<ul><li>Dietetics and Nutrition in the Mediterranean </li></ul><ul><li>Dr. Alberto Fatticcioni </li></ul>
Carbohydrates in the Mediterranean Diet The Mediterranean Diet isn’t a low carb diet, it’s a diet with a lot of carbohydrates. The Mediterranean diet is high in good sources of carbohydrates, and for this reason it is the goal standard for a healthy diet. The Mediterranean Diet shows that it’s not how much carbohydrates but above all what kind of carbs you eat that is important. We need carbohydrates to live, but we need to eat good sources of carbohydrates to thrive.
Mediterranean diet rules <ul><li>The Mediterranean diet is principally a plant based diet . Everyday the “mediterranean way” consists of: </li></ul><ul><li>vegetables (at least 300-400 g a day) </li></ul><ul><li>fruit (at least 4 pieces or 400 g a day) </li></ul><ul><li>legumes and pulses </li></ul><ul><li>grains, pasta and/or bread (mostly wholemeal and unrefined) </li></ul><ul><li>an abuntant use of olive oil and nuts </li></ul><ul><li>an abundant use of herbs and spices </li></ul><ul><li>water (more than 2 liters per day) </li></ul><ul><li>wine during meals ( maximum 2 glasses per day ) </li></ul>
Carbohydrates in the Mediterranean Diet <ul><li>The most important source of carbohydrates in the Mediterranean Diet are: </li></ul><ul><li>Whole-grains : whole wheat, emmer wheat, barley, brown rice and buckwheat. </li></ul><ul><li>Refined grains : flour, bread, pasta, white rice, white cornflour. </li></ul><ul><li>Pulses and legumes : chickpeas, lentils, beans, peas </li></ul><ul><li>Fruit: apples, pears, cherries, peaches, oranges, apricots, strawberries, figs, grapes, dried fruit. </li></ul>
Carbohydrate Functions Provide energy. (4 calories per gram). Carbohydrate is the preferred fuel for the body, and it is an instantaneous energy source (from starch, sugars and glycogen) Protein sparing. Because carbohydrates (glucose) is a preferred fuel, providing enough carbohydrate to meet most energy needs preserves protein from being broken down and used as a source of energy. Oxidation of fat. “Fats burn in a carbohydrate flame” . That is, to burn fats efficiently and completely, some carbohydrates are needed.
Carbohydrate Functions Part of other compounds. Carbohydrates are essential components of other compounds essential in human nutrition. Stored energy. Carbohydrates have two storage forms: glycogen and fat. The ideal storage form for carbohydrate is glycogen (in muscles and liver) because it can be easily converted back to glucose and used for energy Cholesterol and fat control. From dietary fiber. Digestion assistance. From dietary fiber. Nutrient and water absorption. From sugars.
Types of Carbohydrates in Food <ul><li>Simple carbohydrates (also called sugars) </li></ul><ul><li>Monosaccharides (single-molecule carbohydrates, the basic unit ) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Glucose (also called dextrose) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fructose (also called levulose or fruit sugar) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Galactose </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Disachharides (2-molecule carbohydrates) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sucrose (glucose + fructose) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lactose (galactose + glucose) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Maltose (glucose + glucose) </li></ul></ul></ul>
Types of Carbohydrates in Food The basic unit of all carbohydrates is the monosaccharide, or single-molecule carbohydrate. The basic metabolic unit for human cells is the monosaccharide glucose, and the other monosaccharides and digestible polysaccharides have biochemical pathways that enable them to be converted to glucose. Glucose is the main source of fuel for the brain and muscles during high intensity activity.
Types of Carbohydrates in Food <ul><li>Complex carbohydrates </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Partially digestible polysaccharides (Oligosaccharides 3- to 20- molecule carbohydrates) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Maltodextrins </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fructo-oligosaccharides </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Raffinose </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stachyose </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Verbascose </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Are commonly found in legumes and, while they may cause gas and bloating, are considered healthy carbohydrates </li></ul>
Types of Carbohydrates in Food <ul><li>Complex carbohydrates </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Polysaccharides </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Digestible polysaccharides (20- plus molecule starch carbohydrates) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Amylose </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Amylopectin </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Glucose polymers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>These complex carbohydrates should provide the main source of carbohydrate energy. Glucose polymers derive from starch (Amylose + Amylopectin) which can be found in whole grains, pasta and bread. </li></ul>
Types of Carbohydrates in Food <ul><li>Complex carbohydrates </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Polysaccharides </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Indigestible polysaccharides </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cellulose </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hemicellulose </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pectins </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gums </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mucilages </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Algal polysaccharides </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Beta-glucans </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fructans </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Provide fiber which is important for GI and health </li></ul>
The Glycemic Index The glycemic index , or GI is a measure of the effects of carbohydrates on blood sugar levels. Carbohydrates that break down quickly during digestion and release glucose rapidly into the bloodstream have a high GI; carbohydrates that break down more slowly, releasing glucose more gradually into the bloodstream, have a low GI .
The Glycemic Index A lower glycemic index suggests slower rates of digestion and absorption of the foods' carbohydrates and may also indicate greater extraction from the liver and periphery of the products of carbohydrate digestion. A lower glycemic response usually equates to a lower insulin demand but not always, and may improve long-term blood glucose control and blood lipids. The insulin index is also useful, as it provides a direct measure of the insulin response to a food.
The Glycemic Index Ranking <ul><li>The current validated methods use glucose as the reference food , giving it a glycemic index value of 100 by definition. This has the advantage of being universal and producing maximum GI values of approximately 100. </li></ul><ul><li>GI Ranking: </li></ul><ul><li>Low 0 – 55 </li></ul><ul><li>Moderate 55 – 69 </li></ul><ul><li>High 70 or more </li></ul>
The Glycemic Index Ranking Classification GI range Examples Low GI 55 or less most fruits and vegetables (except potatoes and watermelon), grainy breads, pasta, legumes/pulses, milk, yoghurt, products extremely low in carbohydrates (some cheeses, nuts), fructose Medium GI 56–69 Whole wheat products, basmati rice, sweet potatoes High GI 70 and above corn flakes, rice crispies, baked potatoes, watermelon, croissants, white bread, extruded breakfast cereals, most white rices straight glucose (100)
The Glycemic Index A low GI food will release glucose more slowly and steadily . A high GI food causes a more rapid rise in blood glucose levels and is suitable for energy recovery after endurance exercise or for a person experiencing hypoglycemia.
The Glycemic Index The glycemic effect of foods depends on a number of factors such as the type of starch (amylose versus amylopectin), physical entrapment of the starch molecules within the food, fat and protein content of the food and organic acids or their salts in the meal — adding vinegar, for example, will lower the GI. The presence of fat or soluble dietary fiber can slow the gastric emptying rate, thus lowering the GI. Unrefined breads with higher amounts of fiber generally have a lower GI value than white breads. Many brown breads, however, are treated with enzymes to soften the crust, which makes the starch more accessible (high GI).
How does all this affect our glycemic levels? How does all this make us feel after eating carbohydrate-containing foods? Type of starch Physical entrapment Viscosity of fiber Sugar content Fat content Protein content Acid content Food processing Cooking Factors Influencing GI Ranking
Factors Influencing GI Ranking: Type of Starch <ul><li>Absorbs less water </li></ul><ul><li>Molecules form tight clumps </li></ul><ul><li>Slower rate of digestion </li></ul><ul><li>Absorbs more water </li></ul><ul><li>Molecules are more open </li></ul><ul><li>Faster rate of digestion </li></ul>Amylose Amylopectin Lower GI Kidney beans (35) Chickpeas (35) Higher GI Potato flour (95) Risotto (70)
Factors Influencing GI Ranking: Physical Entrapment Endosperm Bran Germ Bran acts as a physical barrier that slows down enzymatic activity on the internal starch layer. Lower GI All Bran (50) Integral flour bread (40) Higher GI White bread (85) Special K (70)
Factors Influencing GI Ranking: Viscosity of Fiber Viscous, soluble fibers transform intestinal contents into gel-like matter that slows down enzymatic activity on starch. Lower GI Apple (40) Rolled oats (51) Higher GI Whole wheat bread (73) Cheerios (74)
Factors Influencing GI Ranking: Type of Sugar Content sugar sucrose glucose + fructose starch maltose glucose + glucose (GI 60) (GI 100) (GI 19) (GI 105) (GI 100) (GI 100) Lower GI Frosted Flakes (55) Raisin Bran (61) Higher GI Golden Grahams (71) Rice Krispies (82)
Factors Influencing GI Ranking: Fat & Protein Content Fat and protein slow down gastric emptying, and thus, slow down digestion of starch. Lower GI Hazelnuts (15) Potato chips (54) Linseeds (35) Higher GI Jelly beans (78) Potatoes oven cooked (85) Corn Flakes (85)
Factors Influencing GI Ranking: Acid Content Acid slows down gastric emptying, and thus, slows down the digestion of starch. Lower GI Sourdough wheat bread (54) Higher GI Wonder white bread (73)
Factors Influencing GI Ranking: Food Processing Highly processed foods require less digestive processing. Lower GI Bread 100% integral flour (40) Higher GI White sandwich bread (85)
Food Processing: From Whole Foods To Refined In the modern diet there is a shift toward increasingly refined food , especially carbohydrates. People have been refining cereal grains since at least the Industrial Revolution, favoring white flour and white rice over brown, even at the price of lost nutrients. Part of the reason was prestige: because for many years only the wealthy could afford refined grains, they acquired a certain glamour. Refining grains extends their shelf life (precisely because they are less nutritious to the pests that compete with us for their calories) and makes them easier to digest by removing fiber that ordinarily slows the release of their sugars. Also, the finer flour is ground, the more surface area is exposed to digestive enzymes, so the quicker the starches turn in to glucose . A great deal of modern industrial food can be seen as an extension and intensification of this practice as food processors find ways to deliver glucose –the brain preferred fuel – ever more swiftly and efficiently.
Food Processing: From Whole Foods To Refined The history of refining whole foods has been a history of figuring out ways not just to make them more durable and portable, but also how to concentrate their energy and, in a sense, speed them up. This acceleration took a great leap forward with the introduction in Europe around 1870 of rollers (made from iron, steel or porcelain) for grinding grain . Perhaps more than any other single development, this new technology, which by 1880 had replaced grinding by stone throughout Europe and America, marked the beginning of the industrialization of our food, reducing it to its chemical essence and speeding up its absoption. Refined flour is the first “fast food” in history.
Food Processing: From Whole Foods To Refined Before the roller-milling revolution, wheat was ground between big stone wheels, which could get white flour only so white. That’s because while stone grinding removed the bran from the wheat kernel (and therefore the largest portion of the fiber), it couldn’t remove the germ, or embryo, which contains volatile oils that are rich in nutrients . The stone wheels merely crushed the germ and released the oil. This had the effect of tinting the flour yellowish gray (the yellow is the antioxidant carotene) and shortening its shelf life, because the oil, once exposed to the air, soon oxidized and turned rancid . The germ contributed some of the most valuable nutrients to the flour, including much of its protein, folic acid, other B vitamins, carotens and others antioxidants, omega-3 fatty acids, which are especially prone to rancidity.
Food Processing: From Whole Foods To Refined When searching for wholegrain foods, it is important to note that any products made with flour can have the same effect on blood sugar, whether the flour is produced from whole grains or not. For example, wholegrain wheat bread and white bread can have the same glycemic index. Grinding grains into flour increases the surface area upon which enzymes work to more quickly convert starch into glucose. Keeping grains as close to their original form as possible slows or prevents the digestion of starch, and a slower digestion is responsible for preventing spikes in blood sugar (which over time may lead to insulin resistance).
Food Processing: From Whole Foods To Refined The practice of refining grains is implicated in several of these chronic diseases as well as diabetes, heart disease, and certain types of cancer. A diet high in whole grains reduces one’s risk for diabetes, heart disease and cancer.
Food Processing: From Whole Foods To Refined In a 2002 study, consumption of whole grains was found to be associated with lower fasting insulin concentrations when compared to those associated with the consumption of refined grains . This effect as well as improved insulin sensitivity was noticeably more pronounced among obese and hyperinsulinemic subjects, suggesting whole grain consumption to be an important component of reducing risk factors for type 2 diabetes when only compared to the consumption of refined grains.
Food Processing: From Whole Foods To Refined Consumption of wholegrains has also been consistently linked with a significant decrease in risk factors for cardiovascular disease . Regular wholegrain consumption lowers LDL and triglyceride levels, which contributes to an overall 26% reduction in coronary heart disease risk factors. In addition, wholegrain consumption is inversely related to hypertension, diabetes, and obesity when compared to refined grains, all of which are negative indicators in total cardiovascular health
Factors Influencing GI Ranking: Cooking Cooking swells starch molecules and softens foods, which speeds up the rate of digestion. Lower GI Al dente spaghetti – boiled 10 to 15 minutes (44) Higher GI Over-cooked spaghetti – boiled 20 minutes (64)
Factors Influencing GI Ranking <ul><li>Type of starch </li></ul><ul><li>Physical entrapment </li></ul><ul><li>Viscosity of fiber </li></ul><ul><li>Sugar content </li></ul><ul><li>Fat and protein content </li></ul><ul><li>Acid content </li></ul><ul><li>Food processing </li></ul><ul><li>Cooking </li></ul>
The Importance of GI for Health Several lines of recent scientific evidence have shown that individuals who followed a low GI diet over many years were at a significantly lower risk for developing both type 2 diabetes and coronary heart disease than others. High blood glucose levels or repeated glycemic "spikes" following a meal may promote these diseases by increasing oxidative stress to the vascular system and also by the direct increase in insulin levels. The glycemic index is supported by leading international health organisations including the American Diabetes Association.
The Importance of GI for Health In the past, postprandial hyperglycemia was considered a risk factor associated mainly with diabetes. However, more recent evidence shows that it also presents an increased risk for atherosclerosis in the non-diabetic population . The high consumption of olive oil, legumes, fresh fruit and vegetables in the Mediterranean Diet likely lowers the glycemic effect of pasta and bread. The mixing of high, medium and low GI carbohydrates produces moderate GI values in the Mediterranean Diet.
Glycemic Index and Glycemic Load The number of grams of carbohydrates impacts blood sugar levels more than the glycemic index . A food with a low glycemic index may have a high carbohydrate content or vice versa; this can be accounted for with the glycemic load. Consuming carbohydrates with a low glycemic index and calculating carbohydrate intake with glycemic load would produce the most stable blood sugar levels.
The Glycemic Load (GL) The glycemic load (GL) is a ranking system for carbohydrate content in food portions based on their glycemic index (GI) and the portion size. The usefulness of glycemic load is based on the idea that a high glycemic index food consumed in small quantities would give the same effect as larger quantities of a low glycemic index food on blood sugar. Glycemic Load is the product of the Glycemic Index and the grams of carbohydrate (GL=GI*Carb grams)
The Glycemic Load (GL) For example, white rice has a somewhat high GI, so eating 50g of white rice at one sitting would give a particular glucose curve in the blood, while 25g would give the same curve but half the height. Since the peak height is probably the most important parameter for diabetes control, multiplying the amount of carbohydrates in a food serving by the glycemic index gives an idea of how much effect an actual portion of food has on blood sugar level.
The Glycemic Load (GL) Glycemic load for a single serving of a food can be calculated as the quantity (in grams) of its carbohydrate content, multiplied by its GI, and divided by 100 . For example, a 100g slice serving of watermelon with a GI of 72 and a carbohydrate content of 5g (it contains a lot of water) makes the calculation 5*0.72=3.6, so the GL is 3.6. A food with a GI of 100 and a carbohydrate content of 10g has a GL of 10 (10*1=10), while a food with 100g carbohydrate and a GI of just 10 also has a GL of 10 (100*0.1=10).
The Glycemic Load (GL) <ul><li>Glycemic Load also has a scale: </li></ul><ul><li>Low is 10 or less </li></ul><ul><li>Medium is 11-19 </li></ul><ul><li>20 or greater is considered High </li></ul>
Cereal Grains Cereals , grains or cereal grains , are grasses cultivated for the edible components of their seeds, the endocarp, the germ and the bran. Grains (maize, rice, wheat, barley, millet, etc.) are grown in greater quantities and provide more food energy worldwide than any other type of crop. In their natural form (as in whole grain ), they are a rich source of vitamins, minerals, carbohydrates, fats, oils and protein. However, when refined by the removal of the bran and germ, the remaining endocarp is mostly carbohydrate and lacks the majority of the other nutrients. In the Mediterranean Diet, grain like wheat, and durum wheat in the form of bread and pasta constitutes a majority of daily sustenance.
Grain Production in the World Worldwide production in millions (10 6 ) of metric tons Grain 2007 2006 2005 1961 Maize 792 695 713 205 A staple food of people in America, Africa, and of livestock worldwide; often called "corn" or "Indian corn" in North America, Australia, and New Zealand. Rice 659 635 631 285 The primary cereal of tropical and some temperate regions Wheat 606 605 629 222 The primary cereal of temperate regions
Grain Production in the World Worldwide production in millions (10 6 ) of metric tons Grain 2007 2006 2005 1961 Barley 133 139 141 72 Grown for malting and livestock on land too poor or too cold for wheat Sorghum 63 57 59 41 Important staple food in Asia and Africa and popular worldwide for livestock Millet 34 32 31 26 A group of similar but distinct cereals that form an important staple food in Asia and Africa.
Grain Production in the World Worldwide production in millions (10 6 ) of metric tons Grain 2007 2006 2005 1961 Oats 25 23 24 50 Formerly the staple food of Scotland and popular worldwide for livestock Rye 15 13 15 35 Important in cold climates Triticale 12 11 13 12 Hybrid of wheat and rye, grown similarly to rye
Grain Production in the World Worldwide production in millions (10 6 ) of metric tons Grain 2007 2006 2005 1961 Buckwheat 2.0 2.4 2.1 2.5 A pseudocereal, as it is a Polygonacea and not a Poaceae or Gramineae, used in Eurasia. Fonio 0.37 0.38 0.36 0.18 Several varieties of which are grown as food crops in Africa Quinoa 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.03 Pseudocereal, grown in the Andes
Wheat Wheat ( Triticum spp.) is a grass cultivated for the edible components of their seeds, the endocarp, the germ and the bran. Wheat is originally from the Fertile Crescent region of the Near East, but now cultivated worldwide. Wheat grain is a staple food used to make flour for making, breads, biscuits, cookies, cakes, breakfast cereal, pasta and couscous. Wheat is cultivated throughout the Mediterranean area and for this motive is a staple food in the Mediterranean Diet.
The History of Wheat Wheat has been cultivated domestically at least since 9,000 B.C. and probably earlier. Domesticated Einkorn wheat at Nevalı Çori—40 miles (64 km) northwest of Gobekli Tepe in Turkey—has been dated to 9,000 B.C. However, evidence for the exploitation of wild barley has been dated to 23,000 B.C. and some say this is also true of pre-domesticated wheat.
The Wheat Germ The germ of a cereal is the reproductive part that germinates to grow into a plant; it is the embryo of the seed. Along with bran, germ is often a by-product of the milling that produces refined grain products. The germ is retained as an integral part of whole grain foods. Wheat germ is a concentrated source of several essential nutrients including Vitamin E, folic acid, phosphorus, thiamin, zinc and magnesium, as well as essential fatty acids and fatty alcohols. It is a good source of fiber. White bread is made using flour that has had the germ and bran removed.
The Wheat Germ Wheat germ crude Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz) Energy 1,506 kJ (360 kcal) Carbohydrates 51,8 g Dietary fiber 13,2 g Fat 9,72 g Protein 23,15 g Thiamine (Vit. B1) 1.882 mg (145%) Riboflavin (Vit. B2) 0.499 mg (33%) Niacin (Vit. B3) 6.813 mg (45%) Pantothenic acid (B5) 0.05 mg (1%) Vitamin B6 1.3 mg (100%) Folate (Vit. B9) 281 μg (70%) Calcium 39 mg (4%) Iron 6.26 mg (50%) Magnesium 239 mg (65%) Phosphorus 842 mg (120%) Potassium 892 mg (19%) Zinc 12.29 mg (123%) Manganese 13.301 mg Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.
Wheat Bran Bran is the hard outer layer of grain. Along with germ, it is an integral part of whole grains, and is often produced as a by-product of milling in the production of refined grains. When bran is removed from wheat, the cereal lose a portion of their nutritional value. Bran is particularly rich in dietary fiber and contains significant quantities of starch, protein, vitamins B, and dietary minerals. The high oil content of germ and bran makes it subject to rancidification, one of the reasons that is often separated from the grain before storage or further processing.
The Endosperm Endosperm is the internal white part of grain. Along with germ and bran it is an integral part of whole grains, and is the constituent of refined grains. Wheat endosperm is particularly rich in starch (polysaccharides), the stored energy for the plants, and contains significant quantities of protein. The low oil content of endosperm makes it ideal for long-life under form of flour. The principal parts of wheat flour are gluten and starch.
The Major Cultivated Species of Wheat Durum wheat — ( T. durum ) The second most widely cultivated wheat, common used in the Mediterranean Diet to make pasta. Common wheat or tender wheat — ( T. aestivum ) The species most widely cultivated in the world and used in the Mediterranean Diet to make bread Emmer wheat — ( T. dicoccum ) Cultivated in ancient times, ideal for salad and soup
Durum Wheat Durum wheat or macaroni wheat (also spelled Durhum; Triticum durum or Triticum turgidum durum ). It was developed by artificial selection of the domesticated emmer wheat strains formerly grown in Central Europe and Near East around 7000 B.C. Durum in Latin means "hard", and the species is the hardest of all wheats . Durum has a yellow endosperm, which gives pasta its color. When durum is milled, the endosperm is ground into a granular product called semolina. Semolina made from durum is used for premium pastas.
The History of Durum Wheat Durum wheat is thought to have originated in southern parts of the Mediterranean basin. Records show that it was in cultivation in Byzantine Egypt. With the rise of Islam, the crop diffused rapidly throughout the Middle East, the Maghreb of North Africa, and Muslim Spain. In some parts of the Muslim Mediterranean, durum was the only wheat grown. New varieties appeared in Maghreb, Yemen and Central Asia. The wheat was also grown by Muslims during their habitation of medieval Southern Italy, particularly at Lucera during the thirteenth century. Durum was amongst the agricultural products that were exported from the Muslim world to the West.
The Uses of Durum Wheat Husked but unground, or coarsely ground, it is used for semoules in the couscous of North Africa , and other parts of the Arab world. It is also used for Levantine dishes such as tabbula , kishk , kibba , bitfun and the bulghur for pilafs. In Arab cuisine it forms the basis of many soups, gruels, stuffings, puddings and pastries. Coarsely ground durum is used for making pasta.
Couscous Recipe Couscous is largely used in the Mediterranean Diet. A typical Mediterranean healthy recipe is “North African Couscous” (pages 218, 219, 220, 221 Mediterranean Diet Cookbook), where the ingredients are couscous, chickpeas, saffron, onions, extra-virgin olive oil, tomatoes, turnips, potatoes, carrots, black pepper, leeks, zucchini, green peppers, quinces, cumin, fresh fish, and green cabbage.
From Durum Wheat to Pasta The use of wheat to produce pasta was described as early as the tenth century by Ibn Wahshīya of Cairo. The Arabs called the product itrīya , from which Italian sources derived the term tria (or aletria in the case of Spanish sources) during the fifteenth century. Another type of pasta, al-fidawsh (called "dry pasta"), was popular in al-Andalus. From there it was transmitted to Christian Spain and frequently appears in Hispano-Muslim cookbooks. From "al-fidawsh" was derived the Spanish word for noodles, fideos , and the Italian fidelli or fidellini .
From Durum Wheat to Pasta Pasta (Italian pasta , from Latin pasta ) is a generic term for foods made from an unleavened dough of wheat or buckwheat flour and water, sometimes with other ingredients such as eggs and vegetable extracts. Pastas include noodles in various lengths, widths and shapes, and varieties that are filled with other ingredients like ravioli, tortellini and gnocchi. The word pasta is also used to refer to dishes in which pasta products are a primary ingredient. It is usually served with sauce. There are hundreds of different shapes of pasta with at least locally recognized names.
Pasta Under Italian law, dry pasta ( pasta secca ) can only be made from durum wheat flour or durum wheat semolina. Durum flour and durum semolina have a yellow tinge in color. Italian pasta is traditionally cooked al dente (Italian: "firm to the bite", meaning not too soft). Outside Italy, dry pasta is frequently made from other types of flour (such as tender wheat flour), but this yields a softer product that cannot be cooked al dente . There are many types of wheat flour with varying gluten and protein depending on the variety of grain used.
Pasta Examples include spaghetti, macaroni, fusilli , and lasagne. Pasta is categorized in two basic styles: dried and fresh . Dried pasta made without eggs can be stored for up to two years under ideal conditions, while fresh pasta will keep for a couple of days in the refrigerator. Pasta is generally cooked by boiling.
Pasta Particular varieties of pasta may also use other grains and milling methods to make the flour, as specified by law. Some pasta varieties, such as pizzoccheri, are made from buckwheat flour. Fresh pasta may include eggs ( pasta all'uovo 'egg pasta'). Whole wheat pasta has become increasingly popular because of its perceived health benefits. Most whole wheat pastas have a mixture of whole grain and regular grain ingredients .
Pasta Recipe Pasta is largely used in the Mediterranean Diet. A typical Mediterranean healthy recipe is “ Little Ears with Broccoli Rabe “Orecchiette alla Barese” (pages 203, 204 Mediterranean Diet Cookbook), where the ingredients are orecchiette, a typical pasta from Puglia, broccoli rabe, garlic, extra-virgin olive oil, anchovy fillets, red pepper and black pepper.
Pasta Recipe Pasta is largely used in the Mediterranean Diet. A typical Mediterranean healthy recipe is “ Spaghetti or Vermicelli with Tomato Sauce” “Pasta al pomodoro” (pages 195, 196 Mediterranean Diet Cookbook), where the ingredients are spaghetti, the typical Italian pasta, 1 small onion, 1 garlic glove, 1 medium carrot, parsley, extra-virgin olive oil, tomatoes, oreganon and parmigiano reggiano cheese.
The Major Cultivated Species of Wheat Durum wheat — ( T. durum ) The second most widely cultivated wheat, common used in the Mediterranean Diet to make pasta. Common wheat or soft wheat — ( T. aestivum ) The species most widely cultivated in the world and used in the Mediterranean Diet to make bread Emmer wheat — ( T. dicoccum ) Cultivated in ancient times, ideal for salad and soup
From Tender Wheat to Bread Bread is a staple food prepared by cooking a dough of flour and water and possibly more ingredients. Doughs are usually baked, but in some cuisines breads are steamed, fried, or baked on an unoiled skillet. It may be leavened or unleavened. Salt, fat and leavening agents such as yeast and baking soda are common ingredients, though bread may contain other ingredients, such as milk, egg, sugar, spice, fruit (such as raisins), vegetables (such as onion), nuts (such as walnuts) or seeds (such as poppy seeds). Bread is one of the oldest prepared foods, dating back to the Neolithic era. The development of leavened bread can probably also be traced to prehistoric times.
Bread The first bread produced was probably a cooked version of a grain-paste, made from ground cereal grains and water, and may have been developed by accidental cooking or deliberate experimentation with water and grain flour. Yeast spores are ubiquitous, including the surface of cereal grains, so any dough left to rest will become naturally leavened. There were multiple sources of leavening available for early bread. Airborne yeasts could be harnessed by leaving uncooked dough exposed to air for some time before cooking. Pliny the Elder reported that the Gauls and Iberians used the foam skimmed from beer to produce "a lighter kind of bread than other peoples."Parts of the ancient world that drank wine instead of beer used a paste composed of grape juice and flour that was allowed to begin fermentation, or wheat bran steeped in wine, as a source for yeast. The most common source of leavening, however, was to retain a piece of dough from the previous day to use as a form of sourdough starter.
Bread Today we can choose from a variety of different breads. This variety depends on the kind of grain used, how it was harvested and milled, what sort of leavening make it rise, how much and what kind of salt gets put in, and how it is baked (in what oven, using what kind of fuel); add to this the water, the climate, the touch of a particular baker, and the microorganisms in the atmosphere which get to work on the leavening process, and a delightful complexity is inevitable
Types of Bread Bread is a popular food in most societies. East Asian societies typically prefer wheat noodles, steamed bread, or rice. Bread is often made from a wheat-flour dough that is cultured with yeast, allowed to rise, and finally baked in an oven. Owing to its high levels of gluten (which give the dough sponginess and elasticity), tender wheat (also known as bread wheat) is the most common grain used for the preparation of bread, but bread is also made from the flour of other wheat species (including durum, spelt and emmer), rye, barley, maize (or corn), and oats, usually, but not always, in combination with wheat flour. Although tender wheat is best suited for making highly-risen white bread, other wheat species are capable of giving good black bread. Spelt bread (Dinkelbrot) continues to be widely consumed in Germany, and emmer bread was a staple food in ancient Egypt.
The Types of Bread White bread is made from flour containing only the central core of the grain (endosperm). Brown bread is made with endosperm and 10% bran. It can also refer to white bread with added colouring (often caramel colouring) to make it 'brown'; commonly labeled in America as "Wheat" bread (as opposed to "Whole Wheat" bread.) Wholemeal bread contains the whole of the wheat grain (endosperm and bran). It is also referred to as 'whole grain' or 'whole wheat' bread, especially in North America. Wheat germ bread has added wheat germ for flavoring. Whole grain bread can refer to the same as 'wholemeal bread', or to white bread with added whole grains to increase its fibre content (i.e. as in "60% whole grain bread").
Bread Recipe Bread is used in different recipes in the Mediterranean Diet. A typical Mediterranean healthy recipe is “ Sicilian Tomato Bruschette” (pages 71, 72 Mediterranean Diet Cookbook), where the ingredients are country-style bread, small and very ripe tomatoes, garlic, fresh basil, oreganon, dried red chili pepper (not to hot) and extra-virgin olive oil.
Bread Recipe Bread is used in different recipes in the Mediterranean Diet. A typical Mediterranean healthy recipe is “ Olive Oil Bread from France” or “Pompe à L’huile” (pages 167, 168 Mediterranean Diet Cookbook), where the ingredients are flour, warm milk, yeast, sugar, eggs, extra-virgin olive oil, orange flower water, orange zest.
Bread Recipe Bread is used in different recipes in the Mediterranean Diet. A typical Mediterranean healthy recipe is “ Italian Bread Salad” or “Panzanella” (page 86 Mediterranean Diet Cookbook), where the ingredients are Tuscan country-style bread, large very ripe tomatoes, onion, cucumber, fresh basil, extra-virgin olive oil, red wine vinegar, balsamic vinegar, oreganon, black pepper
The Major Cultivated Species of Wheat Durum wheat — ( T. durum ) The second most widely cultivated wheat, common used in the Mediterranean Diet to make pasta. Common wheat or soft wheat — ( T. aestivum ) The species most widely cultivated in the world and used in the Mediterranean Diet to make bread Emmer wheat or spelt or farro — ( T. dicoccum ) Cultivated in ancient times, ideal for salad and soup
Emmer Wheat or Farro Emmer wheat is a form of wheat, the most important and cultivated grain in Roman period. For many historians, it was farro (emmer wheat) not ferro (iron sword) that created the empire, with its slow release of energy reinforced with vegetables, fruit, and cheese, ideal for warriors/farmers who founded the republic and went on to conquer the world.
Emmer Wheat or Farro Emmer wheat in Mediterranean diet, is traditional cooked and consumed in soup or salads with legumes and vegetables and dressed with olive oil. Today there is a revival of this grain, in Tuscany there is the “Farro IGP della Garfagnana”; it cooks relatively quickly (20 min refined, 40-60 min whole). Its flour can be used for pasta and bread.
Farro Nutritional Facts Emmer Wheat (on 100 g of serving size): 335 Kcal 10, 4 g water 15,1 g protein 2,5 g fat 67,1 g carbohydrates 6,8 g fiber 18 mg sodium 440 mg potassium 0,7 iron 43 calcium 420 phosphorus
Farro Nutritional Facts Glycemic index : 45 whole emmer wheat 65 refined emmer wheat PROPERTIES Emmer wheat is rich in carbohydrates, fiber, potassium and phosphorus, also have a medium glycemic index and for that is ideal for diabetes and obesity
Farro Recipe Farro is used in different recipes in the Mediterranean Diet. A typical Mediterranean healthy recipe is “ Bean and Farro Soup” (pages 136, 137, 138 Mediterranean Diet Cookbook), where the ingredients are farro, beans, onion, celery, garlic, bay leaf, fennel seeds, black pepper, fresh tomato, extra-virgin olive oil, 1 slice of country bread.
Farro Recipe Farro is used in different recipes in the Mediterranean Diet. A typical Mediterranean healthy recipe is “ Farro Salad” (pages 76, 77, Mediterranean Diet Cookbook), where the ingredients are farro, extra-virgin olive oil, fresh lemon juice, cucumber, scallions, radishes, onion, celery, basil, parsley, and a pinch of red chili pepper.
Rice Rice is the seed of a plant Oryza sativa . As a cereal grain, it is the most important staple food for a large part of the world's human population, especially in East, South, Southeast Asia, the Middle East, Latin America, and the West Indies. It is the grain with the second highest worldwide production, after maize ("corn"). Rice is probably the most important grain with regards to human nutrition and caloric intake, providing more than one fifth of the calories consumed worldwide by the human species.
Rice Rice was cultivated in the central Yangtze Valley 8,500 years ago. The wild plant probably originated in India and spread slowly west thrhough Persia, adapted to varying conditions, being a plentiful and nutritious crop. It was known to Alexander the Great, but never made much of an impact on the Greek or Roman kitchen, being used mainly for medicinal purposes. When Arab political power and culture spread, rice cultivation came to Sicily and North Africa as well as the south of Spain. It was grown there until the 10 th century, but the eventual triumph of rice in Italy might have come from the north, introduced by Venetian Merchants .
Rice The evolution of rice in Mediterranean Cuisine is particular. The strange trajectory of rice, from imported luxury health food for the rich in the late Middle Ages to high-yeld crop for progressive landowners during the Renaissance, to staple subsistence food for the underprivileged in the mid 19 th century, and finally to its role today as a quality food across the whole social spectrum, is an intriguing story. Italy is at the top of European rice production; today, of the 2,000 hectars under rice cultivation in Italy, 90% is grown in the triangle of Novara, Vercelli and Pavia.
Rice The seeds of the rice plant are first milled using a rice huller to remove the chaff (the outer husks of the grain). At this point in the process, the product is called brown rice. The milling may be continued, removing the 'bran', i.e. , the rest of the husk and the germ, thereby creating white rice. White rice, which keeps longer, lacks some important nutrients; in a limited diet which does not supplement the rice, brown rice helps to prevent the disease beriberi.
Rice Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz) Energy 1,527 kJ (365 kcal) Carbohydrates 79 g Sugars 0.12 g Dietary fiber 1.3 g Fat 0.66 g Protein 7.12 g Water 11.62 g Thiamine (Vit. B1) 0.070 mg (5%) Riboflavin (Vit. B2) 0.049 mg (3%) Niacin (Vit. B3) 1.6 mg (11%) Pantothenic acid (B5) 1.014 mg (20%) Vitamin B6 0.164 mg (13%) Folate (Vit. B9) 8 μg (2%) Calcium 28 mg (3%) Iron 0.80 mg (6%) Magnesium 25 mg (7%) Manganese 1.088 mg (54%) Phosphorus 115 mg (16%) Potassium 115 mg (2%)
Rice There are many varieties of rice such as laweed; for many purposes the main distinction is between long- and medium-grain rice. The grains of long-grain rice (high amylose) tend to remain intact after cooking; medium-grain rice (high amylopectin) becomes more sticky. In the Mediterranean Diet, Medium-grain rice is used for sweet dishes, for risotto in Italy. The point of the method is to cook the rice by continuous but gentle simmering in a flavoured liquid, which will be absorbed as the rice is constantly stirred with a wooden spoon in a dip capacious pot.
Rice Recipe Rice is used in different recipes in the Mediterranean Diet. A typical Mediterranean healthy recipe is “ Asparagus Risotto” (pages 227, 228 Mediterranean Diet Cookbook), where the ingredients are rice (carnaroli, vialone nano or arborio), fresh asparagus, yellow onion, garlic, white whine, extra-virgin olive oil, freshly grated parmigiano reggiano, white pepper.
Rice Recipe Rice is used in different recipes in the Mediterranean Diet. A typical Mediterranean healthy recipe is “ Seafood Risotto” or “Risotto ai frutti di mare” (pages 230, 231, 232 Mediterranean Diet Cookbook), where the ingredients are rice (carnaroli, vialone nano or arborio), shrimp, loabster, monkfish fillet, extra-virgin olive oil, cayenne pepper, garlic, yellow onion, carrot, celery stalk, white whine, parsley, black pepper.
Maize Maize , is a grass domesticated by indigenous peoples in Mesoamerica in prehistoric times. Native Americans cultivated it in numerous varieties throughout the Americas. The Mississippian culture, whose major city and regional chiefdom of Cahokia in present-day Illinois achieved its peak about 1250 CE, had population density and a great regional trade network based on surplus maize crops. After European contact with the Americas in the late 15th and early 16th centuries, explorers and traders carried maize back to Europe and introduced it to other countries through trade. Its use spread to the rest of the world.
Polenta Recipe A typical Mediterranean healthy recipe for cornmeal is “ Polenta with Taverina Dried Wild Mushroom Sauce” (pages 243, 244 Mediterranean Diet Cookbook), where the ingredients are cornmeal, dried porcini, extra-virgin olive oil, onion, carrot, celery stalk, parsley, plum tomatoes, thyme, rosemary, black pepper, parmigiano reggiano.
The Chestnut Chestnut, castagna, is the fruit of the sweet chestnut, Castanea Sativa , a tree which exists in Italy as many 300 varieties, the main division being between castagna and marrone. Dried chestnuts, ready to cook, and chestnut flour can be bought in most food stores, but it is acknowledged that fresh ones are more delicious in both sweet and savoury preparations. In the past, in the traditional Mediterranean Diet, chestnuts was an essential part of the basic subsistence diet of dwellers in Appennine woodlands and alpine regions.
The Chestnut Chestnuts (raw, peeled) Nutritional value per (3.5 oz) Energy 820 kJ (200 kcal) Carbohydrates 44 Sugars 11 Fat 1,3 Protein 1,6 Vitamin C 40 mg (67%) Iron 0.94 mg (8%) Potassium 484 mg (10%) Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. Source: USDA Nutrient database
Chestnut Recipe A typical Mediterranean healthy recipe for chestnut is “ Braised Cavolo Nero with Chestnuts” (pages 303, 304 Mediterranean Diet Cookbook), where the ingredients are fresh chestnuts, extra-virgin olive oil, onion, lancinato kale and black pepper.
Chestnut Recipe A typical Tuscan Mediterranean healthy recipe for chestnut is “ Castagnaccio” . The rustic dishes Castagnaccio is a sort of sweet flatbread made by mixing chestnut flour, with extra-virgin olive oil, water, salt, sugar, soaked sultans. This is then spread on an oiled baking tin, sprinkled with rosemary leaves and pine nuts, baked in a moderate oven for 45 minutes and enjoyed tepid or cool.