Sayyidina 'Umar ibn Khattab


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Presentation on Sayyidina 'Umar as prepared by Roy Leng, Riduan Ang and Shaz John. Hope this benefits all ;)

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Sayyidina 'Umar ibn Khattab

  1. 1. 580 AD – 644 AD Prepared By: Riduan Ang, Shazanah, Roy Leng 08 Nov 2011
  2. 2. <ul><li>Born at Mecca around 580 A.D </li></ul><ul><li>Belonged to the Adi clan of the Quraish – one of the ten clans who inhabited Mecca </li></ul><ul><li>Blessed with a strong physique </li></ul><ul><li>A young shepherd - his father put him to the task of grazing camels </li></ul><ul><li>A skillful rider - he could successfully manage even the wildest of horses </li></ul><ul><li>A successful trader - When Umar migrated from Mecca, he was one of the richest Quraish merchants. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>He was among the seventeen Quraish of Mecca who could read and write. </li></ul><ul><li>A good public speaker - he successfully undertook ambassadorial missions on behalf of the Quraish. </li></ul><ul><li>A good orator - Every Friday he would address the faithful in the Prophet's mosque at Madina. </li></ul><ul><li>Some of the addresses that he delivered on such occasions have come down to us and are masterpieces of religious teaching. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>When the Holy Prophet (peace be on him) proclaimed his apostle hood, the reaction among the Quraish was violent. </li></ul><ul><li>Umar, a young man of strong convictions, held the new faith to be a sacrilege of the idols of Katbah. Young, well-built, and fiery-tempered as he was, Umar was in tile forefront in opposition to Isla. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Umar buckled his sword and set out to kill the Holy Prophet (peace be on him). </li></ul><ul><li>On the way, Umar met his friend, Nuaim bin Abduilah. He had been converted to Islam, but Umar did not know of that. </li></ul><ul><li>Umar told Nuiam that he was going to slay Muhammad (peace be on him), and thus vindicate the gods of Ka'bah. </li></ul><ul><li>Nuaim said! &quot;Beware if you harm Muhammad (peace be on him) you will not be safe from the fury of Banu Hashim. Desist from such a course in your own interest&quot;. </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Umar ejaculated angrily: &quot; It appears you have also become a Muslim .&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Nuaim said, &quot;Umar, do not bother about me, but take care of your sister and brother-in-law who have been converted to Islam, and who may be reading the Quran at this very moment.” </li></ul><ul><li>Instead of going to the Holy Prophet, he went to the house of his sister. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>As Umar stepped into the house of his sister, he found that both Fatima and her husband were reading the Quran from a leaf. </li></ul><ul><li>Umar wanted the leaf from which they had been reading should be shown to him. </li></ul><ul><li>Fatima said that he could not touch the sacred leaf until he had washed his hands. </li></ul><ul><li>Umar washed his hands, and the sacred leaf was handed over to him. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>As Umar read the verses over and over again, he felt as if these verses were addressed to him in person, and the mysterious Ta Ha referred to Umar-the Man . </li></ul><ul><li>Umar shuddered with the fear of God, and he felt as if his conscience was upbraiding him, &quot;Umar, how long would you stay away from the path of truth. Has not the time come for you to follow the truth?” </li></ul><ul><li>Turning to his sister and brother-in-law he said, &quot; I came to you as an enemy of Islam; I go from you as a friend of Islam. I had buckled this sword to slay the Prophet of Islam; I now go to him to offer him allegiance. &quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Fatima and Saeed cried &quot; Allah o-Akbar &quot;. </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Umar proceeded to the house of Arqam at the foot of the Safa hill, where the Holy Prophet was lodged. </li></ul><ul><li>As Umar stepped forward the Holy Prophet said “ Umar, how long will you stray from the path of Islam. Has the time not come for you to see the truth?” </li></ul><ul><li>Umar said, &quot; Verily the time has come for me to see the truth. I have come to profess my faith in Islam. &quot; </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>The Holy Prophet stretched his hand. Umar held the hand with reverence and said, &quot;I declare that there is no god but Allah, and that Muhammad is the Messenger of God&quot;. </li></ul><ul><li>That day even Gabriel congratulated the Holy Prophet on the conversion of Umar. Gabriel said: &quot;O Prophet of God, the dwellers in Heaven rejoice at the conversion of Umar and offer you their congratulations&quot;. </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Umar went to the Holy Prophet and told him that he had publicly announced his conversion. </li></ul><ul><li>Umar submitted to the Holy Prophet: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;O Messenger of God are we not in the truth?&quot; </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Holy Prophet said, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;Why not, we are verily in the truth&quot;. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Umar said , </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot; Then why should we not pray in the public? Has not the time come for us to declare our faith publicly? &quot; </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Umar tried to prevail on the Holy Prophet that the truth of Islam should become manifest. The Holy Prophet agreed with Umar. </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>The following day all the Muslims emerged from the house of Arqam and proceeded to the Holy Ka'bah, in two lines, one led by Umar, and the other by Hamza. At the Ka'bah the Muslims prayed openly. </li></ul><ul><li>After the Muslims had prayed in the Ka'bah, the Holy Prophet conferred on Umar the title of &quot; Al-Faruq ,&quot; for on that day through the efforts of Umar, the truth of Islam had become manifest. </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>When Abu Bakr passed away, he appointed Umar as the new caliph. </li></ul><ul><li>After the assumption of office as the Caliph, Umar addressed the Muslims; </li></ul><ul><li>“ In the performance of my duties, I will seek guidance from the Holy Book, and will follow the examples set by the Holy Prophet and Abu Bakr. In this task I seek your assistance. If I follow the right path, follow me.  If I deviate from the right path, correct me so that we are not led astray. ” </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;By God he that is weakest among you shall be in my eyes the strongest until I have vindicated for him his right. He that is strongest I will treat as the weakest until he complies with law.&quot;  </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Umar accordingly felt that the Head of the Muslim State should be known by a simpler title which should reflect the Islamic character of the State. </li></ul><ul><li>He asked the people around him if they could think of some suitable title for him. </li></ul><ul><li>One day two merchants came to Madina from Kufa, and Amr b. Al to announce their arrival to the Amir-ul-Muminin.  </li></ul><ul><li>Amr b. Al As was struck by the novelty of the term 'Amir-ul-Muminin'. </li></ul><ul><li>They said &quot;We all Muslims are Momins and Umar is our  Commander. He is thus Amir-ul-Muminin&quot;.  </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Umar felt that in order to safeguard the purity of faith some hard and fast policy about  drinking should be laid down. </li></ul><ul><li>Umar issued orders; &quot; Drinking is banned under the Holy Quran. If any Muslim drinks and pleads that this was lawful then cut off his head for what he says is a violation of the Holy Word. If he says that it is unlawful but that he fell into error then give him eighty lashes publicly. &quot; </li></ul><ul><li>These instructions were enforced vigorously, and the Muslim society was practically rid of the evil of  drinking. </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>1st of November 644 A.D. </li></ul><ul><li>Firoz, a Persian slave struck Umar with his dagger as Umar lead the prayer. </li></ul><ul><li>From the mosque Umar was carried home. When he regained consciousness he asked who was his  murderer. He was told that his murderer was the Persian slave Firoz. </li></ul><ul><li>Thereupon Umar said, &quot; Praise be to God that I have not been murdered by a Muslim &quot;.  </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Umar asked his son Abdullah to wait on Ayesha and beg her permission for his burial by the side of the  Holy Prophet and Abu Bakr. </li></ul><ul><li>Ayesha wept as she came to know that Umar was about to die. </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Then he asked his son to estimate the debt that he had to pay. He was told that the debt amounted to eighty six thousand dirhams. This included the salary that he had drawn from the Baitul Mal during the  period of his caliphate . </li></ul><ul><li>Umar gave detailed instructions to his son regarding his funeral. He said:  </li></ul><ul><li>&quot; Be moderate in the expenses of my shroud, for verily if there is anything of good with God in my favor,  He will give me in exchange what is better than it, and if I have been otherwise, He will strip me of all that  I have. ” </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>During the ten years of his rule, Umar changed the course of history. Emerging from the deserts of Arabia, the Arabs fortified with the faith of Islam overpowered the Byzantine power in the west and the mighty Persian empire in the east. </li></ul><ul><li>Muslims conquered countries comprising an area of 2,251,030 square miles. Under Umar the Islamic dominions included Egypt, Syria, Iraq, Khuzistan, Fars,  Isfahan, Azarbeijan, Armenia, Makran and Khurasan. The dominions extended from the Oxus to the Nile.  </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>Umar would perambulate the streets of Madina at night carrying his whip in his hand. The whip would freely descend on any one found guilty of any lapse or excess regardless of his status. </li></ul><ul><li>Umar took pains to ensure that the faith of Islam should remain pure and should have no characteristic of  idolatry about it. </li></ul><ul><li>The tree under which the Holy Prophet took the oath of allegiance on the occasion of the Hudaybiah pact came to he regarded by the people as something sacred. Umar had the tree uprooted to avoid idolatrous veneration thereof. </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>The political and social order that Umar set up by applying the principles of Islam was more democratic than the democracies of today and more socialist than the socialist countries of today. That order has  remained the ideal for all Muslim countries to revive.  </li></ul><ul><li>About him the Holy Prophet said: &quot; If God had wished that there should have been another prophet after me, he would have been Umar. &quot;  </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>“ Man runs from death while death is inevitable. “ </li></ul><ul><li>“ One sees minor faults of others, but overlooks his own major faults.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ When there is any defect to one's cattle he tries to cure it, but does not cure his own defects.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Be patient; patience is a pillar of faith.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Do not be misled by a person's prayers and fasting; look to his sincerity and wisdom.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ If patience and gratitude had been two she camels, it would have mattered little on which I rode.” </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>Holy Prophet conferred on him the title of Ál-Farooq’. </li></ul><ul><li>Foremost in the matter of knowledge and learning. </li></ul><ul><li>Unique distinction of having his views confirmed by the Holy Quran. </li></ul><ul><li>Holy Prophet said that if there was a prophet after him, it would be Umar. </li></ul><ul><li>First Muslim ruler to be known by the title of Amir-ul-Mo-minin. </li></ul><ul><li>Conquests made by him exceeded in extent the conquests made by any other Muslim ruler throughout history. </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>Establish Public Treasury </li></ul><ul><li>Establish Courts of Justice and appoint judges </li></ul><ul><li>Establish the Army Department, assign regular salaries to the men in the armed forces and Army Reserves </li></ul><ul><li>Establish the Land Revenue department </li></ul><ul><li>Take a census </li></ul><ul><li>Dig canals </li></ul><ul><li>Found cities </li></ul><ul><li>Divide country into provinces and provinces into districts </li></ul><ul><li>Imposed customs duty </li></ul><ul><li>Set up jails and organise Police Department </li></ul><ul><li>Establish Military Centres </li></ul><ul><li>Establish cavalry and stables at strategic points </li></ul><ul><li>Establish guest-houses in all cities, </li></ul><ul><li>Establish rest-houses on road from Madina to Mecca for travellers </li></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>Laid down no Arab could be made a slave </li></ul><ul><li>Gave stipends to the poor </li></ul><ul><li>Establish schools throughout the country </li></ul><ul><li>Allowed liberal salaries to school teachers </li></ul><ul><li>Instituted the prayers of Tarawih in congregation in the mosque </li></ul><ul><li>Formulate the principle of Qiyas </li></ul><ul><li>Provide light in mosques at nights </li></ul><ul><li>Provide salaries for Imams and Muezzins </li></ul><ul><li>Organise sermons in mosques </li></ul><ul><li>Forbid sale of female slaves, who had borne children to their masters </li></ul><ul><li>Assembled people to prayers over the dead with four Takbirs </li></ul><ul><li>Enlarge and pave the Prophet’s mosque at Madina </li></ul><ul><li>Expel non-Muslims from Arabia </li></ul><ul><li>Place law of inheritance on a sound basis </li></ul><ul><li>Establish trusts </li></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>580 A.D. – Born in Mecca </li></ul><ul><li>600 A.D. – Started business </li></ul><ul><li>600 – 610 A.D. – Married </li></ul><ul><li>616 A.D. – Converted to Islam at age of 26 </li></ul><ul><li>622 A.D. – Migrated to Madina </li></ul><ul><li>623 A.D. – Participated in Battle of Badr </li></ul><ul><li>625 A.D. – Participated in Battle of Uhud </li></ul><ul><li>627 A.D. – Participated in Battle of the Ditch </li></ul><ul><li>630 A.D. – Participated in conquest of Mecca </li></ul><ul><li>632 A.D. – Participated in farewell pilgrimage </li></ul><ul><li>634 A.D. – Appointed as Caliph </li></ul><ul><li>636 A.D. – Introduced the Hijri calendar </li></ul><ul><li>638 A.D. – Adopted the title of Ámir-ul-Mumnin. </li></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><li>Alim Qurán & Hadith </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>