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SCWS LATAM 2016- Integrating Small Cells & Wi-Fi: Co-existence in unlicensed spectrum


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Intends to bring in discussion of benefits and challenges of usage unlicensed spectrum in LTE SmallCells , providing an overview about all candidate technologies and introducing their advantages and constraints.

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SCWS LATAM 2016- Integrating Small Cells & Wi-Fi: Co-existence in unlicensed spectrum

  1. 1. Integrating Small Cells & Wi-Fi: Co-existence in unlicensed spectrum Network Technology Strategy Department Alberto Boaventura 2016-03-14 Rio de Janeiro – Brazil March 15th, 2016
  2. 2. Traffic Reveue Voice Data Changes ... Rapid and consistent mobile broadband consolidation, doubling year over year, will bring a tsunami of data traffic, representing in 2020 1000x of the traffic in 2010. Mobile Data Traffic Dozens of billions of connected devices foreseen by industry (GSMA, Ovum, MachinaResearch etc.) on upcoming decade. Internet of Things All customer requirements are not equal. It is worthwhile to discover which attributes of a product or service are more important to the customer. Negative perception of services is the major reasons for changing of service provider Customer Experience Main broadband dilemma: Traffic and Revenue decoupling. It brings a continuous research for cost effective and affordable solutions. Traffic & Revenue 1000x
  3. 3. ...Challenges More Spectrum: Licensed, Shared or Unlicensed New Technology New Cell Site Spectral Efficiency Spatial Efficiency Interference Control Resource Management More Capacity More Elasticity More Resiliency More Granularity Low latency Self Organized Synchronization Service and Network State Awareness Network Slicing Architecture Evolution Multiple technologies and costs Service, technology and spectrum balancing Device subsidy Spectrum refarming Lifecycle Management + vs vs ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 256QAM
  4. 4. Why SmallCells?
  5. 5. High Density Traffic 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 0,0 Mbps/km2 500,0 Mbps/km2 1000,0 Mbps/km2 1500,0 Mbps/km2 2000,0 Mbps/km2 0,250 km0,350 km0,450 km0,550 km DOWNTOWN: HIGH DENSITY TRAFFIC Coverage Radius Capacity 2015 Capacity 2016 Capacity 2017 A +63% C D +61% +54% B Green line represents the system capacity density. The capacity associated to coverage grid can capture the demand from 2013 till 2014 – Point A; However, for 2015 it is needed to increase 63% the number of sites, changing the exiting grid – Point B; In 2016 and 2017, they require more 61% and 54% more sites respectivelly; In that time, SmallCells are more appropriated infrastructure to save CapEx and OpEx; TECHNOLOGY ALTERNATIVES AND TOTAL COST OWNERSHIP $$$ $$$ $$$ $$$ $$$ $$$ 1 x 3 x 5 x 7 x 9 x 2600 MHz (10) +1800 MHz (5) +1800 MHz (10) SmallCell 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 Legend Notes: 2600 MHz (10) : Basic Scenario; +1800 MHz (5): Additional 5 MHz using 1800 MHz in Basic Scenario coverage; +1800 (10): Same as above, but using 10 MHz; SmallCell: SmallCell using 2600 MHz with 10 MHz for bandwidth; X BASIC SCENARIO COVERAGE CAPACITY TCO  A B C Indifference between Macro 1800 & 2600 MHz Macro LTE 1800 MHz for coverage Dual layer Macro LTE 1800 & 2600 MHz 181 265 890 SmallCell 2600 MHz 𝑴𝒃𝒑𝒔 𝒌𝒎 𝟐  P: BASIC SCENARIO COVERAGE CAPACITY P  DEMANDS DOWNTOWN DEMAND: HIGH DENSITY TRAFFIC 
  6. 6. Magnitude of SmallCells 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 1 M 2 M 3 M 4 M 5 M 6 M 7 M 8 M 9 M 10 M SmallCells Macro Base Stations Source: Mobile Experts 2015 RAN Deployments In Millions of UnitsCost in USD per Mbps LTE Macrocell LTE SmallCell $1 k $ 2k $ 3k $ 4k $ 5k $ 6k $ 7k Source: Mobile Experts 2015 8 year OpEx/Mbps CapEx/Mbps According to Mobile Experts, a new cell site can cost roughly 10 times more for a macro site, compared to a small cell site, due: Hardware; Software; Site Acquisition & Infrastructure. In 2020, SmallCells represent more than 9 times Macro Base Station deployments.
  7. 7.  Site aquisition: Given the limitation on the scope of the small cell, you have to know exactly where the traffic is generated and get the rights to install that exact spot.  New types of leases/contracts should be developed.  The expectation for the installation of Small scale is Cells that are an order of magnitude greater than the macro cells .  Visual Polution: Due a number of SmallCells, the shape and format may impact in acceptance to install in building and public facilities.  Small cell radius of coverage is reduced compared to macro, it is necessary to locate accurately the traffic sources;  The installation of small cell (site acquisition) occurs with small error regarding the location planned.  Heterogeneous RF planning requires how traffic will be handled by each layer.  For maximum result from the limited range making the reuse of the spectrum.  Spectrum reuse requires a plan of distribution of the cells very well done.  Capillarity: Requires 10-100x more POPs than macro site network  IP Access (MPLS-TP, Metro Eth, MDU) , Giga- Ether over 150 Mbps per BTS  Required necessarily optical fiber, but Multi- Point to Multi-Point Radio can be alternative for higher capillarity  Frequency and time synchronization (IEEE 1588)  e-ICIC requires synchronism deviation around 1.5 s.  For CoMP, latency must be below 1 ms  New interface other than IP: CPRI Backhaul & Fronthaul Pain Points  Downlink: Terminal camped on in macro is interfered by a small cell. And terminal served by a small cell to connect the edge of cell will be interfered by the macro cell.  Uplink: one terminal connected in macro and close to the cell border creates strong interference in close small cell. And large number of connected terminals in small cells generate uplink interference in the macro cell.  They both are addressed with sofisticated mechanisms like ICIC, e-ICIC, Fe-ICIC, and CoMP Interference Mitigation  Mobility device in idle state impacts the relative load between layers and battery consumption and frequency of handovers.  Increase in handovers due to the small size of the cells increases the risk of dropped calls (Dropped Call Rate),  Devices in connected state may need to HO to a small cell and, if they are on different frequencies, will need efficient scheme discovery of small cell that minimizes the impact on battery consumption.  Traffic/Capacity balancing with several resources and frequencies Mobility Management Planning Deployment and Rollout  The range in the number of radio stations in the layer of Small Cells should be an order of magnitude larger than the current one.  The way to optimize and operate should fit depending less manual intervention.  Resources SON (Self Organizing Networks) will be important to maintain a good performance.  Service Availability: Internal battery must be required for accomplishing service SLA requirements.  The licensing cost has recently been solved, but it was a big barrier for SmallCells deployment. Operation
  8. 8. Recent Regulation Advances in Brazil Ownership Restricted Radiation Tax exemption LAW 13.116/2015 (ANTENNA’S LAW)LAW 13.097/2015 (ART 134 SMALLCELL)RESOLUTION 624/2013 (FEMTOCELL) (Art 3r) Femtocell is considered a network element, accessory to Mobile Operator and It is forbidden the use for the private network establishment (Art. 4) Femtocell is a restricted radiation and operates on a secondary basis in frequency bands. The maximum power measured at the transmitter output can not be greater than 1 Watt. (Art 5) It is exempt from licensing for installation and operation, subject to any licensing required by regulation for the interfaces related to your data connection to the Mobile Operator. < 5 W (0%) (Art 134 §4rth) Tax exemption for base stations, and repeaters whose power maximum peak measured at the transmitter output, not exceeding 5 W . 5-10 W (10%) (Art 134 §5rth) Base stations and repeaters with power from 5 W and 10 W affect the installation inspection fees equal to 10% of the amounts applicable to the other base stations and repeaters. > 10 W (100%) (Art 134) Remainder base stations have full tax (Art. 1) This law establishes general rules concerning the licensing process, installation and telecommunications infrastructure sharing, in order to make it consistent with the socioeconomic development of the country. Scope (Art.2) Promote investment in telecommunications infrastructure by: standardization; simplification ; speeding up procedures; license granting criteria; minimization of urban, and environmental impacts; increase network capacity; encourage infrastructure sharing; Etc. Motivation & Goals (Art. 7) The licenses will be issued by simplified procedure. The deadline for issuance of any license may not exceed sixty (60) days from the date the application is made. Deadline for License Issued Sharing (Art. 14) It is mandatory to share the excess capacity of the supporting infrastructure, except where justified technical reason. SmallCell License Exemption (Art. 10) The law exempts small cells from licenses, but their installation in urban areas will be subject to future regulation.
  9. 9. Why Unlicensed?
  10. 10. Source: SmallCells Forum Indoor Environment Frequency under 1 GHz has a good Indoor propagation. But lack bandwidth for capturing mobile broadband traffic. 90 MHz 150 MHz 200 MHz 500 MHz 13 GHz 700 MHz 1800 MHz 3500 MHz 5800 MHz (LTE-U) mmWave INDOOR TRAFFIC TRAFFIC DENSITY BUILDING PENETRATION LOSS 0,0 dB 10,0 dB 20,0 dB 700 MHz 900 MHz 1800 MHz 2100 MHz 2600 MHz INDOOR LOST PERFORMANCE MACRO SITE DENSITY FOR INDOOR COMPENSATION 39% 32% 14% 4% 11% In Car At Home At Work Travelling Others 0 bps/Hz 4 bps/Hz 8 bps/Hz 12 bps/Hz -130 dBm -110 dBm -90 dBm 3GPP (LTE) Shannon OutdoorIndoor -50% 50% of voice traffic and 80% of data traffic are performed in indoor environment; Building Penetration Loss varies around 10-20 dB, that reduces at minimum of 50% overall performance of outdoor macro sites; FREQUENCY DILEMMA 0 300 600 900 0,25 km0,30 km0,35 km0,40 km0,45 km0,50 km Indoor Outdoor 219% High Concentration Traffic Low dense data traffic. It is dispersed in coverage area Indoor Environment Outdoor Environment The indoor traffic density can be thousand times higher than outdoor. For instance, in stadium & arenas, the number of persons per km2 can reach 1 Million! If all persons upload video with 64 kbps, it represents 64 Gbps/km2 2600 MHz (10 MHz) Graphs Better propagation Outdoor Coverage Radius Building Penetration Loss varies in each frequency. Lowest frequency has better propagation behavior. New Radius for increasing capacity Bandwidth Voice Originating Call Amount of Bandwidth Mbps/km2 RSRP 
  11. 11. Brazil Korea China Japan US EU 5470 5150 5250 5825 5875 5650 5725 5350 Indoor 23 dBm 565 MHz Indoor/Outdoor 30 dBm 325 MHz 455 MHz Indoor/Outdoor 30 dBm Indoor/Outdoor 30 dBm Indoor/Outdoor 27 dBm Indoor/Outdoor 30 dBm 455 MHz Indoor/Outdoor 30 dBm Restricted Radiation (200 mW) Restricted Radiation (1W) ISM 530 MHz 350 MHz Indoor 30 dbm Indoor/Outdoor 30 dBm Indoor 23 dbm Indoor 23 dBm Indoor 17 dbm Indoor 27 dBm Indoor 17 dbm Indoor 23 dBm Indoor 23 dbm Why Unlicensed Spectrum? Abundance of unlicensed spectrum below 6 GHz – around 800 MHz; Unlicensed spectrum is available on a global basis with very similar band plans, that is worldwide harmonized; < 6 GHz preferred due to path loss; 5.8 GHz is preferable because 2.4 GHz most crowded with existing WiFi and bluetooth; Residential wireless LAN also uses the lower end of the 5 GHz band; Band 46 (LTE-U Band 252 – UNII-1/255 –UNII-3) defined in 3GPP Release 13. WORLD SPECTRUM FORECAST ITU-R M.2078 projection for the global spectrum requirements in order to accomplish the IMT-2000 future development, IMT-Advanced, in 2020. 531 MHz 749 MHz 971 MHz 749 MHz 557 MHz 723 MHz 997 MHz 723 MHz 587 MHz 693 MHz 1027 MHz 693 MHz Region 1 Region 2 Region 3 R$ 25,15 R$ 13,50 R$ 100,00 2100 MHz (*) 2600 MHz 700 MHz Source: Anatel Minimum price in Real per Hz for Brazilian country wide spectrum (*) Valores para a banda F LICENSED SPECTRUM COST (in MHz) TOTAL OF ALLOCATED SPECTRUM Source: GSMA The Mobile Economy 2014 ADVANTAGES FOR UNLICENSED SPECTRUM Source: 3GPP TR 36.889/ TS 36.101/TS 36.104 Rel 13 634 450 415 350 300 282 210 Source: ITU-R (in MHz) UNII-1 UNII-3/ISMUNII-2 UNII-2
  12. 12. How to use Unlicensed Spectrum? Internet WAG ePDG 3GPP AAA ANDSF EPC LTE Wi-Fi Based on interface standardized (Xw) in 3GPP Rel.13 which allows PDCP splitting/combining capabilities (wi-fi channel reporting, aggregation and scheduling) in eNB and UE. eNB and AP enhanced for supporting Xw interface Requires a new way (EAP-LWA) for authentication; AP encapsulates LTE PDCP datagrams in 802.11 MAC frames for transmission over the air Supports co-located (integrated, dual-mode smallcell) and non co-located deployments InternetEPC LTE Wi-Fi Xw PHY MAC PHY MAC S1 RLC PDCP Tunnel Xw AP eNB S1 PHY MAC WLAN Preferred LWA (LTE and Wi-Fi Link Aggregation) LTE-U LAA MuLTEFire InternetEPC LTE+ LTE-U/LAA MuLTEFire ... ... Freq. 20 MHz Channels Clear Channel Framework being developed since the first release of LTE, based on I-WLAN and non 3GPP Access standards; Complex integration, requiring new network elements, for e2e service support, including: authentication; voice services and handover; All current deployment (network and devices) are based on or evolving to this implementation; Consists to use unlicensed 5GHz spectrum for LTE Carriers. Introduced in 3GPP Rel. 12 targeting only USA, China and Korea mobile operators and coexistence market requirements: LTE-U; LTE-U only boots downlink; LAA ( Licensed Assisted Access) enhances LTE-U by using LBT (Listen Before Talking) in order to comply with worldwide wi-fi coexistence requirements. MuLTEFire is a new technologies that promises to compete with wi-fi technology, not requiring mobile operator support;
  13. 13. What is LTE-U/LAA/MuLTEFire? LTE-U LAA eLAA On Dec 2013 (3GPP RAN#62) introduced by Qualcomm & Ericsson for using LTE as SDL in 5725- 5850 MHz, primarily in USA; Based on Release 12, supported by LTE-U Forum; Uses as mechanism for coexistence CSAT (Carrier Sensing Adaptive Transmission) or Duty Cycle; CSAT is enough for specific markets, such as USA, but it s a controversial fair coexistence mechanism, bringing a lot of discussions and new test initiatives; SDL only; Chipset and products already available; They use unlicensed spectrum (5 GHz) in: TD-LTE, LTE CA (Carrier Aggregation) or SDL (Supplemental Downlink) with licensed band in a fair coexistence with remainder technologies. PCell Scell PDCCH/PDSCH/PUSCH PDCCH/PDSCH/PUSCH/PUCCH Licensed Unlicensed + Carrier Aggregation & Supplemental Downlink 500 MHz Wi-Fi and LTE-U/LAA Coexistence Dynamically select a clear channel based on interference ... ... Freq. 20 MHz Channels Clear Channel Carrier Sensing Adaptive Transmission (CSAT) for coexistence with Wi-Fi for non-LBT regions – US/Korea/China TimeLTE off LTE on ~100 ms long gap Adaptative o/off dutty cycle with CSAT depending on channel utilization Time ~1-10 ms with Listen Before Talk Sensing channel availability Optimized LTE waveform targering 3GPP R13 to meet regulatory requirements for LBT (Listen Before Talking) regions e.g. EU, Japan Release unlicensed channel when the traffic load is becoming low. Falling back to licensed band only. Approved on Sep 2014 (3GPP RAN #65) supported by 40 companies; SI (RP-141817) scope covers both SDL and CA; Overall industry positive expectation around LBT (Listen Before Talking) as coexistence mechanism with Wi-Fi. Being standardized in 3GPP release 13 for completion 1H 2016; Band 46 defined for Unlicesed; Chipset available this year; Enhanced functionalities will be introduced in Release 14. LTE-U&LAALAAOnly 3GPPNon 3GPP MuLTE Fire
  14. 14. Why there still exist concerns around LTE Unlicensed? 802.11 Medium Access: CSMA/CA CSAT (Carrier Sensing Adaptive Transmission) perform clear channel selection; Duty Cycle is a repeating on/off pattern; Duty Cycle Period defines how often the pattern repeats (usually in milliseconds); Duty Cycle Percentage is the fraction of the period that LTE is turned on; LTE OnLTE On Duty Cycle Period Wi-Fi can access gaps when LTE is off. LTE Off Duty Cycle % of cycle LTE is active LTE OnLTE On Hold off when detecting other user per LBT LTE Off Adaptative “ON” 1-10ms based on load – same as CSAT Sensing Channel availability per LBT Every 20s per CCA (Clear Channel Announcement) Sense every 20s and decrement random counter before transmitting per extended CCA Extended CCA Q X 20s CCA 20s LAA senses the channel every 20 microseconds, and if free, occupies it for the next 1 - 10 milliseconds, the time can be set for dynamic utilization similar to CSAT; If the channel is busy, it waits for a specific amount of time, based on a randomized counter (per LBT regulations), and then senses the channel again — and so on; In this manner, both LTE and Wi-Fi share the channel “fairly.”; Contention Based medium access; A station senses the channel to prior to initiate a transmission; Each station must wait at least DIFS for sending new packet; If the medium is busy the station defers its transmission until the end of the current transmission; Then it will wait an additional DIFS interval and generate a random backoff delay uniformly chosen in the range [0,W − 1]; ContentionMedium Busy Next Frame DIFS DIFS PIFS SIFS Direct access if medium is free  DIFS Contending: the station is contending the channel by running down its backoff counter LTE-U: Coexistence based on CSAT LAA: Coexistence based on CSAT+LBT
  15. 15. Preferred Wi-Fi/LWA vs LTE-U/LAA/MuLTEFire WI-FI HAS A HUGE MARKET PENETRATION Wi-Fi carries more traffic than cellular networks. In the last 15 years, Wi-Fi data rates have advanced from 11 Mbps to exceed 1 Gbps – and continued innovation will deliver Wi-Fi data rates exceeding 5 Gbps within a few short years. WI-FI HAS A CONTINUOUS INNOVATION PATH 802.11g 802.11n 802.11ad 802.11ac 2003 2009 2013 300Mbps 2.4 GHz 54 Mbps 2.4 GHz 1-7 Gbps 5 GHz-60 GHz 802.11ax +2018 >10 Gbps 2.4-5 GHz 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 54% 46% Cellular Traffic Offload Traffic Source: Cisco VNI 2014 According to ABI Research, indicates that at the end of 2014, 9.98 billion Wi-Fi devices had been sold worldwide and that about 4.5 billion W-Fi are in use today LTE-U provides better performance than carrier Wi-Fi. 10-25 dB in link budget gain Higher capacity combined with a unified LTE network means cost savings to operators, in terms of network deployment, operation and management. PERFORMANCE COMPARISON 4,4 x 4,1 x 1,0 x 0,4 x LTE LTE Coex. Wi-Fi Wi-Fi Coex Source: IEEE Communications Magazine November 2014 2.4 GHz is the predominant band for wi-fi hotspots, but 802.11ac in 5 GHz is becoming poppular. USES 2.4 VS 5 GHZ 4 3 2 1 0 2010 2012 2014 2016 2018 Tri-band: ad (60), ac (5), n (2.4) Dual-band: ac (5) & n (2.4 ) Dual-band: n (2.4 &5) Single-band: n (2.4 ) Source: ABI Research Chipset shipments in billion Preferred Wi-Fi/LWA LTE-U/LAA/MuLTEFire eICIC CoMP Coherent transm. & Non-Coherent transm. X2 ABS Protected Subframe Aggressor Cell Victim Cell X2 FEATURES FOR HIGH CELLSITE DENSITY High density traffic can be only addressed by SmallCells. But it brings a new challenge to handle interference. Algorithms standardized in LTE , such as e-ICIC and CoMP satisfactory solve/mitigate this problem . SAME TECHNOLOGY Single network and need only eNB update Enables operators to realize full LTE-A potential Carrier-grade security, reliability and QoS Seamless Indoor / Outdoor Mobility Internet WAG ePDG 3GPP AAA ANDSF EPC LTE Wi-Fi 
  16. 16. What we are doing?
  17. 17. Rural Suburban Urban Dense Urban Ultra Dense Urban & Indoor Individual satellite access or Satellite Backhaul. Residential & Enterprise Wi-Fi 3G HSPA Macro LTE 2600 MHz (Anatel Obligation) Residential, Enterprise & corporate Wi-Fi Indoor DAS 3G HSPA densification Macro LTE 2600 MHz densification Residential, Enterprise & corporate Wi-Fi Metro Wi-Fi Wi-Fi Public Payphone Indoor DAS 3G HSPA densification Macro LTE 2600 MHz densification Residential, Enterprise & corporate Wi-Fi Metro Wi-Fi Wi-Fi Public Payphone Indoor DAS 3G HSPA densification Macro LTE 2600 MHz densification Macro Cell Site LTE 450 MHz or 1800 MHz Residential & Enterprise Wi-Fi 3G HSPA Femtocell for 3G indoor coverage & voice offload SmallCell to indoor Macro LTE 1800 MHz for traffic below 181 Mbps/km2 Res., Enter. & corp.Wi-Fi Femtocell for 3G SmallCell to indoor & outdoor Hetnet Metro Wi-Fi (802.11ac) Wi-Fi Public Payphone Indoor DAS 3G HSPA densification Macro LTE 2600 MHz densification Dual Frequency Layer LTE for load balancing or CA Res., Enter. & corp.Wi-Fi Femtocell for 3G SmallCell & LWA to indoor & outdoor Hetnet Metro Wi-Fi (802.11ac) Wi-Fi Public Payphone Indoor DAS 3G HSPA densification Multi-sector Macro & LTE 2600 MHz densification Dual Frequency Layer LTE for load balancing or CA Res., Enter. & corp.Wi-Fi (802.11ad) Femtocell for 3G Indoor & outdoor SmallCells LWA Cloud RAN & Hetnet Metro Wi-Fi (802.11ac) Wi-Fi Public Payphone Indoor DAS 3G HSPA densification High Order MIMO/FD-MIMO Multi sector Macro & LTE 2600 MHz densification Multiple Frequency Layer LTE for load balancing or CA Macro Cell Site LTE 450 MHz or 1800 MHz Wi-Fi 802.11af (TVWS) – M2M Residential & Enterprise Wi-Fi 3G HSPA Femtocell for 3G indoor coverage & voice offload SmallCell to indoor Macro LTE 1800 MHz for traffic below 181 Mbps/km2 Res., Enter. & corp.Wi-Fi Femtocell for 3G SmallCell to indoor & outdoor Hetnet Metro Wi-Fi (802.11ac) Wi-Fi Public Payphone Multiple Frequency Layer LTE for load balancing or CA Res., Enter. & Corp. Wi-Fi Metro Wi-Fi (802.11ax -HEW) SmallCell LAA indoor Wi-Fi Public Payphone Cloud RAN & HetNet High Order MIMO/FD-MIMO Multi sector Macro & Multiple Frequency Layer LTE for load balancing or CA Res., Enter. & Corp. Wi-Fi (802.11ad), SmallCell LAA indoor Metro Wi-Fi (802.11ax -HEW) Wi-Fi Public Payphone Cloud RAN & HetNet High Order MIMO/FD-MIMO Multi sector Macro & Multiple Frequency Layer LTE for load balancing or CA Coverage & Capacity Strategy Example Short Term Mid Term Long Term 𝑴𝒃𝒑𝒔 𝒌𝒎 𝟐 Macro <1 GHz Macro Mddle Freq. Macro High Freq. SmallCell/Wi-FI
  18. 18. Oi Wi-Fi Initiatives for High Traffic Capturing 2011: Oi signed up partnership with FON. 2011: Oi started tests with pilot using public payphone as access point. 2012+: Oi deploys Carrier Wi-Fi in hotspot in main Brazilian cities 2010/2011: Oi bought Vex, the biggest Wi-Fi operator in Brasil Backhaul RESTAURANT WAG S11 PCRF HLR/HSS OCS/ OFCS Internet S5 S-GW P-GW MME IMS Gx RxS6a SGi Gy/Gz Sy Ro/Rf Sh Sp 3GPP AAA Wp/S2a Wa/Wg Evolved Packet Core FON Core Network AAA Fonera Others Wx IP VPN Source: Teleco Mar/2015 Oi is leader of Wi-Fi coverage in Brazil and on Mar/2015 had over 1 million of hotspots! Vex Box Enterprise corporate Residential ADSL modem with Wi-Fi All equipment remotely powered through twisted cupper cable 1,018,466 3.503 2.056 799 175 160 Oi Net LINKTEL TIM Vivo Others
  19. 19. Alberto Boaventura ¡GRACIAS! THANKS! OBRIGADO!