<br />Landscapes <br />The Mill, 1645-48<br />The Dutch in general are more literal and less concerned with traditional compositional elements of artists like Claude and Poussin. <br />Dutch conventions <br />horizon 1/3 up from the bottom<br />Aristotle contemplating the Bust of Homer, 1653<br />Many Dutch still interested in studying the Classics<br />Descent from the Cross by Torchlight, 1654<br />8”x6” print<br />Creates narrative and drama using ‘torchlight’to create extreme lights and darks<br />Expressive divine light<br />Ecce Homo (Christ before the People, 1655<br />Multiple states of the print<br />Bathsheba at her Bath, 1654<br />Used his wife as a model<br />Based on observation<br />not the Italianate form of Classical sculpture<br />voluminous tapestry garment <br />inner light glow<br />expression - sense of the unknown<br />Supper at Emmaus, 1629 & 1648<br />Biblical subject post-Resurrection<br />Both use expressive light<br />1629<br />Emphasis of the disciple’s response <br />Dramatic Baroque dramatic instant quality<br />1648<br />More symmetry, organization<br />Relationship between figures and setting<br />More sophisticated composition, light and details<br />More of a gradual moment <br />Peter Denouncing/Denying Christ, 1660<br />Peter - patriarchal figure w/ beard<br />Gestures help tell the story<br />Nightscene torchlight<br />Reflective metal<br />Syndics of the Drapers Guild, 1662<br />Group portrait of the businessmen of the guild<br />Guilds - set prices and had monopolies<br />Think Hals group portraits<br />As if the viewer has just interrupted their conversation<br />Scumbling flecks of light<br />Seen in Velazquez and Rubens<br />Moral issues from biblical or Classical sources<br />Dutch Baroque<br />Fabritius<br />Vermeer<br />1632-1675<br />Born in Delft<br />Married and entered painter’s guild in 1663<br />40 paintings extant works attributed to him<br />Debt, large family<br />May only had one patron<br />28 paintings in one auction<br />Most likely studied prints <br />Source of influence of the Italianate Classical tradition subjects<br />Combines domestic setting with Classical Italianate themes and gestures<br />Light and dark Caravagesque contrasts<br />Voluminous drapery<br />April 5, 2011<br />Used camera obscura<br />Due to depth of field issues<br />Flecks of light (circles of confusion)<br />Often dramatic spotlighting effect<br />Precise patterning and emphasis on texture in fabrics<br />Subjects and lessons of morality<br />Curtains - creates illusionism<br />Voyeuristic quality<br />Maps - social comment on Dutch trade<br />Focus on visible surface textures and reflections, not muscles and bones like the Classical tradition, or Rubens<br />View of Delft, 1660<br />Moved the buildings to balance composition<br />Combined important buildings to celebrate the town bouncing back from the disastrous explosion<br />Horizon - 1/3 of the way up<br />Milkmaid, 1658<br />Typical raking light usually from the upper left<br />Highlights on cloth and bread<br />Domestic scene celebrating middle class virtues<br />Homeliness, youthfulness, well-prepared food, clean interiors, working busily<br />Woman - substantial physical type<br />Foot-warmer <br />Gender assumption that women were cold, and men were hot<br />Eucharistic<br />Prominent bread<br />Milk could symbolize the wine<br />Woman with a Balance, 1664<br />Religious message<br />Woman weighing her jewelry<br />Focus on material possessions and oblivious to Last Judgement painting on the wall (the weighing of souls)<br />Girl with the Pearl Earring<br />Light reflection in the eye and earring<br />Hals quality of turning figure just about to speak<br />Art of Painting or Artist in his Studio, 1665-67<br />Typical Vermeer allegory<br />Rooted in reality - model dressed up<br />But also represents Fame or Muse of History<br />Trumpet, music, poetry<br />Focus on the wreath in the painting<br />Similar to Velazquez’s Las Meninas<br />Artist making statement about his place in history<br />Map - celebrates Holland<br />Curtain <br />Heavy drapery dividing a room<br />April 7, 2011 (Absent)<br />Hooch<br />A Courtyard of a House in Delft, 1658<br />Borch<br />Paternal Admonition, 1654<br />April 12, 2011<br />Ruisdael<br />Dutch Landscape painter<br />Often a human figure for scale doing ordinary/mundane tasks<br />Horizon 1/3 of the way up from bottom<br />Reddish brown tonality in clouds<br />Technically, the painting ground is a mid-value reddish brown<br />Jewish Cemetery, 1660<br />More obvious symbolism, complexity and Italianate sensibility than most of Dutch landscapes<br />Captures silhouettes<br />Darkened landscape - due to clouds<br />Windmill with village further behind<br />Bleaching Grounds Near Haarlem, 1670<br />Bleaching cloth<br />Local industry<br />Nationalistic trade<br />Church dominates the landscape behind<br />Windmill at Wijk, 1670<br />Clouds<br />Silhouette - strong windmill form silhouetted against the landscape<br />Hobemma<br />Less brooding than Ruisdael<br />Delicate handling of trees<br />Still strong silhouette<br />Popular amongst later Impressionists<br />Loves watermills<br />Cuyp<br />sea, river, marinescapes and ships<br />Claudian golden light<br />Cattle scenes<br />Potter<br />Cattle sub-genre within landscape painting<br />van de Velde<br />ship paintings<br />note: the Dutch ruled the seas in the later 17th cent and traded far and wide. Seascape paintings reminded them of the power of Dutch trade<br />Saenredam<br />Church interior architecture<br />Emphasized perspective which he adjusts for dramatic purposes<br />Heightened illusion of the real place<br />Shows more than what the eye can see<br />Sketch on site, large construction drawing, then the oil on canvas<br />Due to the Reformation<br />Protestant churchs had stark interiors, lack of sculpture, and no stain glass<br />Leads to a very analytical rendering <br />Figures for scale<br />Architectural painting has origins in Flemish painting<br />“first portraitist of architecture”<br />Very neat and precise<br />Dutch Still-Life<br />Disguised symbolism as well as merely beautiful description<br />Another level of meaning/symbolism<br />Holland in 1650s<br />Very wealthy society, though frugal<br />Still lives very popular<br />Used to brighten up the home in he winter<br />Orderliness virtues of Holland<br />Academic bias against still-life in France and England<br />Ranked low compared to any painting with a human figure<br />Not so much an issue in Holland<br />Has origins in Renaissance paintings with Virgin Mary with flowers, for ex.<br />Valuable objects within the painting<br />Imported objects and food such as lemons and seafood aphrodisiacs, as well as local common domestic products such as cheese and butter<br />mix of food not eaten, as well as food already cut into and eaten<br />unexplained sense someone has been interrupted from their meal<br />liquid, glass and metal reflections and textures<br />often objects like a knife or plate on edge of table to lead viewer’s eye into the composition through the picture plane <br />from Caravaggio and Italian sources<br />again suggests the idea of interruption<br />suggests the presence of people, as well as death<br />high degree of illusionism<br />van Schooten<br />Gillis<br />Claesz<br />Vanitas Still-life, 1630<br />Vanity <br />Self-absorbed with beauty, narcissism<br />Death will come whether you are ready or not, and there are more important things than material wealth<br />Over-turned glass<br />Suggests interruption<br />Skull<br />Somber and obvious<br />Resting on stack of manuscripts or prints<br />de Heem<br />flower still-lifes<br />sometimes bird’s nests<br />musical instruments<br />world and science exploration<br />Dutch imports<br />pulled-back table cloth<br />rare and unusual objects<br />butterflies<br />often a sense of crowdedness<br />suggests mid-17th century of later<br />some flowers are imported and some flowers depicted don’t bloom in the same time of the year<br />Flower Still-life with Crucifix and Scull<br />Obvious Vanitas theme<br />Heda<br />Breakfast still-lifes<br />Show meatpie breakfast meals<br />Objects entering viewer’s space<br />Vanitas themes<br />Overturned glasses, clocks/watches/timepieces<br />Hasty interruption<br />Overturned/broken glass, partially eaten food<br />Kalf<br />Very luxurious items<br />Drinking horns, silver objects, decorative vessels, nautilus chalices, collectibles, imported seafood, exotic imported carpets etc.<br />French Baroque Architecture<br />Mansart<br />Influenced by Italian Classicism through prints<br />Classical symmetry<br />Berniniesque paired columns<br />Curved Baroque shapes <br />Strong roof shapes<br />Balleroy Chateau, 1626<br />Style of Henry IV<br />Symmetry, quoins, tall ‘Mansart’ roofs,<br />More subdued than other Italian Baroque churches, for ex.<br />Le Vau<br />Great organizer, head of team of craftsman, landscapers, artists, sculptors and architects, father was a master mason<br />Designed ‘hotels’ - grand townhouses<br />Vaux-le-Viconte, 1657-61<br />Clear symmetry and proportions<br />Highly organized<br />Classical structure<br />Tower and oval dome<br />Garden view/façade/front<br />The back of the building<br />Le Notre<br />Gardens here and at Versailes<br />Louis XIV confiscated and gains property of the house and all the workers now became under his control/employment, including Le Vau who would later go on to work on Versailles Palace<br />Le Brun<br />Le Notre<br />April 14, 2011<br />Louis XIV<br />Bust by Bernini, 1665<br />Full length portrait by Rigaud, 1701<br />Surrounded himself with clever people with art interests<br />1661-83<br />Golden Age for France, unified, successes in War<br />Established Academy and Tapestry factory<br />Following the tradition of grand tapestries of the Renaissance<br />Colbert<br />arts and architect advisor for Louis XIV<br />Assisted by Le Brun<br />Le Brun<br />Dictator of the arts in France at this time<br />Organizer, designed tapestries, locks and sculpture<br />Ensemble decorations at Versailles<br />Institutions brought together the greatest thinkers, artists, writers and scientists <br />Endorsed their art through exhibitions and competitions<br />Conservative - no opportunities for young artists<br />Palace Versailles<br />Louis needed a palace to suite his aspirations, diversion for the nobles, and impressive to foreigners<br />Poussin as compositional influences<br />Gobelins Manufactory Academy<br />Tapestry and upholstery<br />Le Brun supervised 250 workmen<br />engravers, painters, dyers, goldsmiths, mosaics<br />school that replaced the old guild<br />had to master drawing fundamentals<br />French Academy for painting and sculpture began in 1648<br />Organized by Colbert and Le Brun<br />Hierarchy of students and teachers<br />Taught the arts by rational means, lectures and discussion<br />Influenced by Italian Baroque Classical tradition <br />The existing 1624 chateau was enlarged by Le Vau in 1669<br />Exterior <br />Statues on either side<br />Rusticated base, with more finished stone on top<br />Classical influence<br />First story has Ionic Order<br />Repetitive structure and symmetry<br />but this grand French Classicism is not as energetic and is more repetitive than the Italianate Classical tradition<br />Gardens<br />Planned by Le Notre in 1660s<br />Symmetry, order, geometry<br />grand fetes<br />theaters, suppers, fireworks displays<br />terraces give views of the landscape<br />water fountains<br />overall sense of symmetry, balance and organization<br />hand trimmed sculpted geometric hedges, plants organized to create patterns<br />imported plants<br />reflects colonial interest of around the world<br />Grotto of Apollo and the Nymphs<br />1670<br />Interior<br />Grand to suggest courtly power and the reception of nobility<br />Designed by Le Brun 1671-81<br />Decorated ceilings, illusionistic panels, marble floors<br />Trompe l’eoil effects<br />Apartments relate to the planets and Roman deities<br />Leads to the Hall of Mirrors<br />Added by Mansart<br />Stair of the Ambassadors<br />Designed by Le Vau<br />Long narrow form, marble panels, imitation tapestries with allegorical figures<br />Room of War and Room of Peace<br />Medallion forms with relief sculpture or painting relating to the theme<br />Mars Drawing Room<br />Ceiling paintings related to Mars<br />King’s Suite<br />Grand but private<br />King’s Bedroom<br />Rather plain wood structure but elaborate fabrics on bed<br />Railing - traditional, highly formalized, separates king from the people<br />Rank and statues determined how close you got to the king<br />Canopy over bed - suggests Roman canopy over a monarch’s throne<br />Hall of Mirrors<br />Late 1670s<br />Mansart and Le Brun<br />False windows with mirrored glass, and clear glass the gives a view of the garden<br />Gilded candleholders and chandeliers<br />Paintings by Le Brun the celebrates the glory of Louix XIV and France<br />Chapel Royal<br />1710<br />Classical style<br />Poussin<br />born in Normandy in 1594, Paris by age 18<br />studied Raphael prints, took in by a Medici court official and took him to Rome in April of 1623 where he settled<br />many French patrons<br />Landscape as well as historical and allegorical paintings<br />Classical antique sculpture, structure and order<br />Steeped in the arts and philosophy <br />Mythological, ancient literature subjects<br />Deep color highlights (though more somber/dull and unfinished figures who are less important, w/ more detailed drapery on the more important figures), similar sensual outdoor compositions, and voluptuous clouds, of Titian<br />Postures from Medici Tombs<br />Bernini influences<br />Mythological sources - ex. Ovid’s Metamorphosis<br />Often pairing with a moral lesson/theme to connect them<br />Every figure has different/variety of poses, responses, emotions, and hand and body gestures and unique personality<br />Very important in 17th century French art <br />Ex. Le Brun developed a tableau of human emotion<br />Often dramatic narratives<br />Triumph of Flora, 1631<br />Titianesque figures<br />Moving procession<br />Similar to Caracci’s Triumph of Bacchos on Farnese Ceiling<br />Ex. of Poussin’s early work of busy movement (not as busy or as fast and dramatic as Bernini or Caravaggio) (Poussin’s later work becomes simplified<br />April 19, 2011<br />Selene and Endymion, 1630<br />Selene - moon goddess<br />Curtain - drawn open<br />Arrival of dawn<br />Classical subject and figures<br />Love story btwn. a god and a mortal<br />Limited/somber palette<br />Reserved action<br />Architectural compositions<br />More figures, smaller figures<br />Buildings he would have seen in Rome<br />Technical, precise perspective <br />Similar to Palladio<br />Rape of the Sabine Women, 1635<br />Patriotic subject<br />To preserve Roman state, capture the women<br />Suggests the triumph of Rome<br />Precise architectural arrangement<br />Ancient statue influences<br />Individualized/different emotional responses and expressions<br />Compare with Cortona’s of 1629<br />Popular subject<br />Cortona is more Baroque energy and twists, contrasts/tenebrism of light and dark<br />Poussin not as interested in using this expressive light<br />Religious Subjects<br />Gathering of Manna, 1638<br />Israelites in desert<br />Organized grouping of masses<br />Emphasis on outlines<br />Groups easily identified<br />Outline of forms suggests study of Classical sculpture<br />Different/individualized emotional responses<br />Unity of Action<br />Starvation, Miracle, Conclusion (whole story)<br />Very Renaissance (as opposed to the Baroque moment)<br />Needed an informed/educated audience<br />Et in Arcadia Ego<br />1639-40<br />“Death is always present, even in Arcadia”<br />Shepherd figures visiting a tomb<br />Priestess - not as the same as the men<br />Muse or guide<br />Very simplified in terms of the # of figures<br />The Seasons series<br />1660-64<br />Represent seasons but also allegories of salvation/religious overlay<br />Spring<br />Adam and Eve in Paradise<br />Summer<br />Ruth and Boaz - marriage and fertility, Eucharistic bread<br />Autumn<br />Old testament of the promised land<br />Winter<br />Deluge/last judgment<br />Claude<br />1600-1682<br />Working in Rome<br />More stagey and artificial than Poussin<br />Greater influence of the Northern tradition due to teacher who was a Flemish painter working in Naples<br />Less interested in complex morality of Poussin<br />excited about landscape in and of itself<br />Liber Veritaties <br />a book of 195 prints of his work as a record<br />early example of an artist being conscious about documenting his work<br />helps scholars in dating and authenticity/connoisseurship issues<br />1000 documented Drawings<br />Landscapes/Seascapes<br />Pastoral Landscape, 1648<br />Mythological or religious subjects are not a part of the title<br />Composition - figure in foreground, boat, ruin architecture in mid-ground, deep space<br />Based imagery on prints, using artistic license using a particular place but shifts ruins, etc.<br />Zig-zag movement into space<br />Some narratives are more clearer than others<br />April 21, 2011 (Absent)<br />Embarkation of the Queen of Sheba, 1648<br />La Tour<br /> St. Sebastian Attended by St. Irene, 1630<br />Le Nain<br />The Peasant Meal, 1642<br />The Forge or Blacksmith at his Forge, 1640<br />Champaigne<br />Ex Voto or The Two Nuns of Port Royal, 1662<br />April 28, 2011<br />Puget<br />French<br />Milo of Crotona, 1682<br />Dramatic Classical story<br />Le Brun-like expressions<br />Similar to Laocoon in facial expression, twists and drapery<br />Jones<br />Architect, stage designer, organizer<br />Replacing Medieval architecture in England with Renaissance Classicism<br />Admired Palladio and based his work on the Italian emphasis on perspective<br />Scenic court masque designs based on Medici Court entertainment of classical plays<br />Collected prints and sculpture<br />Traveled to Italy in 1613-14 where he studied Palladian architecture and bought four books on architecture by Palladio<br />Court official for Charles I<br />Elaborate costume designer<br />Queen’s House, 1616-17, 1630-40<br />Symmetrical Palladian qualities<br />Columns and balustrades<br />Classical fireplaces<br />Rich detail and color<br />Banqueting House, Whitehall Palace, 1619-22<br />Classical with red brick gothic irregularity<br />Performed masques<br />One large space<br />Began by James I and completed under Charles I<br />Interior<br />Rubens ceiling canvases <br />Apotheosis of James I, celebrates new monarchy<br />Wren<br />1632-1723<br />Taught astronomy and math at Oxford<br />Renaissance Man<br />Education, many connections to intellectuals and church officials<br />Studied Bernini architecture in Paris, but is more theory than practice<br />Town planner and architect after the London Great Fire in 1666<br />Rebuilt 51 or the 80 destroyed churches <br />Dense population where everyone went to a private parish church<br />Wren Tower<br />Mix of Gothic and Classical<br />Abandoned any stain glass<br />Rebuilds St. Paul’s Cathedral, 1675-1712<br />With the help of Protestant Hugonaut craftsmen<br />Classical front with portico <br />Dome <br />inspired by St. Peter’s and the Roman Pantheon<br />Interior<br />Vast space, paired columns <br />Similar to Bernini’s Louvre<br />Thick but classical segmented arches but with full arches above those to create symmetry<br />Emphasis on stonework and bright light<br />Long Medival choir<br />Creates great acoustics<br />Monuments in crypt where Wren was buried<br />Gibbs<br />1682-1754<br />Classical temple with a Medieval tower<br />Think the Pentecostal Church in N. Little Rock<br />Hampton Court Palace, 1689-1702<br />Versailles massiveness with 17th cent. Dutch red brick<br />Royal Naval College, 1696-1715<br />Similar to St. Paul’s<br />Paired columns and 2 domes<br />