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What is Research?

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TOPIC: WHAT IS A RESEARCH?
Research:
Research is an organized and systematic way of finding answers to questions.
 Systematic:
Research is systematic because there is a definite set of procedures and steps which you will follow.
There are certain things in the research process which are always done in order to get the most
accurate results.
 Organized:
It is organized in that there is a structure or method in going about doing research. It is a planned
procedure, not a spontaneous one. It is focused and limited to a specific scope.
 Finding Answers:
This is the end of all research. Whether it is the answer to a hypothesis or even a simple question,
research is successful when we find answers. Sometimes the answer is no, but it is still an answer.
 Questions:
Questions are central to research. If there is no question, then the answer is of no use. Research is
focused on relevant, useful, and important questions. Without a question, research has no focus,
drive, or purpose.
Defining research:
“A collection of methods and methodologies that researchers apply systematically to produce
scientifically based knowledge about the social world.”
(OR)
“Research is a systematic inquiry that investigates hypotheses, suggests new interpretations of data or
texts, and poses new questions for future research to explore.”
A research consists of:
• Asking a question that nobody has asked before;
• Doing the necessary work to find the answer; and
• Communicating the knowledge you have acquired to a larger audience.
In practice, research methods vary widely, depending upon the academic discipline’s accepted standards,
the individual researcher’s preferences, or a particular study’s needs. Research in science and engineering
often involves conducting experiments in the lab or in the field. Research in the arts, humanities, and social
sciences may include archival work in the library or on the internet, conducting surveys or in-depth
interviews, and a wide range of creative and artistic projects.
Research is not a self-contained activity –but an act of community. As a member of the research
community, you are building on the knowledge that others have acquired before you and providing a road
map for those who come after you. You are adding to a body of work that will never be complete. Research
is an ongoing, collaborative process with no finish line in sight.
 The Guidelines:
• What is research? For a successful career in science, you must understand the methodology behind
any research and be aware of the correct protocols.
• Science has developed these guidelines over many years as the benchmark for measuring
the validity of the results obtained.
• Failure to follow the guidelines will prevent your findings from being accepted and taken seriously.
These protocols can vary slightly between scientific disciplines, but all follow the same basic
structure.
Name: Aleena Farooq.
Roll no. 07.
B.S. English.
(5th Semester.)
1Aleena Farooq.
 Steps of Scientific process:
The steps of the scientific process has a structure similar to an hourglass - The structure starts with general
questions, narrowing down to focus on one specific aspect, then designing research where we can observe
and analyze this aspect. At last, the hourglass widens and the researcher concludes and generalizes the
findings to the real world.
1) Setting a Goal
Research in all disciplines and subjects, not just science, must begin with a clearly defined goal. This
usually, but not always, takes the form of a hypothesis. The whole study is designed around this clearly
defined goal, and it should address a unique issue, building upon previous research and scientifically
accepted fundamentals.
2) Interpretation of the Results
Research does require some interpretation and extrapolation of results.
3) Replication and Gradual Accumulation
For any study, there must be a clear procedure so that the experiment can be replicated and the results be
verified. Most scientific research looks at an area and breaks it down into easily tested pieces.
True research never gives a definitive answer, but encourages more research in another direction. Research
is cyclical, with the results generated leading to new areas or a refinement of the original process.
4) Conclusion:
The term, research, is much stricter in science than in everyday life. It revolves around using the scientific
method to generate hypotheses and provide analyzable results. All scientific research has a goal and
ultimate aim, repeated and refined experimentation gradually reaching an answer.
2Aleena Farooq.
Steps Of Research:
1. Step One: Define research problem.
2. Step Two: Review of literature.
3. Step Three: Formulate hypotheses.
4. Step Four: Preparing the research design.
5. Step Five: Data collection.
6. Step Six: Data analysis.
7. Step Seven: Interpretation and report writing.
3Aleena Farooq.
 Step One: Define Research Problem: There are two types of research problem, viz., those that relate
to state of nature and relationship between variables. The main focus of a researcher should be on
understanding the problem thoroughly and rephrasing the same into meaningful terms from a point
of view.
 Step Two: Review of Literature: Once the problem is defined, a brief summary of it should be
written down. It is compulsory for a research worker writing a thesis, to write a synopsis of topic and
submit it to necessary committee or the research board for approval.
 Step Three: Formulate Hypothesis: Formulating hypothesis is cautious statement made in order to
draw out and test its logical or empirical consequences. Hypothesis should be very specific and
limited to the piece of research in hand because it has to be tested. The role of the hypothesis is to
guide the researcher by delimiting the area of research and to keep him on the right track.
 Step Four: Preparing the Research Design: The function of research design is to provide the
collection of relevant evidence with minimal expenditure of effort, time and money. Research
purpose may be grouped into four categories: (1) Exploration, (2) Description,(3) Diagnosis, and (4)
Experimentation.
 Step Five: Data Collection:
i. By Observation.
ii. Through personal interview.
iii. Through telephone interview.
iv. Questionnaires Through Schedules.
v. Surveying.
 Step Six: Data Analysis: The analysis of data requires a number of closely related operations such as
establishment of categories.This stage mainly include :
i. Coding.
ii. Editing.
iii. Arrangement.
 Step Seven: Interpretation and Report Writing:
Researcher has to prepare the report of what has been done by him. Writing of report includes:
i. The preliminary pages;
ii. The main text, and
iii. the end matter.
 Classification of Research:
On a broader perspective, all researches can be classified into two groups:
1) Qualitative Research.
2) Quantitative Research.
 Qualitative Research: Qualitative researchers aim to gather an in-depth understanding of human
behaviour and the reasons that govern such behaviour. The qualitative method investigates the why
and how of decision making, not just what, where, when. Qualitative research is research dealing
with phenomena that are difficult or impossible to quantify mathematically, such as beliefs,
meanings, attributes, and symbols
 Advantages:
i. It enables more complex aspects of a persons experience to be studied
ii. Fewer restriction or assumptions are placed on the data to be collected.
iii. Not everything can be quantified, or quantified easily, Individuals can be studied in more
depth
iv. Good for exploratory research and hypothesis generation
v. The participants are able to provide data in their own words and in their own way
 Disadvantages:
i. It is more difficult to determine the validity and reliability of linguistic data
ii. there is more subjectivity involved in analysing the data.
iii. “Data overload” – open-ended questions can sometimes create lots of data, which can take
along time to analyse!
iv. Time consuming
 Quantitative Research: Quantitative research refers to the systematic empirical investigation of any
phenomena via statistical, mathematical or computational techniques. The objective of quantitative
research is to develop and employ mathematical models, theories and/or hypotheses pertaining to
phenomena. Quantitative research is generally made using scientific methods, which can include:
i. The generation of models, theories and hypotheses.
ii. The development of instruments and methods for measurement.
iii. Experimental control and manipulation of variables.
iv. Collection of empirical data.
v. Modelling and analysis of data.
vi. Evaluation of results.
• Advantages
i. Quantitative research allows the researcher to measure and analyse data.
ii. The researcher is more objective about the findings of the research.
iii. Quantitative research can be used to test hypotheses in experiments because of its ability to
measure data using statistics.
• Disadvantages
i. The main disadvantage of quantitative research is the context of the study or experiment is
ignored.
ii. Quantitative research does not study things in a natural setting or discuss the meaning things
have for different people.
iii. A large sample of the population must be studied for more accurate results.
4Aleena Farooq.

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What is Research?

  • 1. TOPIC: WHAT IS A RESEARCH? Research: Research is an organized and systematic way of finding answers to questions.  Systematic: Research is systematic because there is a definite set of procedures and steps which you will follow. There are certain things in the research process which are always done in order to get the most accurate results.  Organized: It is organized in that there is a structure or method in going about doing research. It is a planned procedure, not a spontaneous one. It is focused and limited to a specific scope.  Finding Answers: This is the end of all research. Whether it is the answer to a hypothesis or even a simple question, research is successful when we find answers. Sometimes the answer is no, but it is still an answer.  Questions: Questions are central to research. If there is no question, then the answer is of no use. Research is focused on relevant, useful, and important questions. Without a question, research has no focus, drive, or purpose. Defining research: “A collection of methods and methodologies that researchers apply systematically to produce scientifically based knowledge about the social world.” (OR) “Research is a systematic inquiry that investigates hypotheses, suggests new interpretations of data or texts, and poses new questions for future research to explore.” A research consists of: • Asking a question that nobody has asked before; • Doing the necessary work to find the answer; and • Communicating the knowledge you have acquired to a larger audience. In practice, research methods vary widely, depending upon the academic discipline’s accepted standards, the individual researcher’s preferences, or a particular study’s needs. Research in science and engineering often involves conducting experiments in the lab or in the field. Research in the arts, humanities, and social sciences may include archival work in the library or on the internet, conducting surveys or in-depth interviews, and a wide range of creative and artistic projects. Research is not a self-contained activity –but an act of community. As a member of the research community, you are building on the knowledge that others have acquired before you and providing a road map for those who come after you. You are adding to a body of work that will never be complete. Research is an ongoing, collaborative process with no finish line in sight.  The Guidelines: • What is research? For a successful career in science, you must understand the methodology behind any research and be aware of the correct protocols. • Science has developed these guidelines over many years as the benchmark for measuring the validity of the results obtained. • Failure to follow the guidelines will prevent your findings from being accepted and taken seriously. These protocols can vary slightly between scientific disciplines, but all follow the same basic structure. Name: Aleena Farooq. Roll no. 07. B.S. English. (5th Semester.) 1Aleena Farooq.
  • 2.  Steps of Scientific process: The steps of the scientific process has a structure similar to an hourglass - The structure starts with general questions, narrowing down to focus on one specific aspect, then designing research where we can observe and analyze this aspect. At last, the hourglass widens and the researcher concludes and generalizes the findings to the real world. 1) Setting a Goal Research in all disciplines and subjects, not just science, must begin with a clearly defined goal. This usually, but not always, takes the form of a hypothesis. The whole study is designed around this clearly defined goal, and it should address a unique issue, building upon previous research and scientifically accepted fundamentals. 2) Interpretation of the Results Research does require some interpretation and extrapolation of results. 3) Replication and Gradual Accumulation For any study, there must be a clear procedure so that the experiment can be replicated and the results be verified. Most scientific research looks at an area and breaks it down into easily tested pieces. True research never gives a definitive answer, but encourages more research in another direction. Research is cyclical, with the results generated leading to new areas or a refinement of the original process. 4) Conclusion: The term, research, is much stricter in science than in everyday life. It revolves around using the scientific method to generate hypotheses and provide analyzable results. All scientific research has a goal and ultimate aim, repeated and refined experimentation gradually reaching an answer. 2Aleena Farooq.
  • 3. Steps Of Research: 1. Step One: Define research problem. 2. Step Two: Review of literature. 3. Step Three: Formulate hypotheses. 4. Step Four: Preparing the research design. 5. Step Five: Data collection. 6. Step Six: Data analysis. 7. Step Seven: Interpretation and report writing. 3Aleena Farooq.  Step One: Define Research Problem: There are two types of research problem, viz., those that relate to state of nature and relationship between variables. The main focus of a researcher should be on understanding the problem thoroughly and rephrasing the same into meaningful terms from a point of view.  Step Two: Review of Literature: Once the problem is defined, a brief summary of it should be written down. It is compulsory for a research worker writing a thesis, to write a synopsis of topic and submit it to necessary committee or the research board for approval.  Step Three: Formulate Hypothesis: Formulating hypothesis is cautious statement made in order to draw out and test its logical or empirical consequences. Hypothesis should be very specific and limited to the piece of research in hand because it has to be tested. The role of the hypothesis is to guide the researcher by delimiting the area of research and to keep him on the right track.  Step Four: Preparing the Research Design: The function of research design is to provide the collection of relevant evidence with minimal expenditure of effort, time and money. Research purpose may be grouped into four categories: (1) Exploration, (2) Description,(3) Diagnosis, and (4) Experimentation.  Step Five: Data Collection: i. By Observation. ii. Through personal interview. iii. Through telephone interview. iv. Questionnaires Through Schedules. v. Surveying.  Step Six: Data Analysis: The analysis of data requires a number of closely related operations such as establishment of categories.This stage mainly include : i. Coding. ii. Editing. iii. Arrangement.  Step Seven: Interpretation and Report Writing: Researcher has to prepare the report of what has been done by him. Writing of report includes: i. The preliminary pages; ii. The main text, and iii. the end matter.
  • 4.  Classification of Research: On a broader perspective, all researches can be classified into two groups: 1) Qualitative Research. 2) Quantitative Research.  Qualitative Research: Qualitative researchers aim to gather an in-depth understanding of human behaviour and the reasons that govern such behaviour. The qualitative method investigates the why and how of decision making, not just what, where, when. Qualitative research is research dealing with phenomena that are difficult or impossible to quantify mathematically, such as beliefs, meanings, attributes, and symbols  Advantages: i. It enables more complex aspects of a persons experience to be studied ii. Fewer restriction or assumptions are placed on the data to be collected. iii. Not everything can be quantified, or quantified easily, Individuals can be studied in more depth iv. Good for exploratory research and hypothesis generation v. The participants are able to provide data in their own words and in their own way  Disadvantages: i. It is more difficult to determine the validity and reliability of linguistic data ii. there is more subjectivity involved in analysing the data. iii. “Data overload” – open-ended questions can sometimes create lots of data, which can take along time to analyse! iv. Time consuming  Quantitative Research: Quantitative research refers to the systematic empirical investigation of any phenomena via statistical, mathematical or computational techniques. The objective of quantitative research is to develop and employ mathematical models, theories and/or hypotheses pertaining to phenomena. Quantitative research is generally made using scientific methods, which can include: i. The generation of models, theories and hypotheses. ii. The development of instruments and methods for measurement. iii. Experimental control and manipulation of variables. iv. Collection of empirical data. v. Modelling and analysis of data. vi. Evaluation of results. • Advantages i. Quantitative research allows the researcher to measure and analyse data. ii. The researcher is more objective about the findings of the research. iii. Quantitative research can be used to test hypotheses in experiments because of its ability to measure data using statistics. • Disadvantages i. The main disadvantage of quantitative research is the context of the study or experiment is ignored. ii. Quantitative research does not study things in a natural setting or discuss the meaning things have for different people. iii. A large sample of the population must be studied for more accurate results. 4Aleena Farooq.