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The Race Towards Digital Wellbeing: Issues and Opportunities

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Presentation of the paper "The Race Towards Digital Wellbeing: Issues and Opportunities" at the 2019 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, held in Glasgow, UK.

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The Race Towards Digital Wellbeing: Issues and Opportunities

  1. 1. e-Lite https://elite.polito.it THE RACE TOWARDS DIGITAL WELLBEING: ISSUES AND OPPORTUNITIES ALBERTO MONGE ROFFARELLO, LUIGI DE RUSSIS
  2. 2. ADDICTIVE BEHAVIOR [BILLIEUX ET AL. 2015, DING ET AL. 2016] SOCIAL INTERACTION [TURKLE 2011, LEE ET AL. 2014, KO ET AL. 2016] DISTRACTION [DABBISH ET AL. 2011, OULASVIRTA 2010]
  3. 3. PEOPLE OFTEN PERCEIVE THEIR EXCESSIVE SMARTPHONE USE AS PROBLEMATIC, AND THEY ARE WILLING TO ADOPT DIFFERENT STRATEGIES TO MITIGATE SUCH A BEHAVIOR
  4. 4. MANY DIFFERENT MOBILE APPS ARE DESIGNED AS TOOLS FOR CHANGING USERS’ BEHAVIOR WITH SMARTPHONES
  5. 5. WE’RE COMMITTED TO GIVING EVERYONE THE TOOLS THEY NEED TO DEVELOP THEIR OWN SENSE OF DIGITAL WELLBEING. SO THAT LIFE, NOT THE TECHNOLOGY IN IT, STAYS FRONT AND CENTER GOOGLE- DIGITAL WELLBEING INITIATIVE
  6. 6. 1. Which functionality do contemporary digital weelbeing apps have? 2. Are they effective and appreciated? 3. Do they have a relevant impact on users’ behavior?
  7. 7. 1. FUNCTIONALITY REVIEW (N = 42)
  8. 8. 1. FUNCTIONALITY REVIEW (N = 42) 2. REVIEWS’ ANALYSIS (N = 1128)
  9. 9. 1. FUNCTIONALITY REVIEW (N = 42) 2. REVIEWS’ ANALYSIS (N = 1128) 3. IN-THE-WILD STUDY (N = 38)
  10. 10. An overall perspective of contemporary mobile apps for changing smartphone behavior 1. FUNCTIONALITY REVIEW (N = 42) 2. REVIEWS’ ANALYSIS (N = 1128) 3. IN-THE-WILD STUDY (N = 38)
  11. 11. 1. FUNCTIONALITY REVIEW (N = 42) 2. REVIEWS’ ANALYSIS (N = 1128) 3. IN-THE-WILD STUDY (N = 38)
  12. 12. INTERVENTIONS 1. FUNCTIONALITY REVIEW TRACKING AND VISUALIZING DATA
  13. 13. INTERVENTIONS Charts 60% 1. FUNCTIONALITY REVIEW
  14. 14. INTERVENTIONS Time spent (phone) 52% Time spent (app) 48% Charts 60% 1. FUNCTIONALITY REVIEW
  15. 15. INTERVENTIONS Phone Unlocks 27% Time spent (phone) 52% App Checking 15% Time spent (app) 48% Charts 60% 1. FUNCTIONALITY REVIEW
  16. 16. INTERVENTIONS Time spent (phone) 52% Recap 38% Time spent (app) 48% Charts 60% 1. FUNCTIONALITY REVIEW Phone Unlocks 27% App Checking 15%
  17. 17. INTERVENTIONS 1. FUNCTIONALITY REVIEW TRACKING AND VISUALIZING DATA
  18. 18. TRACKING App & Phone Timers 26%-31% 1. FUNCTIONALITY REVIEW
  19. 19. TRACKING App & Phone Timers 26%-31% App & Phone Blockers 15%-26% 1. FUNCTIONALITY REVIEW
  20. 20. TRACKING App & Phone Timers 26%-31% App & Phone Blockers 15%-26% Social Comparison 14% Motivational Quotes 12% Rewards 10% 1. FUNCTIONALITY REVIEW
  21. 21. 1. FUNCTIONALITY REVIEW (N = 42) 2. REVIEWS’ ANALYSIS (N = 1128) 3. IN-THE-WILD STUDY (N = 38)
  22. 22. 1. FUNCTIONALITY REVIEW (N = 42) 2. REVIEWS’ ANALYSIS (N = 1128) 3. IN-THE-WILD STUDY (N = 38)
  23. 23. 2. REVIEWS’ ANALYSIS Why Users Like Digital Wellbeing Apps? useful for different use cases helpful for controlling unhealthy behaviors
  24. 24. GREAT TOOL TO FOCUS AND GET DOWN TO YOUR WORK. MADE ME MORE AWARE OF HOW I AM REALLY WORKING AND HOW MUCH I “THINK” I WAS WORKING. useful for different use cases
  25. 25. I USE THIS EVERY DAY TO TRACK MY SLEEP, ODDLY ENOUGH (SLEEP APPS DON’T ACCOMPLISH WHAT I NEED). THIS CONSISTENTLY SHOWS EXACTLY WHAT I NEED TO BE SURE I WAS ASLEEP. useful for different use cases
  26. 26. 2. REVIEWS’ ANALYSIS Why Users Like Digital Wellbeing Apps? useful for different use cases helpful for controlling unhealthy behaviors
  27. 27. I LIKED THE POSSIBILITY TO SEE HOW MUCH TIME I WASTE ON THE SMARPHONE, BUT AT THE SAME TIME THIS SHOCKED ME. I COULD NOT IMAGINE SUCH A THING. helpful for controlling unhealthy behaviors
  28. 28. A VERY SIMPLE YET USEFUL APPLICATION. IT HELPS ME TO TRACK MY TIME USING SMARTPHONE AND THIS APP ACTUALLY HELPED ME TO RECONSIDER MY TIME AND SPEND IT ON OTHER PRODUCTIVITY TASK. helpful for controlling unhealthy behaviors
  29. 29. HAVE FOUND VALUE IN THIS APP SINCE INSTALLING IT. I AM HOPING THAT AFTER A FEW MONTHS OF USE, I WILL NO LONGER NEED THE APP TO REMIND ME TO BE MORE DELIBERATE IN THE USE OF MY PHONE. helpful for controlling unhealthy behaviors
  30. 30. bypassable solutions 2. REVIEWS’ ANALYSIS Why Users Dislike Digital Wellbeing Apps? missing functionality
  31. 31. THE APP IS GOOD BUT IT IS NOT ABLE TO STOP ME TO OPEN THE APPS I AM ADDICTED TO...I CAN JUST SIMPLY UNINSTALL THIS APP IF I WANT TO USE THE RESTRICTED APPS. Bypassable solutions
  32. 32. THE PASSWORD TO THIS APP IS WITH MY WIFE, EVERY THIRD DAY I’M ASKING HER TO LOCK. THIS IS LIKE AN ANNOYING EXPERIENCE. Bypassable solutions
  33. 33. I LOVE THIS APP. MAKES BREAKING MY ADDICTION TO CELL PHONE MUCH EASIER. ALTHOUGH I STILL NEED STRONG WILL OF MY OWN. Bypassable solutions
  34. 34. bypassable solutions 2. REVIEWS’ ANALYSIS Why Users Dislike Digital Wellbeing Apps? missing functionality
  35. 35. NICE APP BUT I’D LIKE TO SEE SOME ADDITIONAL FEATURES, FOR EXAMPLE IF LIKE THE APP TO AUTOMATICALLY DETECT WHEN IN A MOVING VEHICLE AND ACTIVATE. missing functionality
  36. 36. CAN YOU SHOW AVG STATS OF ALL THE PEOPLE? TO SEE IF YOU ARE WAY ABOVE THE NORMAL PEOPLE IN PHONE USAGE. missing functionality
  37. 37. 1. FUNCTIONALITY REVIEW (N = 42) 2. REVIEWS’ ANALYSIS (N = 1128) 3. IN-THE-WILD STUDY (N = 38)
  38. 38. 1. FUNCTIONALITY REVIEW (N = 42) 2. REVIEWS’ ANALYSIS (N = 1128) 3. IN-THE-WILD STUDY (N = 38)
  39. 39. 3. IN-THE-WILD STUDY
  40. 40. 3. IN-THE-WILD STUDY TRACKING AND VISUALIZING DATA
  41. 41. 3. IN-THE-WILD STUDY TRACKING AND VISUALIZING DATA
  42. 42. 3. IN-THE-WILD STUDY INTERVENTIONS
  43. 43. 3. IN-THE-WILD STUDY INTERVENTIONS
  44. 44. 3. IN-THE-WILD STUDY 39 PARTICIPANTS 22.5 mean age, 14 female
  45. 45. 3. IN-THE-WILD STUDY 39 PARTICIPANTS 22.5 mean age, 14 female time
  46. 46. 3. IN-THE-WILD STUDY 39 PARTICIPANTS 22.5 mean age, 14 female time Week 1 COLLECTION PHASE (CP) silently logging data
  47. 47. 3. IN-THE-WILD STUDY 39 PARTICIPANTS 22.5 mean age, 14 female time Week 1 Week 2 and 3 COLLECTION PHASE (CP) silently logging data INTERVENTION PHASE (IP) visualizing data and using interventions
  48. 48. 3. IN-THE-WILD STUDY
  49. 49. 3. IN-THE-WILD STUDY
  50. 50. 3. IN-THE-WILD STUDY 233,59 MIN 196,50 MIN
  51. 51. 3. IN-THE-WILD STUDY
  52. 52. 3. IN-THE-WILD STUDY 121 UNLOCKS 117 UNLOCKS
  53. 53. 3. IN-THE-WILD STUDY • LESS TIME SPENT ON SOCIAL NETWORKS 37 min (CP) vs. 33 min (IP)
  54. 54. 3. IN-THE-WILD STUDY • SAME TIME SPENT ON MESSAGING APPS 26 min (CP) vs. 25 min (IP) • LESS TIME SPENT ON SOCIAL NETWORKS 37 min (CP) vs. 33 min (IP)
  55. 55. 3. IN-THE-WILD STUDY • SAME NUMBER OF «COMPULSIVE» SESSIONS 49 (CP) vs 52 (IP) • SAME TIME SPENT ON MESSAGING APPS 26 min (CP) vs. 25 min (IP) • LESS TIME SPENT ON SOCIAL NETWORKS 37 min (CP) vs. 33 min (IP)
  56. 56. FINDINGS
  57. 57. FINDINGS USEFUL FOR SOME SPECIFIC USE CASE, ONLY
  58. 58. FINDINGS USEFUL FOR SOME SPECIFIC USE CASE, ONLY FOCUS ON SELF-MONITORING
  59. 59. FINDINGS USEFUL FOR SOME SPECIFIC USE CASE, ONLY FOCUS ON SELF-MONITORING DESIGNED FOR BREAKING EXISTING HABITS
  60. 60. FINDINGS USEFUL FOR SOME SPECIFIC USE CASE, ONLY FOCUS ON SELF-MONITORING PERCEIVED AS BYPASSABLE DESIGNED FOR BREAKING EXISTING HABITS
  61. 61. FINDINGS USEFUL FOR SOME SPECIFIC USE CASE, ONLY FOCUS ON SELF-MONITORING NOT GROUNDED IN HABIT FORMATION NOR SOCIAL SUPPORT PERCEIVED AS BYPASSABLE DESIGNED FOR BREAKING EXISTING HABITS
  62. 62. e–Lite https://elite.polito.it THE RACE TOWARDS DIGITAL WELLBEING: ISSUES AND OPPORTUNITIES ALBERTO MONGE ROFFARELLO, LUIGI DE RUSSIS
  63. 63. Digital Diet App Usage Tracker Phone Usage Tracker Smartphone Addiction Avoid Distraction Screen Time KEYWORD-BASED SEARCH APP FILTERING >1000 downloads >50 reviews N = 42 digital wellbeing apps ANALYZE FUNCTIONALITY 1. FUNCTIONALITY REVIEW
  64. 64. 2. REVIEWS’ ANALYSIS THEMATIC ANALYSIS N = 1128 user reviews 50 reviews for each of the 42 digital wellbeing apps REVIEWS SCRAPING REVIEWS FILTERING >3 words >2015 English language

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