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Radiant cooling for residential and commercial applications (Messana Radiant Cooling)

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Hydronic radiant cooling systems have been used worldwide for decades. Now are gaining popularity also in North America and become an effective alternative to traditional all-air systems. New building codes and regulations demand for more energy efficient HVAC systems and radiant cooling is a proven an effective technology for cooling residential and commercial buildings. It is the preferred choice for designers to meet standards of Passive House, NetZero energy buildings, green and sustainable architecture. This presentation will address common questions and concerns and also analyze some of the benefits in terms of thermal comfort, wellbeing and productivity of occupants as well as substantial reduction of ductwork cross-sectional dimensions, operational and maintenance costs. Several case studies of radiant cooling projects will be presented.

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Radiant cooling for residential and commercial applications (Messana Radiant Cooling)

  1. 1. Radiant Cooling for Commercial and Residential Applications Messana Radiant Cooling radiantcooling.com info@radiantcooling.com
  2. 2. MESSANA RADIANT COOLING - HISTORY • 1991-1993 First experiments in radiant cooling (floor) • 1994 Founded FCC srl (Floor Clima Control) – 21 years of growth and development • 1991-1998 1,000 in-floor installations (radiant heating and cooling) • 1997 First experiments of radiant cooling on the ceiling – Roberto Messana’s home • 1998 First radiant ceiling drywall panel (Planterm, world wide patent) • 2009 Developed Ray∙Magic (US patent) • 2009 Founded MESSANA AIR-RAY CONDITIONING (European Headquarters) • 2011 Founded MESSANA North America – Messana Radiant Cooling
  3. 3. TEN THOUSAND INSTALLATIONS (2016) 1st ceiling installation (1997) • Europe • North America • Asia • Africa • 60% Commercial • 40% Residential
  4. 4. PRODUCTION LINE AND THE LASER 2 min 1 panel every
  5. 5. Hydronic radiant cooling systems have been used worldwide for decades. Now are gaining popularity also in North America and become an effective alternative to traditional all-air systems. New building codes and regulations demand for more energy efficient HVAC systems and radiant cooling is a proven an effective technology for cooling residential and commercial buildings. It is the preferred choice for designers to meet standards of Passive House, NetZero energy buildings, green and sustainable architecture. This presentation will address common questions and concerns and also analyze some of the benefits in terms of thermal comfort, wellbeing and productivity of occupants as well as substantial reduction of ductwork cross-sectional dimensions, operational and maintenance costs. Several case studies of radiant cooling projects will be presented. SESSION DESCRIPTION
  6. 6. 1. Understand the basic physics principles of radiant cooling technology and hydronic radiant ceiling systems. 2. Identify and describe the fundamental components of a radiant cooling and heating system: hot and cold water source, radiant delivery system, ventilation and dehumidification and controls. Distinguish different types of radiant panels and understand the advantages of radiant celling compared to traditional radiant floor. LEARNING OBJECTIVES
  7. 7. 3. Compare hydronic radiant cooling systems to traditional air- based systems and analyze the key benefits with regard to thermal wellbeing, productivity, energy efficiency, reduced duct sizes and operational and maintenance costs. 4. Educate clients on considering a radiant cooling system for their new building or renovation projects and discuss their concerns about being an early adopter. Make preliminary budget analysis. LEARNING OBJECTIVES
  8. 8. Outline 1. What is “radiant cooling”? 2. Comfort in radiant systems 3. Advantages of Radiant Cooling vs traditional air-based cooling system 4. Components of a Radiant cooling systems 5. Performance and cost of a radiant cooling system 6. Examples of applications
  9. 9. 1.1 “Radiant cool” is not a physics phenomenon “Radiant cooling systems are based on absorption of thermal radiation” Radiant heat is a form of energy.. what is “radiant cool”? Scientifically speaking, does not exist. “Radiant cool” is not a physics phenomenon, and calling it “radiant cooling” is a pure convention.
  10. 10. 1.2 What is radiant cooling? It is a technology to buildings based on the sensible through cold surfaces (radiant panels)
  11. 11. 1.3 Heat (Thermal energy) Matter is made up of particles that vibrate based on the temperature. The hotter the substance, the more its molecules vibrate, and therefore the higher its thermal energy. particles of matter By definition, heat is a form of energy that flows from a point at one temperature to another point at a lower temperature.
  12. 12. 1.4 Heat: vibration of particles particles of matter WARMER PARTICLES vibrate faster, the space between particles increases (less density and weight) COOLER PARTICLES vibrate less, taking up less space (greater density and weight)
  13. 13. 1.5 Heat “goes up”? “Heat goes up and cold goes down” is a common belief about heat. But it’s false! All you need to do is stand in the sun to understand. The explanation lies in the confusion of terms. While it’s incorrect to say “heat goes up”, it is correct to say, “hot air rises”, which clarifies that the concept of heat is a broader concept which does not involve just the movement of air.
  14. 14. 1.6 Sensible and latent heat sensible heat latent heat There are two forms of heat:
  15. 15. 1.7 Sensible heat Radiant heat is related ONLY to sensible heat Sensible heat is an expression of the degree of molecular excitation. Is the one we usually have in mind when we speak of heat.
  16. 16. 1.8 Latent heat Related to the humidity Heat that changes the state of matter from solid to liquid or liquid to gas is called latent heat.
  17. 17. 1.9 How does sensible heat transfer?
  18. 18. 1.10 Conduction Conduction is the process whereby molecular excitation spreads through a substance or from one substance to another by direct contact.
  19. 19. 1.11 Conduction The higher is the conductivity the better heat transfers across materials.
  20. 20. 1.12 Conduction Cold goes up Heat goes down
  21. 21. 1.13 Convection Convection occurs in fluids and is the process of carrying heat stored in a particle of the fluid to another location where the heat can conduct away.
  22. 22. 1.14 Hot air rises
  23. 23. 1.15 Forced vs Natural Convection
  24. 24. 1.16 Radiation Heat in the form of Electromagnetic Waves Stright line vabration (thermal radiation) All bodies emit thermal radiation WavefrontRAY Particel of matter 671M mph speed of light Heat in the form of Matter in the solid and fluid state Circular motion vibration (themal motion: convection and conduction)
  25. 25. 1.17 Electromagnetic spectrum Infrared spectrum Any object that has a temperature above absolute zero (the point where atoms and molecules cease to move) radiates in the infrared. Also a cube of ice that we perceive as “cold”, radiates.
  26. 26. 1.18 Example of “visible” thermal radiation Sunlight is part of thermal radiation generated by the hot plasma of the Sun visible light and infrared light emitted by an incandescent light bulb
  27. 27. 1.20 Radiation of radiant systems Radiant heating and cooling system operate at temperature with emission in the infrared, invisible to the human eye.. These types of radiation are not directly visible to the naked eye, but we perceive their effect as a sensation of warmth or “coldth” through special receptors in our skin.
  28. 28. Faster vibration higher temp Slower vibration Lower temp Warmer particel Electromagnetic wave speed of light Cooler particel 1.21 Thermal radiation (radiant cooling)
  29. 29. Faster vibration Higher temp Warmer particel Electromagnetic wave speed of light 1.22 Thermal radiation (radiant heating) Slower vibration Lower temp Cooler particel Heatdoesgoesdown!
  30. 30. 2.1 Comfort ears eyes nose tactile receptors thermoreceptors and (heat and cold sensors) The feeling of comfort or, more accurately, discomfort is based on a network of sense organs:
  31. 31. 2.2 Thermoreceptors They are nerve endings in the skin responsible for sensitivity to vibration Humans have at least two types of temperature sensors (thermoreceptors): • heat receptors (Ruffini endings) • cold receptors (end-bulbs of Krause)
  32. 32. 2.3 Thermal comfort Thermal comfort is that state of mind that is satisfied with the environment condition of minimal stimulation of the skin’s heat and cool sensors
  33. 33. 2.4 The factors of thermal comfort • Dust • Acoustics • Aesthetics • Odors • Lighting • Air temperature • Radiant temperatures of the surrounding surfaces • Humidity of the air • Air motion For comfort and efficiency, the human body requires a fairly narrow range of environmental conditions: Can be controlled by a radiant ceiling system Can be partially controlled by a radiant ceiling system Not related
  34. 34. Cold sensors Heat sensors Pressure sensors SKIN Localized thermal absorption with possible physical discomfort Wasted electrochemical energy (Brain efficiency reduction) 2.5 Discomfort with forced air
  35. 35. Cold sensors Heat sensors Pressure sensors SKIN 2.6 Comfort in natural convection Vibration (heat) Electrochemical energy
  36. 36. 2.7 Heat balance Cheeseburger (Big Mac) 540 kcal The human body is a complex machine that “burns” food for energy and must discard the excess heat. food = chemical energy
  37. 37. 2.8 Heat exchange Depending on the temperature of the surrounding objects and ambient air the body can either gain or lose heat by: Radiation Convection Conduction Evaporation (only heat loss)
  38. 38. Radiation Evaporation Convection Conduction 2.9 Heat loss
  39. 39. 2.10 Evaporation sweat gland hair pore osmotic evaporation sweat Evaporation is exclusively a cooling mechanism. It is dependent to a minor degree on the relative humidity of the surrounding air and, to a much greater extent, on the velocity of air motion.
  40. 40. 2.11 Osmotic evaporation Water is naturally lost from the human body by evaporation across the skin.. this is a natural form of heat loos
  41. 41. 2.12 Sweating Sweating is a mechanism of heat loss when the body can not naturally lose enough heat (overheating). It is a sort of “self-defense mechanism” of the human body. The opposite mechanism is shivering to increase heat production in the muscles, when the body temperature is too low.
  42. 42. SUMMER WINTER SUMMER WINTER RADIATION 45-50% 30-35% NATURAL CONVECTION 15-20% 20-30% OSMOTIC EVAPORATION 35-40% 40-50% 2.13 Optimal proportion of thermal exchange Thermal comfort is the right balance of thermal exchange between radiation, convection and evaporation. Comfort essence is proportion + uniformity
  43. 43. 3. Advantages of Radiant Cooling Systems 3.1 Thermal comfort/Thermal Wellbeing 3.2 Acoustical 3.3 Aesthetics 3.4 Zoning 3.5 Energy saving 3.6 Compact design and less ductwork 3.9 Humidity in the winter 3.7 Lower maintenance cost 3.8 No dust movement
  44. 44. 45-50% MRT=68-74F 35-40% DPT=55F 15-20% DBT=72-78F <1% Radiation Evaporation Convection Conduction 3.1.1 Thermal exchange in radiant cooling
  45. 45. 10-15% MRT=80-86F 50-55% DPT=45-50F 25-30% DBT=70-76F <1% Conduction 3.1.2 Thermal exchange with air condictioning Radiation Evaporation Convection
  46. 46. 3.1.3 Comfort (radiant ceiling)
  47. 47. 3.1.4 Comfort (radiant floor)
  48. 48. 3.1.5 Discomfort (fan-coil)
  49. 49. 3.1.6 Uniformity (radiant ceiling)
  50. 50. 3.1.7 Uniformity (radiant floor)
  51. 51. 3.1.8 Uniformity (fan-coil)
  52. 52. 3.1.9 Uniformity in office space
  53. 53. 3.2 Acoustical comfort
  54. 54. 3.3 Aesthetics Radiant gypsum ceiling gives architectural freedom Convectors, grids and wall split systems are waste space and the the beautiful modern look of this space radiant panels are embedded within the ceiling and are invisible and waste no space
  55. 55. 3.4.1 Zoning 1. 1¼" Supply manifold 2. 1¼" Return manifold 3. 1" Female NTP adapter 4. Automatic air vent valve 5. C/F Temperature gauge 6. Fill/Drain with safety plug 7. Quick connect probe 8. Balancing valve body 9. Balancing valve plastic cap 10. Snap-In Manifold 5/8" adapter Pex-Al-Pex 11. Thermal Actuator 12. Installation bracket 13. Insulation Spaces may be zoned by the use of a control valve for each zone.
  56. 56. 3.4.2 Zoning manifolds Apartment A (14 zones) Apartment B (10 zones)
  57. 57. 3.5 Energy saving Radiant cooling systems are projected to save significant energy (42%) when compared with air-based cooling systems. Why a radiant cooling system save energy?
  58. 58. 3.5 Energy saving Area requirements Water has roughly 3,500 times the energy transport capacity of air. Hydronic system can transport a given amount of cooling with less than 5% of the energy required to deliver cool air with fans
  59. 59. 3.5 Energy saving Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) ran detailed simulations of the same prototypical office building located in nine U.S. cities, comparing the performance of radiant cooling systems with ventilation and conventional “all- air” VAV systems. In comparisons with VAV systems, it was found that, the radiant cooling systems save 30% on average on overall energy for cooling. Energy saved ranges from 17 % in cold, moist areas to 42% in warmer, dry areas. Source: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
  60. 60. 3.6 Compact design and less ductwork shorter ceiling-floor assembly, higher ceiling or more floors in high rise building add about one floor for every five floors allow ceiling heights to be raised to an architecturally pleasing level (>9ft) ductwork cross-sectional dimensions become much smaller
  61. 61. 3.8.1 Dust with RADIANT CEILING • dust is not in touch with the hot surface • no air movement • no dust movement • dust is not in touch with the cold surface • cold air moves down • no dust movement
  62. 62. 3.8.2 Dust with RADIANT WALL • dust is not in touch with radiant surface • air movement (natural convection) • dust movement on floor • dust is not in touch with radiant surface • air movement (natural convection) • dust movement on floor
  63. 63. 2.8.3 Dust with RADIANT FLOOR • dust is in touch with radiant surface • air movement (natural convection) • dust is raised up from the floor • dust is in touch with radiant surface • no air movement • no dust movement
  64. 64. 3.8.4 Dust with Fan-coil • dust is not in touch with radiant surface • air is blown (forced air) • dust is raised up from the floor and blown • dust is not in touch with radiant surface • air is blown (forced air) • dust is raised up from the floor and blown
  65. 65. 3.9 Humidity in the winter
  66. 66. 4. Messana radiant cooling system
  67. 67. 4. Heat Pump In summer it moves heat from the inside to the outside • Ideal for radiant heating and cooling system • Very high energy efficiency • Water to water system with hydronic radiant ceiling Air-to-water Water-to-water (geothermal)
  68. 68. 4. Radiant cooling terminals radiant floor systems radiant panels for ceiling and walls (gypsum, MDF or metal) • Energy (sensible heat) delivery system • Radiant panels are heat terminal devices • The radiant panel exchanges heat with the indoor environment (air, walls, objects)
  69. 69. 4. Radiant ceiling vs floor HEATING COOLING floor ceiling floor ceiling Performance BTU/H/SQ.FT 40 60 10-15 35-40 Move Dust Yes No No No Response time 30m / hours 1m / minutes 1h / hours 2m / minutes
  70. 70. 3.9 Ceiling vs Floor (air T response time)
  71. 71. 3.9 Ceiling vs Floor (surface T response time)
  72. 72. 4. Ray Magic Radiant ceiling gypsum panels 1. Pre-formed EPS substrate 2. Aluminum heat transfer plates 3. Three way snap-in fittings 4. 5/8” Pex-Al-Pex sliding backbones 5. Two embedded hydronic circuits 6. Gypsum board with AirRenew™ technology 7. Tubing footprint laser engraved (ink free) 8. 16”/24” O.C. fastening template 9. Gypsum semicircle cut out
  73. 73. 4. Radiant ceiling gypsum panels acoustic
  74. 74. 4. Climakustic, acoustical MDF radiant panels
  75. 75. 4. Dew-point The temperature at which condensation begins is known as the dew-point temperature. Condensation will occur if the ceiling surface goes below the dew-point.
  76. 76. 4. Control Magic Radiant Cooling Controls The key component of the messana radiant cooling system to avoid condensation, provide comfort and optimize energy. 1. TTL Port 2. Analog Outputs 3. 2x USB Port 4. Analog Inputs 5. RS485 Port 6. Digital Inputs 7. WAN Port 8. Digital Outputs 9. LAN Ports 10. Power Input
  77. 77. 4. Control Magic System latent sensible
  78. 78. 4. Air Magic Neutral Temperature Dehumidifier NTD is a device that reduces the level of humidity in the air (latent heat). IT IS NOT THE SOLUTION TO CONDENSATION!
  79. 79. 4. Dehumidification 1 SUPPLY OUTLET 2 SUPPLY BLOWER 3 AIR PRE-TREATMENT COIL 4 EVAPORATOR 5 COMPRESSOR 6 WATER SUPPLY 7 WATER RETURN 8 DRAIN Neutral temperature dehumidifier
  80. 80. 4. Dehumidification and HRV 1 SUPPLY OUTLET 2 RETURN INLET 3 BATHROOM EXH OUTLET 4 EXHAUST OUTLET 5. FRESH AIR INLET 6 EXHAUST BLOWER 7 HEAT EXCHANGER 8 AIR FILTER 9 RECIRCULATION DAMPER 10 AIR PRE-TREATMENT COIL 11 SUPPLY BLOWER 12 ROTATIVE COMPRESSOR Air Treatment Unit Combination of neutral temperature dehumidifier and Heat Recovery Ventilation unit
  81. 81. 4. Radiant ceiling panel performance The radiant heat transfer is governed by the Stefan-Boltzmann equation. qr = 0.15 x 10–8 [(tp)4 – (AUST)4] where • qr = radiant cooling, Btu/h·ft2 (W/m2) • tp = mean panel surface temperature, °R (K) • AUST = area weighted average temperature of the non radiant panel surfaces of the room, °R (K). Normally this means that the air temperature (ta) is about this temperature as well.
  82. 82. Convective Heat Transfer The rate of heat transfer by convection is a combination of natural and forced convection. Natural convection results from the cooled air in the boundary layer just below the panels being displaced by warmer air in the room. Research suggests (Min 1956) that for practical panel cooling applications without forced convection, the cooling convective heat transfer is given by the following equation qc = 0.31(tp – ta)0.31(tp – ta).
  83. 83. 6. Examples of applications
  84. 84. New single family home in New Canaan, Connecticut RESIDENTIAL Awarded “Best in Town Custom Home” and “Best New Construction Technology” in CT by HBRA of Connecticut, Inc
  85. 85. Palo Alto, CA RESIDENTIAL NetZero Passive house PHIUS+ and LEED Platinum certifications
  86. 86. Ojai, CA RESIDENTIAL ROWLAND Residence Traditional French Provincial architectural style
  87. 87. Chatham University (Eden Hall) – Pittsburg PA (USA) The world’s first fully sustainable campus in higher education SCHOOLS
  88. 88. M Power Yoga – Baltimore MD state-of-the-art acoustical radiant ceiling system FITNESS & WELLNESS CENTERS
  89. 89. MULTIFAMILY Merville – Jesolo (Italy) Architects: Gonçalo Byrne Arquitectos Pedro Sousa TMA
  90. 90. Final results
  91. 91. Mechanical Room Controls
  92. 92. MULTIFAMILY (Beijing, China)
  93. 93. MUSEUMS Armani Museum – Milan (Italy)
  94. 94. THANK YOU!

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