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Neurological disorders


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Neurological disorders

  1. 1. By: Pierce Tan & Aldrich Chan
  2. 2.  A neurological disorder is a disorder of the bodys nervous system. Structural, biochemical or electrical abnormalities in the brain, spinal cord, or in the nerves leading to or from them, can result in symptoms such as paralysis, muscle weakness, poor coordination, loss of sensation, seizures, confusion, pain and altered levels of consciousness
  3. 3.  There are many recognized neurological disorders, some relatively common, but many rare.a.Huntington’s Diseaseb.Parkinson’s Diseasec.Dystoniasd.Epilepsye.Alzheimersf.Dementiag.Stroke
  4. 4.  Huntingtons disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative genetic disorder that affects muscle coordination and leads to cognitive decline and dementia. The disease is caused by an autosomal dominant mutation on either of an individuals two copies of a gene called Huntingtin, which means any child of an affected parent has a 50% risk of inheriting the disease.
  5. 5.  Parkinsons disease is a degenerative disorder of the central nervous system. The motor symptoms of Parkinsons disease result from the death of dopamine-generating cells in the substantia nigra, a region of the midbrain; the cause of this cell death is unknown.
  6. 6.  Dystonia is a neurological movement disorder, in which sustained muscle contractions cause twisting and repetitive movements or abnormal postures. The disorder may be hereditary or caused by other factors such as birth-related or other physical trauma, infection, poisoning or reaction to pharmaceutical drugs.
  7. 7.  Epilepsy is a common chronic neurological disorder characterized by seizures. About 50 million people worldwide have epilepsy, and nearly two out of every three new cases are discovered in developing countries. Epilepsy is usually controlled, but not cured, with medication. However, over 30% of people with epilepsy do not have seizure control even with the best available medications.
  8. 8.  Alzheimers disease (AD), also known in medical literature as Alzheimer disease, is the most common form of dementia. There is no cure for the disease, which worsens as it progresses, and eventually leads to death. As the disease advances, symptoms can include confusion, irritability and aggression, mood swings, trouble with language, and long-term memory loss.
  9. 9.  Dementia is a serious loss of global cognitive ability in a previously unimpaired person, beyond what might be expected from normal aging. Dementia is not a single disease, but rather a non-specific illness syndrome in which affected areas of cognition may be memory, attention, language, and problem solving.
  10. 10.  A stroke, previously known medically as a cerebrovascular accident (CVA), is the rapid loss of brain function(s) due to disturbance in the blood supply to the brain. A stroke is a medical emergency and can cause permanent neurological damage, complications, and death.