I will describe a sparse image reconstruction method for Poisson-distributed polychromatic X-ray computed tomography (CT) measurements under the blind scenario where the material of the inspected object and the incident energy spectrum are unknown. To obtain a parsimonious mean measurement-model parameterization, we first rewrite the measurement equation by changing the integral variable from photon energy to mass attenuation, which allows us to combine the variations brought by the unknown incident spectrum and mass attenuation into a single unknown mass-attenuation spectrum function; the resulting measurement equation has the Laplace integral form. The mass-attenuation spectrum is then expanded into basis functions using a B-spline basis of order one. We develop a block coordinate-descent algorithm for minimization of a penalized Poisson negative log-likelihood (NLL) cost function, where penalty terms ensure nonnegativity of the spline coefficients and nonnegativity and sparsity of the density map image. This algorithm alternates between a Nesterov’s proximal-gradient (NPG) step for estimating the density map image and a limited-memory Broyden–Fletcher–Goldfarb–Shanno with box constraints (L- BFGS-B) step for estimating the incident-spectrum parameters. To accelerate convergence of the density-map NPG steps, we apply a step-size selection scheme that accounts for varying local Lipschitz constants of the objective function. I will discuss the biconvexity of the penalized NLL function and outline preliminary results on convergence of PG-BFGS schemes. Finally, I will present real X-ray CT reconstruction examples that demonstrate the performance of the proposed scheme.