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Understanding NFV Management and Orchestration

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After some research during Q1 2015 I share here my understanding of NFV Management and Orchestration for mobile networks

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Understanding NFV Management and Orchestration

  1. 1. Understanding NFV Management and Orchestration Alberto Diez April 2015
  2. 2. Alberto Diez April 2015 Understanding NFV Management and Orchestration 2 Executive Summary Networks Functions Virtualization (NFV) has been one of the hot topics of 2015s Mobile World Congress. After a year of proof of concepts and trials Mobile Network Operators (MNOs) are ready to move forward with this architectural evolution. MNOs see clear advantages in the application of NFV; they not only get rid of proprietary purpose-specific hardware but they also expect to introduce a more flexible and economical network which permits them to deploy new services with agility. Adding to these advantages, NFV has been pointed out as a solution to overcome net neutrality regulations limitations to provide higher value services. If MNOs cannot treat differently services provided over the Internet they can, with NFV, create several virtual purpose specific networks separated from the neutral Internet. Equipment vendors, on the other hand, are also pushing for NFV. Not all vendors embrace NFV with the same intensity; the louder advocates are the ones that sold their solutions over standard hardware from 3rd parties. These vendors see NFV as a mean to reduce their low margin hardware business and focus in their higher value propositions. The introduction of NFV comes with costs to the MNOs. To have a positive business case it is key to count with the operational efficiencies of managing a virtualized network. Those benefits are realized by the Management and Orchestration (MANO) layer in the NFV architecture. MANO reduces operators development and operations costs and frees teams employed in repetitive low value tasks for more valuable roles like optimizing the network and analyzing the data provided by the management tools. The relevance of MANO for the business case has triggered fierce competition in the MANO tools market with a wide range of participants coming from Open Source, telco equipment vendors, OSS vendors, IT cloud companies and SDN solution sellers. Software Defined Networking (SDN) is directly related to MANO since controlling the virtual network centrally is necessary for agility and operational efficiencies. In a broader sense the NFV network is a Software Defined Network. MANO is today a field of experimentation in which many interests converge. Interestingly Open Source projects and a wide inclusive community with multiple stakeholders are cooperating towards a satisfactory solution that will meet MNOs needs and foster industry innovation. This is bringing about a new ecosystem and new business paradigms close to those known in the Linux distributions. NFV/SDN and MANO is one of the most stimulating fields in the telco industry today but also somewhat confusing. This short report clarifies the current status for all those interested in NFV/SDN MANO and its evolution.
  3. 3. Alberto Diez April 2015 Understanding NFV Management and Orchestration 3 Table of Contents Motivation........................................................................................................................... 4 NFV MANO in Context........................................................................................................ 5 Service provider motivations to NFV................................................................................ 6 NFV Management and Orchestration............................................................................... 7 What role does SDN play? .............................................................................................. 9 The Policy Control digression.........................................................................................10 Open Source is the new standard...................................................................................12 Outlook..........................................................................................................................13 Case Study: Scaling out a Media Resource Function..........................................................14 Company Landscape.........................................................................................................16 Standards and Protocols....................................................................................................19 Open Source Projects........................................................................................................22 Bibliography and References.............................................................................................24 About the Author Alberto Diez is an unaffiliated professional who has been working with standard telco architectures since 2007. He started his career in Fraunhofer FOKUS where he conceived and prepared the launch of the OpenEPC project. Later he worked in the industry with Nokia Siemens Networks and in Siemens CVC with their carrier grade products as their AAA server and PCRF, as solution architect of the former and product manager of the latter. Current topics of interest include: new services and architectures for mobile operators, NFV/SDN and WebRTC. Contact via email: alberto@posteo.net
  4. 4. Alberto Diez April 2015 Understanding NFV Management and Orchestration 4 Motivation NFV/SDN is revealing itself as a major shift in the telecommunications landscape. Since mid 2013 the succession of initiatives, press releases and product announcements has been uninterrupted. In 2015 focus has shifted to NFV Management and Orchestration (MANO); arguably because MANO is key to the NFV business case and of primary significance for service providers. It was not until end of 2014 that ETSI finally detailed the high-level specification of MANO components. In the mean time, conflicting messages and biased visions contributed to a strained environment difficult to navigate. Equipment vendors and service providers have understood MANOs relevance and need to position themselves. The time elapsed while standardization was ongoing has been too long and actors coming from the IT sector, in which virtualization and cloud has long been norm, have adapted their products and offerings to address telco industry too. Additionally Open Source projects and initiatives have emerged and are being embraced substituting, to a certain extent, the role of standard bodies and creating new paradigms. In this context, MANO constitutes still a battlefield in which different wars between traditional actors and emerging players are being held. Battles spread in the different layers defined for MANO: infrastructure, application and services. Additionally, there are silent confrontations between standard bodies active in the areas of Enterprise IT, Internet standards and Telco. The battle in infrastructure management has been settled with OpenStack established as de facto standard and catalyzing the establishment of an ecosystem similar to the Linux distributions business. It is remarkable that VMWare has acknowledged this battle for its own products as lost and released its own OpenStack flavor1 , just like RedHat or HP do. On top of infrastructure orchestration, application lifecycle management is required. Enterprise IT vendors have well established solutions for application lifecycle management provided as wrappers to OpenStack but lack support for some traditional telco concepts and in practice they will require significant development and operations costs. Telco application vendors prefer to view application lifecycle as completely separated from infrastructure and are positioning themselves in the lifecycle management with separate products, which does not contribute by itself to operational efficiencies in a normal multi-vendor environment. The highest layer of MANO: service orchestration, requires a deep knowledge of applications, infrastructure and networking. Is in this area where most operational gains could be achieved but offerings are still not mature and risks are high. Rivals in MANO are traditional telco vendors, OSS/BSS vendors and IT software vendors; each with their biased interpretations of concepts and requirements. 1 VMWare Press Release “VMware vSphere 6 - The Foundation for Hybrid Cloud”, February 2nd 2015, San Francisco, California
  5. 5. Alberto Diez April 2015 Understanding NFV Management and Orchestration 5 NFV MANO in Context Network Functions Virtualization (NFV) is an initiative from ETSI that started in 2013 with the aim to standardize the application of virtualization techniques for telco deployments just as it had been applied in the IT and datacenters. Reduced to its basic principles NFV decouples software from hardware. NFV is a step further in the trend, in telecommunications sector, moving from proprietary vendor specific hardware to commercial hardware deployments of telco functions and now hardware independent cloud deployments. In theory with NFV telecommunications equipment vendors no longer need to provide servers for their functions instead they can just list their requirements in generic processing performance, memory, storage, networking etc. ETSI has standardized a relatively complex architecture with six blocks as depicted in the figure. Figure 1 ETSI NFV Architecture In the left side of the architecture, the lowest layer includes the NFV Infrastructure (NFVI), that is, processing, storage and networking physical resources. The lowest layer represents the datacenters which with their virtualization layer (hypervisor) expose their capabilities to the upper layer. The Virtual Network Functions (VNF) are deployed on top of the NFVI layer. Each VNF represents an entity as it could be a DNS, Firewall, or a mobile core network component like the MME or PDN-Gw. Each VNF may include an Element Manager (EM). The top layer encompasses the Operational and Business Support Systems (OSS/BSS). On the right side three layers of entities are grouped in the Management and Orchestration (MANO) block. These three layers represent a control plane for infrastructure, applications and services. MANO is capturing much of the attention of NFV because during the early stages ETSI did not concretely specify it giving room for different interpretations. Additionally two antagonist approaches for the Virtual Infrastructure Manager (VIM) were available. Third, and probably most importantly, MANO is instrumental for achieving the benefits promised to service providers by NFV evangelists.
  6. 6. Alberto Diez April 2015 Understanding NFV Management and Orchestration 6 Service provider motivations to NFV NFV is a paradigm change that affects all stakeholders in the telecommunications industry. It promises paramount benefits in the long term but it requires significant investments in the short term. Within equipment vendors two approaches have been observable in the last two years: the ones that have embraced it from first day and actively promote it and the ones that tried to ignore it first and are trying to catch up now when it is unavoidable. The formers are the ones that have been selling their equipment on top of COTS hardware from third parties and are willing to stop re-selling 3rd party hardware, with low margins, to concentrate in selling their own software, virtualized. The latter vendors probably have more difficulties to adapt products to NFV because they have been using purpose specific hardware. Most of the larger vendors have a mixed situation; some products in their portfolio can be evolved to NFV easily and others require serious re-architecting and may never be NFV capable at all. Most interesting is the motivation of service providers to NFV. It has to be noted that except for small operators NFV does not reduce hardware required to run a network and it just permits to homogenize deployments. Infonetics Research did a survey in March 20142 in which they asked a large group of service providers if they would deploy NFV and SDN and why. The results are depicted in Figure 2. Figure 2 Infonetics research service providers survey results (March 2014) It is remarkable that Service Providers consider Quick Revenue as second most important motivation for NFV/SDN deployment, most likely this category referred to the agility that NFV deployments bring in which an operator can reduce the time-to-market significantly for a new service rollout thanks to hardware independence and automatization of processes. It may also refer to the possibility of new use cases associated with NFV/SDN, but those will unlikely generate any quick revenues. The remaining motivations are basically hardware homogenization and operational efficiencies (grouping scaling up/down as an operational efficiency because it was also possible without NFV it is just dramatically more efficient with NFV). 2 Infonetics Research: SDN and NFV Strategies: Global Service Provider Survey. March 2014
  7. 7. Alberto Diez April 2015 Understanding NFV Management and Orchestration 7 If quick revenue is more about quick than about revenue and all other motivations are operational efficiencies it is clear that in order to have a positive business case for NFV/SDN it is necessary to achieve significant operational efficiencies. This leads to the question: how is it possible to achieve the maximum operational efficiencies of NFV/SDN? The answer is, of course, through NFV Management and Orchestration. NFV Management and Orchestration NFV MANO has been part of the ETSI architecture since the beginning but it has taken long until its role has been completely described and details specified. The architecture presents three elements: the Virtualized Infrastructure Manager (VIM), the VNF Manager and the Orchestrator. Figure 3 MANO layer The role of the VIM includes the management and allocation of virtual resources. It participates in all procedures related to adding, removing or modifying resources for the different functions. Resources refer to computing resources, storage or networking resources. The VIM had been the first attention focus for the Service Providers. Two competing strategies available: VMWare or OpenStack. Already in the last half of 2014 it was clear that OpenStack was the only possible strategy what has ultimately being ratified by VMWare launching its own distribution of OpenStack in February 20153 . The debate shifted from which VIM to use, to whether it was anything else necessary for MANO than just OpenStack. The reason for that is that OpenStack as a project encompasses many different components4 , the most famous are Nova and Neutron the 3 VMWare Press Release “VMware vSphere 6 - The Foundation for Hybrid Cloud”, February 2nd 2015, San Francisco, California 4 https://www.openstack.org/software/roadmap/ and http://docs.openstack.org/
  8. 8. Alberto Diez April 2015 Understanding NFV Management and Orchestration 8 compute and networking managers which expose all operations on resources via APIs. OpenStack also provides additional components like a control Dashboard and including Heat, a component for orchestration. The reality is that while OpenStack constitutes a close to ideal VIM for data center use cases, it is not suitable for the tasks of the higher layers of MANO due to its infrastructure focus and the particularities of the telecommunications equipment and networks architecture requirements. Ultimately, OpenStack provides components and APIs that could be all what very skilled and trained development and operations teams need for MANO. It would require developing plugins on top of the existing features and using other configuration management tools of the like of Puppet and Chef. Such approach does not automatically achieve the highest of the efficiencies available with the upper layers of MANO. The VNF Manager cares about the lifecycle of the application. Basically instantiation, initial configuration, scaling up/down and in/out, updates, termination. There are currently two trends in the market: generic VNF Managers delivered together with Orchestrators or VNF Managers provided by the VNF vendors. Since applications in telco world are very complex with several components types and different scaling rules etc. it seems convenient to have a VNF Manager from the application vendor. Vendors of several applications will share the same VNF Manager for all their applications. The VNF Manager must provide APIs for higher level orchestration since a service provider will have many VNF Managers deployed, unless it goes for a single vendor deployment which is unlikely and would limit the advantages of NFV. On top of the application lifecycle management sits the Orchestrator which according to ETSI cares about end to end service including VNF configuration, provisioning, scaling and networking setup. Its broad scope makes it the most complex element and undoubtedly where most operational efficiencies rely, therefore the most interesting element in the MANO framework. Performing end to end service management requires the Orchestrator to have a deep knowledge of the network, the VNF catalogue available, the different instances and the resources available. Additionally, the Orchestrator must be able to interact with different VNF Managers for which there is no standard interface; therefore the Orchestrator requires a very flexible engine and multi protocol support. To a certain extent, the Orchestrator is meant to be a central point of control and configuration. It has some common areas with Configuration Management but it goes much further. Orchestration is dealing continually with change, supporting run-time automation via models/templates. The three layers MANO framework are key for the NFV business case. The lowest layer, the VIM, is taken by OpenStack. VNF Managers are provided by applications vendors. Therefore it is in the Orchestrator’s layer where new and not so new companies are trying to establish their offerings. It is an interesting field because it shares some common features with traditional OSS/BSS systems making it attractive for those vendors to participate. In the same way providers of IT Cloud solutions are also interested in orchestration. If that was not enough, service orchestration interacts with SDN control and SDN players have come into the picture.
  9. 9. Alberto Diez April 2015 Understanding NFV Management and Orchestration 9 What role does SDN play? Software Defined Networking (SDN) refers to the decoupling of packet forwarding from its control. Initially it was a paradigm shift for routers and switches and almost since the beginning it was identified with a protocol: OpenFlow. OpenFlow permits a control element to instruct routers and switches how to forward packets dynamically by setting forwarding rules. OpenFlow and SDN has been extensively researched in universities and applied to datacenters. SDN brings with it significant operational efficiencies when operating large networks. SDN is not limited to OpenFlow since other management approaches using other protocols like NETCONF and YANG or REST APIs also belong to SDN. NFV decoupling hardware from software is much like SDN decoupling user plane from control plane. In particular where SDN requires a flexible SDN Controller to achieve its highest potentials, NFV requires the MANO framework and in particular the Orchestrator to excel. Both the SDN Controller and NFV MANO provide a translation between OSS and applications requirements, expressed in a generic abstract way, into detail control of the infrastructure resources available. Moreover, NFV MANO requires SDN. That is, since orchestration requires provisioning, configuring and automating the processes for end to end service it requires control over the network and forwarding planes. Since MANO is on the spot, it has been more likely to see NFV/SDN as combined terms. ETSI has acknowledged this overlap by including annexes about SDN5 . Figure 4 SDN provides remote control of forwarding tables The confluence of NFV and SDN has triggered that several vendors of traditional networking equipment have launched very interesting offerings in the orchestration area. It has to be noted that SDN had been in the picture longer than NFV and the SDN controller already provided template driven automatization requiring deep knowledge of the network and its configuration capabilities. A established trend is to refer to SDx or Software Defined Everything and exposure of APIs in all components to permit programmatic remote configuration and manageability. In this 5 ETSI GS NFV-SWA 001 V1.1.1 - Network Functions Virtualisation (NFV); Virtual Network Functions Architecture
  10. 10. Alberto Diez April 2015 Understanding NFV Management and Orchestration 10 sense, SDx and NFV Orchestration roadmaps are convergent and constitute also a reason to refer to NFV/SDN as a combined paradigm. Another aspect in which NFV and SDN are complementary is that of forwarding graphs. Forwarding graphs, as described in ETSI NFV specifications, represent a chain of VNFs which implement a given service. Ultimately it is a matter of network control to configure the data flow to execute a forwarding graph. There has been much noise about forwarding graphs for mobile operators since it is foreseen as an enabler for agile new use cases implementation, combining existing VNFs to provide different service experiences. Figure 5 Service Functions Chaining and Forwarding Graphs The Policy Control digression Although more a SDN topic than an NFV one, selecting and modifying the forwarding graph has been often promoted as a possibility brought by NFV very relevant for service providers. An example use case would be selecting that a given data flow has to go through a firewall, media or protocol optimizer or similar functionality, while other data flow goes through a different path. These use cases are known as Service Functions Chaining (SFC). It is not relevant whether the different functions are physical or virtual functions. The importance for the use case is the ability to select the path, or forwarding graph, dynamically based on the different criteria, in particular real-time, personalized and business intelligence. According to ETSI NFV standards it is the role of the Orchestrator to establish forwarding graphs and manage the infrastructure that provides the end to end services. SFC use cases are most valuable when the SFC decision is taken in real-time based on subscriber profile or application aware. Currently such information sources are not directly available to the Orchestrator; therefore the whole use case must reside elsewhere in the network: the policy controller. The policy controller, PCRF in 3GPP terminology, takes decisions about how to treat connectivity of the subscribers based on the subscriber profile, network information and application awareness. It is an element already available in most mobile networks and increasing importance due to its role for VoLTE. As part of the decisions the PCRF takes it is possible to provide indications to the Gateways regarding SFC. Those indications can be in the form of predefined rules, which can be translated at the gateways by different forwarding tags and forwarding paths selection; IETF
  11. 11. Alberto Diez April 2015 Understanding NFV Management and Orchestration 11 is developing standards that address this scenario6 . An alternative development is that PCRFs communicates its decisions to an Orchestrator / SDN Controller that would create the paths in real-time. Therefore there is little overlap between the PCRF functionality, SDN or NFV. The relationship between PCRF and NFV is that it has been identified as one of the first components to be deployable virtualized due to the nature of its functionality and the fact that it does not handle user plane traffic. The relationship between PCRF and SDN is stronger; the PCRF may use SDN methods or communicate with the SDN Controller to realize the SFC use cases. Some adventurous PCRF vendors will add SDN capabilities to their PCRF in the future but it is still too early for such approaches to have real commercial relevance. Policy in a broader sense is of course part of NFV MANO and SDN. ETSI specification does mention the Orchestrator as checking policy conformance of requests and issuer but it is not the policy control that mobile operators know from 3GPP, instead more an authorization and access management related entitlements control combined with a rules engine. Policy and rules engine based decisions are relevant to orchestration since in many scenarios, for example automatic elasticity, the Orchestrator has to take decisions on which components to scale and how. While current approach foresees static templates the next step will be more dynamic rule based decisions based on OSS/BSS inputs. A long-term step will be incorporating other sources of context, which are more dynamic in nature. A much more disruptive development where policy and NFV/SDN encounter is that of “intent based networking”7 . Intent based networking is best explained as an application of the Android mobile operating system framework concept of Intent to the NFV/SDN world. In Android it is possible to provide services by combining applications much like operators would like to do with SFC, in a very dynamic and agile way. An Android application calls the framework when it has an event that could be handled by another application. The calling application does not know if there is another application to handle the event but if there is the framework will know, since the called application must have registered this capability before. The calling application provides the framework the type of intent and a context for the second application. For example, if the user wants to share a contact it goes to the address book and selects the contact and the option of sharing. That creates an intent to the framework of “sending” with the contact as its context. The framework will offer the user the different applications that can send something like the different email clients, MMS client and all available messaging applications. Current research is aiming to provide a common information model and interface for communications of intents. Applicability of intents is confined today in the lowest infrastructure layer of MANO and SDN Control (i.e. OpenStack / OpenDayLight) but only complexity and market priorities are preventing intents to climb up the layer and situate itself in the highest layer of orchestration. Whether intent based networking will find a pragmatic application in mobile operators’ network is still unknown but if it does it will combine with SFC and may require cooperation from NFV MANO / SDN Controller and the subscriber and application aware policy controller. 6 RFC 7498 Problem Statement for Service Function Chaining, April 2015 7 https://www.opennetworking.org/?p=1633&option=com_wordpress&Itemid=471
  12. 12. Alberto Diez April 2015 Understanding NFV Management and Orchestration 12 Open Source is the new standard An interesting development has been the role that Open Source software projects have played in extending the impact of SDN and NFV and the fainting role of traditional telecommunications standard bodies. The trend started with SDN which comes from a research, university and datacenter background and that for a while has not been perceived as key for telco. SDN found in OpenFlow its standard bearer. OpenFlow has been specified and promoted by ONF, out of the mainstream industry bodies like IETF. SDN has spread thank to a myriad of Open Source initiatives for switching software etc., and when it had already gained traction in the industry the Linux Foundation has been instrumental in organizing OpenDaylight, with support from vendors, as the SDN Controller for OpenFlow and others. NFV has followed a distinct but convergent path. Standardized within the traditional bodies in ETSI, it has seen a significant push thanks to Open Source projects developed for non-telco specific purposes like KVM, and very predominantly, OpenStack. NFV MANO has been a confusing standardization area for long and the creation of the OPNFV Open Source project under the leadership of the Linux Foundation has catalyzed the market interest in MANO. Traditional standard bodies are not neglected but industry has seen that the Open Source model and institutions like the Linux Foundation, with a strong emphasis in inclusive cooperation of multiple stakeholders, are a better channel to bring the new architectural and technological improvements that NFV/SDN require. The wide spread of Open Source projects comes with some new effects that not all or actors in the telco industry will embrace in the same way. In the technical side it has to be seen how it affects innovation in the long-term and what will the results be. Key questions can be, for example around OPNFV. The work of OPNFV will with no doubt result in a concrete and detailed interpretation of the NFV MANO standard and a selection of some of the options open in the ETSI specification. Will this selection become a de facto standard? Will there be room for different interpretations? Will the OpenStack APIs be considered standardized and all VIM implementations should support them in order to guarantee interoperability? Furthermore, Open Source creates new challenges in the commercial and business areas. Open Source requires a different business model and not all companies are prepared for it. Interestingly, if what is happening around Open Source in NFV/SDN would be completely internalized in the industry it might reduce the role of patents and intellectual property rights. This will upset many stakeholders but on the other hand will probably foster innovation in a software industry running virtualized over standard hardware. It will shrink entry barriers and open the telco industry for breakthrough innovations coming from outside the well-known reduced vendor ecosystem.
  13. 13. Alberto Diez April 2015 Understanding NFV Management and Orchestration 13 Outlook NFV MANO and particularly the highest layer service orchestration is still a field of much experimentation. Both technology and business-wise there are surely surprising developments upcoming. Looking at technology a necessary development is addressing hybrid networks, that is, those networks which contain both virtual and physical functions. Service providers will have for long time hybrid networks and the Orchestrator can create operational efficiencies in both. While of course physical networks limit the applicability of the Orchestrator (e.g. scaling) they can still be managed and configured. An imminent step is the availability of container technology as a different flavor of virtualization. If today infrastructure virtualization manages principally ESXi and KVM based Virtual Machines, soon it will also manage different types of containers. Containers bring the advantage of less overhead and more efficient use of resources (depending of the scenario) with the cost of more complexity in the Management and Orchestration layer. An already emerging reality is the fierce competition that NFV MANO products will face. It is one of the key topics of the year but also, as described before, fundamental for the whole NFV business case. All possible actors want to play a role in NFV MANO. And all actors, mean all possible actors, from OSS vendors who see that orchestration may deprecate some of their offerings to IT Cloud and Enterprise computing stacks companies which see a possible new customer base where higher margins are possible. Until today, most interesting offers have come from SDN Controllers vendors that had re-branded their products and added features to cater the NFV Orchestration market too. They had been in a significant advantageous position due to the overlap of NFV MANO and SDN, particularly the common requirements and shared concepts permit them start the orchestration adventure with a well suited architecture on top of which build the product. Competition is not only in technologies, features, business models and approaches, but also ideological. Due to the lack of concreteness in the standard significant evangelization is ongoing and in many cases vendor-biased views need to be balanced with independent and objective approaches. Influenced by this, another trend is the substitution of traditional telco standards by Open Source projects and open initiatives. The irruption of the Linux Foundation with the OPNFV initiative backed up by major players has made obvious a shift that had long time ago started in which Open Source has gained relevance in telco sector. As a corollary to the role of Linux Foundation and the ubiquitous presence of Open Source in the telco industry, there is an emerging Linuxization of business models in the vendor ecosystem. This does not refer to traditional Linux distributions vendors occupying a more prominent role in the NFV landscape, which is also happening, but to a shift from the traditional software licensing to a Linux distribution business model in which the higher portion of the incomes come from complementary activities and services like trainings, support etc. Just like in the Linux distribution world some vendors are taking Open Source projects, e.g. OpenStack, modifying or substituting some components and re-packaging them for telco customers.
  14. 14. Alberto Diez April 2015 Understanding NFV Management and Orchestration 14 Case Study: Scaling out a Media Resource Function ETSI includes in its specifications examples in the annexes, those examples often illustrate all possible options supported which potentially creates more confusion than clarity. This section provides a simple example of scaling out a Media Resource Function (MRF) in an NFV environment. The MRF is one of the elements showcased by ETSI in its examples. An MRF is a component required for IMS deployments which processes media e.g. transcoding, conference mixing. The MRF showcased by ETSI has two components: the MRB which is a signaling broker and the MRF C+P which combines both control and processing. For the example the assumed generic standard deployment of a virtualized IMS including an MRF is depicted in Figure 6. The Element Manager (EM) of the MRB and MRF C+P VNFs are not shown for simplicity but could be deployed separated or shared with several other functions. The figure shows the PCSCF and SCSCF sharing the same EM while the HSS, maybe from another vendor, is integrated with a distinct EM. The scaling out operation consists in adding more capacity to the MRF dynamically and can be triggered, for example, when the network detects a peak in the IMS traffic or overload situation in current resources. Figure 6 Example architecture for scaling a MRF The following steps implement the scale out operation: 1. Either an EM or the NFVI communicate performance data to the OSS/BSS. For example the SCSCF communicates that the number of call establishment per second has surpassed a threshold or the MRFB communicates the number of transactions or CPU usage or any other performance measurement to the OSS/BSS layer. 2. The OSS/BSS system notifies the Orchestrator about the event. In this step the split of intelligence is vendor specific. The OSS/BSS may be intelligent enough to decide how to react to the event occurring and ask the Orchestrator to perform a specific action or instead notify the event and let the Orchestrator decide. The later approach is more favorable of complex Orchestrators.
  15. 15. Alberto Diez April 2015 Understanding NFV Management and Orchestration 15 3. The Orchestrator analyzes the event using information from its repositories that model the services and VNFs, current Instances running and resources consumed but also rules describing how to react in such circumstances. For example the Orchestrator can decide, based on rules, that due to the increase in SCSCF call establishments it has to scale out the MRF C+P component but not the SCSCF or MRB or any other components which handle only signaling. 4. Two options possible here depending on the intelligence split between Orchestrator and VNF Manager. The Orchestrator can communicate the VNF Manager responsible for the MRF C+P component that it needs to scale out the system. The Orchestrator could also communicate first with the VIM for reserving resources and then the VNF Manager indicating which resources to use for the scaling out operation. The relevance of these two options is that when there are several VIMs managed by the Orchestrator the VNF Manager may not be able to decide which to use and the Orchestrator, which has a knowledge of end to end service can take a better decision in this regard. 5. The VNF Manager requests the VIM what resources to reserve using templates from its VNF catalog. The resources are communicated as a set of computing, storage, memory requirements and affinity and anti-affinity rules. 6. VIM reserves the resources for the new virtual machine. 7. VNF Manager instantiates the new MRF C+P component in the newly available resource. This includes both installation and initial configuration. 8. Either VNF Manager or Orchestrator can tell the VIM about network resources to allocate for the new component. Traditionally it will be a role of the Orchestrator if it is a forwarding graph associated with the end to end service. It would be the role of the VNF Manager when it refers to the internal VNF networks, for example when MRF C and MRF P are deployed in different virtual machines. 9. As part of the scaling out of the MRF it is necessary to change the configuration of the MRB to start using the newly available system (unless it has auto-discovery features). If what had been scaled out would be an MRB it would necessary to change the configuration of a totally different component, i.e. the SCSCF or AS, and this task would be performed by the Orchestrator since that component could be managed by a different VNF Manager. Since the MRB and MRF C+P probably belong to the same vendor and are managed by the same VNF Manager it is possible that with the message in step 4 in which the Orchestrator requests scaling out the MRF C+P the VNF Manager updates the MRB too. If not the Orchestrator would have to trigger an update in configuration in a different message. 10. The VNF Manager of the MRB updates the configuration to start using the newly instantiated MRF C+P.
  16. 16. Alberto Diez April 2015 Understanding NFV Management and Orchestration 16 Company Landscape This section describes a reduced set of companies actively promoting products in the NFV MANO area. It does not provide a comprehensive list, the information included is highly subjective and based in presentations, webinars, whitepapers and demonstrations during MWC 2015 by the listed companies. For a more comprehensive list of companies active in the NFV spectrum refer to the SDxCentral NFV report from April 20158 . Other companies active in the NFV MANO area are: Huawei, NEC/NetCracker, Nakina, Overture. Canonical Canonical is the company behind the Ubuntu Linux distribution. Compared to other Linux distribution companies Canonical has a very broad focus and customer base and it does not have a large footprint in the telco industry. Still due to their presence in the IT and Enterprise sector they have a competitive OpenStack distribution and have added a flexible orchestration product called Juju. Juju is a flexible engine and GUI that uses recipes called charms to perform lifecycle and configuration management activities automatically. It runs on top of the NFVI (e.g. OpenStack or AWS) and only with Ubuntu based applications, which is a great limitation of an otherwise very interesting proposal that seems to be more relevant to the IT/Enterprise world than to the telco. Canonical is actively partnering with telco equipment vendors to provide a more interesting catalog of telco charms for their products. Ciena Ciena is a company with presence in the packet networking and optical communications business. As others in that business they started early with SDN perceiving that it will significantly affect their strategy. In the same way they had evolved their SDN portfolio to an NFV/SDN portfolio with particular focus in NFV Orchestration. Ciena offers a paradigm shift providing mostly enterprises with a platform that permits deployment of VNFs as a service with associated payment per consumption, similar to generic cloud offerings. It is an interesting offering for some verticals or smaller operators but maybe does not fit current needs of the larger Tier 1s. Cisco tail-f Cisco is well positioned in the orchestration market due to its acquisition of tail-f. tail-f was a Swedish company which gained success with SDN control. tail-f strategy towards SDN favors NETCONF and Yang against other protocols. Yang is used in tail-f NCS/NSO Orchestrator as modeling language and NETCONF as preferred transport. The main offering is a central Orchestrator as a runtime engine with a real-time database including data models for networks, devices and services. Data structures are the key element for configurability in their solution and are described using Yang. 8 https://www.sdxcentral.com/reports/nfv-2015/
  17. 17. Alberto Diez April 2015 Understanding NFV Management and Orchestration 17 After the acquisition, Cisco is still promoting actively tail-f NSO as NFV Orchestration solution. The product provides a model-driven and transactional higher level Orchestrator. Cisco has announced a generic VNF manager as part of the solution which is an interesting development since while major VNF vendors are looking to provide their own VNF Managers many other smaller functions in the operator network may require a programmable generic VNF Manager. Though the product supports multiple protocols, Cisco still evangelizes for the broader application of NETCONF and YANG. As an interesting move, they have released as Open Source the basic version of ConfD which is their management service which other equipment vendors can use for their products. Cyan Cyan is another company coming from the optical communications background which stepped early in the SDN trend and has evolved to provide a well-suited higher level Orchestrator. It combines SDN control and APIs for a complete offering that includes Planet Orchestrate, Planet Operate, Planet View, Planet Inventory and Planet Design. Cyan’s solution claims to be multi-vendor and provides both southbound and northbound APIs. In the southbound interfaces it supports NETCONF/YANG, OpenFLow, SNMP and others. While the product has a more SDN orientation it is not a bad starting point and its adding capabilities in the NFV direction; such efforts have been shown during the Mobile World Congress, where it was presented as the Orchestrator used in a joint test with Telefonica, Brocade, Intel and RedHat9 in which Cyan provided the higher level service orchestration and VNF Management capability and Telefonica the VIM with its OpenMANO solution. Overall Cyan Blue Planet NFV Orchestrator is a competitive solution which has already been selected by CenturyLink as its reference Service Orchestrator10 for enterprise business. HP HP has acknowledged NFV as key for their business. It, of course, affects their servers business but their involvement in OPNFV and new products illustrates a full commitment to NFV. HP has launched Helion11 , their own OpenStack distribution providing their support. Additionally HP offers NFV Director as their Orchestrator, coming from their strong presence in their OSS/BSS area. During the Mobile World Congress 2015 HP and Telefonica issued a press release12 in which they announced working together for the Telefonica UNICA architecture. The most relevant part of the announcement is the commitment of Telefonica for NFV Director as their Orchestrator. In the press-release they adequately refer that NFV Director “implements orchestration functionality in the emerging model from ETSI critical to NFV operation”. While 9 http://pressoffice.telefonica.com/documentos/EndtoEndNFVArchitectureFinal_1.pdf 10 http://www.cyaninc.com/company/news-room/press-releases/2015/centurylink-to-offer-nfv- enhanced-services-to-enterprise-and-smb-customers-with-cyans-blue-planet-#.VTIKIJOuzLU 11 http://www8.hp.com/us/en/hp-news/press-release.html?id=1668354#.VTH99pOuxHA 12 http://www8.hp.com/us/en/hp-news/press-release.html?id=1923363#.VTH_yJOuxHA
  18. 18. Alberto Diez April 2015 Understanding NFV Management and Orchestration 18 it is completely correct and relevant to acknowledge that orchestration is critical for NFV operation (and for the NFV business case); the accent should be in the fact that the “emerging model” is by no mean a fixed standard and NFV Director is another vendor interpretation of what it may be. In particular the HP product offer, as showcased during the MWC, is a re-branding of HP OSS/BSS offerings with little adaptation for NFV. RedHat RedHat is not only one of the older Linux distribution companies but also a well connected partner in the telco equipment vendor landscape. Their experience with the Linux distribution business model and their established partnerships in the telco world has positioned RedHat in an advantageous position for the NFV MANO race. RedHat focuses in the VIM component with its own OpenStack distribution in which they enhance OpenStack with their own volume storage component and with RedHat CloudForms and The Foreman for Management. One of the main value that RedHat delivers is their pre-integration of their platform with a wide set of partners and which particularly in the MANO layer translates into almost all the main actors for VNF Lifecycle Managers and service orchestration. VMWare VMWare was since the beginning very well positioned for NFV since it was the best known brand associated with virtualization. As a traditional proprietary software vendor they are also well positioned to be the first suffering the Linuxification of the business and the violent irruption of Open Source as the new standard. Their hypervisor ESXi is very relevant and well established although increasingly operators favor its Open Source competitor KVM. Their venture with Cisco and EMC for creating a virtualization specific platform: vBlocks had not gained significant adoption and VMWare stepped out of it. In a remarkable twist of events, VMWare announced in February 2015 their own OpenStack distribution changing their approach. The question for the operator no longer is if OpenStack or VMWare technologies for their VIM but instead which version of OpenStack. VMWare taking this step is an effective recognition that OpenStack is the VIM further on and positions VMWare to better compete in the NFV MANO market.
  19. 19. Alberto Diez April 2015 Understanding NFV Management and Orchestration 19 Standards and Protocols ETSI The European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) has been the standard body that has formalized NFV by holding the space for the discussions and publishing the specifications in which service providers and vendors describe its requirements and architecture. Since the first activities in early 2013 it has been clear that Management and Orchestration was of paramount importance for realizing the benefits of NFV, still it took ETSI long to produce their NFV MANO specification due to the complexity. ETSI does not have a mobile network focus and has defined some targeted use cases that include mobile, fixed network, content delivery networks etc. The more diverse input is resulting in a generic and inclusive definition of NFV than what other bodies would have produced. OASIS OASIS is a consortium standardizing information data formats and languages. It is much more relevant in the enterprise and IT world than in the telco environment. In NFV it is relevant since OASIS had been working in standards for cloud computing already before the NFV wave and as a result the TOSCA standard is relevant in the NFV MANO environment. ETSI MANO specifications include TOSCA as an option for representation of deployment of NFV applications and services. IETF IETF is, of course, a very relevant standardization body but did not seem particularly well positioned in the NFV/SDN context where other standardization bodies have taken a place that traditionally IETF would occupy. Particularly, OpenFlow has established itself as a synonymous of the protocol for SDN and it comes from the ONF, an outsider. The predominance of OpenFlow for SDN is not being questioned but IETF protocol NETCONF and modeling language YANG are now, more than before, also perceived as key for SDN, in particular since YANG is used in OpenDaylight. YANG is also winning relevance in the NFV MANO area, since ETSI proposes YANG as a candidate language for modeling its information elements, where it also competes with TOSCA from OASIS. With the Service Functions Chaining (SFC)13 track, IETF is also becoming relevant in one of the most predominant use cases of SDN for MNOs in the short-term. The SFC approach is not substitutive of OpenFlow but it requires a control protocol for transmitting configuration to the network elements which in the SFC construct could be the standard 3GPP Policy Control protocols, very much inline with the position of telco equipment vendors; OpenFlow for a more SDN view or NETCONF and YANG in a possible fully IETF SDN scenario. So while SFC does not substitute OpenFlow it re-allocates IETF at the center of SDN and positions OpenFlow as one possible option, but not necessarily the most adequate for all use cases. 13 https://datatracker.ietf.org/wg/sfc/documents/
  20. 20. Alberto Diez April 2015 Understanding NFV Management and Orchestration 20 ONF The Open Networking Foundation is active since 2011 and has managed to establish OpenFlow as a synonym of SDN. ONF is working actively in advancing OpenFlow specifications and adding features and use cases. They also organize plug-fests and certifications for OpenFlow devices. With the current maturity achieved by OpenFlow, the acknowledgement that SDN value exceeds that of OpenFlow and the attention attracted by NFV; ONF is shifting its focus in promoting a more advanced, open, multi-player and inclusive SDN. OpenFlow OpenFlow is a protocol for controlling the forwarding table of network elements: routers and switches. OpenFlow is specified by the Open Networking Foundation. Beside its reduced initial scope it has been often considered as the key element of SDN. Many vendors of switches and networking elements support OpenFlow today and the protocol is adding features to broaden its applicability with extensions to forwarding tables manipulation. OpenFlow relevance for NFV MANO is in the overlap between NFV and SDN, that is when the SDN Controller is part of the MANO elements. OpenDayLight is the Open Source SDN controller of preference and provides OpenFlow support as its main southbound interface. SFC Service Functions Chaining (SFC) is a recent working group from IETF creating new protocol extensions to cover one of the most prominent SDN use cases. SFC defines an architecture and protocol extension (NSH Network Service Header) to create network overlays that decouple the service path from the network topology. It requires a network control element to provision the NSH and its meaning in all the elements in the path. SFC defines the transport protocol extensions and analyzes its applicability in both the Data Center environment and the Mobile Network Operator architecture but does not define the control protocol used for provisioning and configuration of the elements which can be OpenFlow, NETCONF/YANG or PCRF steered. TOSCA OASIS TOSCA is a format for describing applications deployment templates. An application deployment template is a data structure that represents the deployment of a VNF and its basic lifecycle operations, like install, reinstall, start, stop restart etc. It also provides means to describe initial configuration. TOSCA is based on YAML and can also describe a service as a set of VNFs and the forwarding graph necessary for it. TOSCA is applicable in the three layers of MANO as a standard way to communicate application and service deployment data with resource abstraction and independence. TOSCA has many competitors in the interface between VNF Manager and VIM like HOT format (from OpenStack), Charms (from Canonical Juju) and CloudFormation (Amazon Web Services). Also YANG is being perceived as a possible competitor to TOSCA.
  21. 21. Alberto Diez April 2015 Understanding NFV Management and Orchestration 21 TOSCA limits its applicability to deployment of VNFs and services realized of VNFs and there is a debate whether YANG is better suited for NFV MANO since it supports hybrid environments and runtime configurability which is key in NFV/SDN. Ultimately it is possible to use both: TOSCA for the deployment templates and NETCONF/YANG for runtime configuration and orchestration14 . YANG YANG is the IETF choice for declarative modeling language. It is human readable, extensible and can represent both configuration and state. YANG can be used to describe VNF or services deployment templates as well as runtime configuration needs. YANG has won success in the networking space enabling network programmability and SDN. While it is applicable for both physical and virtual appliances, YANG is interesting in NFV Orchestration as a modeling language for templates and state. It is a key asset of an intelligent orchestrator to have a powerful modeling language in order to keep complexity under control. NETCONF NETCONF is a management protocol from IETF that uses a simple remote procedure call based mechanism to configure remote devices. It can be used for configuration management, performance management etc. In the long-term NETCONF is meant to replace SNMP. NETCONF provides a well defined protocol for management APIs and remote programmability of network devices. It provides transactions support, feature discovery, data model independence and discovery etc. It is IETF’s answer to the spread of REST based APIs in network element management APIs. While REST is easy to understand, it does not provide a formal protocol and many required features are built on top in proprietary ways in each implementation. In NFV Orchestration, NETCONF is only relevant as the most convenient transport for YANG although it is only one of the possible transports. 14 http://www.tail-f.com/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2015/02/HR-Cisco-ALU-TOSCA-YANG-WP-2- 17-15.pdf
  22. 22. Alberto Diez April 2015 Understanding NFV Management and Orchestration 22 Open Source Projects OPNFV OPNFV is a community project of the Linux Foundation created with the purpose of advancing NFV and creating a reference implementation of ETSI NFV architecture. OPNFV foundation follows the emergence of OpenStack as the VIM for NFV and the increasing role of OpenDaylight project as SDN Controller. Observed from the outside, there was a need for collaboration for those two projects and the many other Open Source initiatives (e.g. vSwitch, libvirt, OVS). The interest of telco operators in bringing NFV triggered the creation of OPNFV. Operators first understood that to realize the service deployment agility that NFV promised with a positive business case they depend fully in the MANO and control layer; and only then they realized that their carrier-grade requirements where not being considered by the key projects in those areas. OPNFV role is to be the forum where telco service providers bring in their requirements for OpenStack and OpenDaylight. Topics like pre-integration, interoperability and testing have been in the scope of mobile operators; but other participants also benefit from the establishment of test-beds and it is foreseen that the overall community will benefit from OPNFV as an open platform for innovation. Initial focus is the VIM in MANO layer and its interfaces. OPNFV does foresee commercial distributions and implementations and contributions back to ETSI15 . OpenStack OpenStack is a public and private cloud manager tool that is increasingly recognized as the Virtual Infrastructure Manager for NFV. OpenStack is free and Open Source developed with the key openness principles that characterize the free software community. It is widely used in IT cloud environments. OpenStack architecture comprises compute, networking and storage control elements and supporting shared services like a dashboard, authentication and identity management component and an orchestration component (Heat) etc. All OpenStack elements expose REST APIs for automated programmability. Its usage in telco industry is being fostered by the OPNFV project and the emergence of OpenStack distributions supported and pre-integrated; much like Linux distributions have contributed to the spread of Linux. OpenStack plays an undisputable role in NFV MANO since even VMWare, who would have been a competitor, has included its own OpenStack distribution as part of its VIM solution. 15 https://www.opnfv.org/sites/opnfv/files/pages/files/opnfv_whitepaper_103014.pdf
  23. 23. Alberto Diez April 2015 Understanding NFV Management and Orchestration 23 OpenDaylight OpenDaylight is a Linux Foundation project for an open source SDN Controller. It provides a flexible control engine with REST and OSGi northbound interfaces and permits several southbound plugins beside the different versions of OpenFlow. OpenDaylight provides means for network topology management etc. OpenDaylight uses YANG extensively internally and while it is very rich in it support of versions and features of OpenFlow it also supports NETCONF as southbound interface. Since the last version OpenDaylight can be tightly integrated with OpenStack providing management of the network resources within the Virtual Infrastructure Manager. Brocade16 has already released a commercial product based in OpenDaylight and combines it with its professional services offers and technical support. OpenDaylight project plans support for SFC as part of its core control capabilities, although currently it is not complete. OpenMANO OpenMANO is project released by Telefonica R&D department that comprises a VIM and an Orchestrator. It has been used by Telefonica in a proof-of-concept17 announced and showcased at the Mobile World Congress. OpenMANO, as of today, is a very basic implementation not suitable for commercial deployment but as with Open Source projects the situation may change quickly. It may turn interesting if they focus in the orchestration capabilities and give up the VIM component which is well covered by OPNFV, OpenStack and OpenDaylight. 16 http://www.brocade.com/downloads/documents/data_sheets/product_data_sheets/brocade-vyatta- controller-ds.pdf 17 http://www.ietf.org/proceedings/92/slides/slides-92-nfvrg-7.pdf
  24. 24. Alberto Diez April 2015 Understanding NFV Management and Orchestration 24 Bibliography and References Most relevant sources of information about MANO used: [1] ETSI NFV portal http://www.etsi.org/technologies-clusters/technologies/nfv [2] SDx Central NFV Report 2015 https://www.sdxcentral.com/reports/nfv-2015/ [3] OPNFV https://www.opnfv.org/news-resources/publications-collateral [4] OpenStack https://www.openstack.org/ [5] OpenDaylight http://www.opendaylight.org/ [6] IETF SFC https://datatracker.ietf.org/wg/sfc/documents/ [7] OASIS TOSCA https://www.oasis-open.org/committees/tosca/ [8] IETF RFC 6020 - YANG https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc6020 [9] IETF RFC 6241 – NETCONF https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc6241 Acronyms MANO – Management and Orchestration MNO – Mobile Network Operator NFV – Network Functions Virtualization PCRF – Policy and Charging Rules Functions SDN – Software Defined Network SFC – Service Functions Chaining VNF – Virtual Network Function

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