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Lte 5 g latim america 2017 what ran and small cell developments will make 5g a reality - alberto boaventura v1.0

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Brings the discussion about benefits of SmallCells in order for capturing high density traffic. Also, presents new 5G architecture and technologies for high capacity supporting, such as: mmWave support; massive MIMO; beamforming; New Radio Design; virtualization in the edge;

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Lte 5 g latim america 2017 what ran and small cell developments will make 5g a reality - alberto boaventura v1.0

  1. 1. LTE 5G LATIM AMERICA 2017 Diretoria de Tecnologia e Plataformas Ger. Estratégia Tecnologica e Integração de Serviços What RAN and Small Cell Developments Will Make 5G a Reality? Alberto Boaventura
  2. 2. Traffic Reveue Voice Data Changes ... Rapid and consistent mobile broadband consolidation, doubling year over year, will bring a tsunami of data traffic, representing in 2020 1000x of the traffic in 2010. Mobile Data Traffic Dozens of billions of connected devices foreseen by industry (GSMA, Ovum, MachinaResearch etc.) on upcoming decade. Internet of Things All customer requirements are not equal. It is worthwhile to discover which attributes of a product or service are more important to the customer. Negative perception of services is the major reasons for changing of service provider Customer Experience Main broadband dilemma: Traffic and Revenue decoupling. It brings a continuous research for cost effective and affordable solutions. Flat Revenue 1000x
  3. 3. ...Challenges More Spectrum: Licensed, Shared or Unlicensed; New Technology; New Cell Site; Spectral Efficiency; Spatial Efficiency; Interference Control; Capacity & Resource Management More Capacity; More Elasticity; More Resiliency; More Granularity; Low latency; Self Organized; Synchronization; Service and Network State Awareness; Network Slicing; Architecture Evolution Multiple technologies and costs; Service, technology and spectrum balancing; Device subsidy; Spectrum refarming; Lifecycle Management + vs vs ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 256QAM
  4. 4. Next Generation Mobile Network (NGMN) 5G Vision USE CASES BUSINESS MODEL VALUE CREATION Asset Provider Connectivity Provider Partner Service Provider XaaS; IaaS; NaaS; PaaS Network Sharing Basic Connectivity Enhanced Connectivity Operator Offer Enriched by Partner Parter Offer Enriched by Operator Broadband Access in Dense Areas Broadband Access Everywhere Higher User Mobility Massive Internet of Things Extreme Real-Time Communications Lifeline Communications Ultra-reliable Communications Broadcast-like Services HIGH RELIABLE AND FLEXIBLE NETWORK SERVICEEXPERIENCETRUST Security Identity Privacy RealTime Seamless Personalized Interaction& Charging QoS Context “5G is an end-to-end ecosystem to enable a fully mobile and connected society. It empowers value creation towards customers and partners, through existing and emerging use cases, delivered with consistent experience, and enabled by sustainable business models” Requirements Attribute 3GPP Release 12 NGMN Requiremnents Data rate per user Up to 100 Mbps on average Peaks of 600 Mbps (Cat11/12) > 10 X expected on average and peak rates > 100 X expected on cell edge End-toend latency 10 ms for two-way RAN (pre- scheduled) Typically up to 50 ms e2e I > 10X (smaller) Mobility Functional up to 350 km/h No support for civil aviation > 1,5 X Spectral Efficiency DL: 0,074-6,1 bps/Hz UL: 0.07-4.3 bps/Hz Pushing for substantial increase Connection Density 2000 Active Users/km2 > 100 X
  5. 5. ITU Vision for 5G Attribute IMT Adavanced (4G) IMT 2020 (5G) Peak Data Rate DL: 1 Gbps UL: 0.05 Gbps DL: 20 Gbps UL: 10 Gbps User Experience Data Rate 10 Mbps 100 Mbps Peak Spectral Efficiency DL: 15 bps/Hz UL: 6.75 bps/Hz DL: 30 bps/Hz UL: 15 bps/Hz Mobility Functional up to 350 km/h No support for civil aviation 500 km/h Connection Density 100k devices/km2 1 million devices/km2 Network Energy Efficiency 1 100x over IMT Advanced Area Traffic Capacity 0,1 Mbps/m2 10 Mbps/m2 Enhanced Mobile Broadband Massive Machine Type Ultra-Reliable & Low Latency Smart Cities Smart Homes Building 3D vídeo, UHD, Virtual Reality Augmented Reality Industry Automation Self Driving Car Connected Cars Remote Surgery MASSIVE MACHINE TYPE ULTRA-RELIABLE & LOW LATENCY ENHANCED MOBILE BROADBAND • Huge number of devices • Lower Cost • Long Battery Life • Web Access • Video Applications: Conferencing, Broadcast • Virtual and Augmented Reality • Connected Cars • Remote Surgery • Industrial IoT • Critical MTC • Self Driving Cars
  6. 6. 5G Potential Technologies 1=0º 1=45º 30 210 60 240 90 270 120 300 150 330 180 ... p1 p2 pN   Native M2M support  A massive number of connected devices with low throughput;  Low latency  Low power and battery consumption hnm h21 h12 h11  Higher MIMO order: 8X8 or more  System capacity increases in fucntion of number of antennas  Spatial-temporal modulation schemes  SINR optimization  Beamforming  Enables systems that illuminate and at the same time provide broadband wireless data connectivity  Transmitters: Uses off-the-shelf white light emitting diodes (LEDs) used for solid-state lighting (SSL);  Receivers: Off-the-shelf p-intrinsic-n (PIN) photodiodes (PDs) or aval anche photo-diodes (APDs) C-plane (RRC) Phantom Celll Macro Cell F1 F2 F2>F1 U-plane D2D  Phantom Cell based architecture  Control Plane uses macro network  User Plane is Device to Device (D2D) in another frequency such as mm-Wave and high order modulation (256 QAM). Net Radio Core Cache  Access Network Caching  Network Virtualization Function  Cloud-RAN  Dynamic and Elastic Network  5G Non-Orthogonal Waveforms for Asynchronous Signalling (5GNOW)  Universal Filtered Multi-Carrier (UFMC) : Potential extension to OFDM ;  Filter Bank Multi Carrier (FBMC): Sustainability fragmented spectra.  Non-Orthogonal Multiple Access (NOMA)  Sparse-Code Multiple Access (SCMA)  High modulation constellation MASSIVE MIMO SPATIAL MODULATION COGITIVE RADIO NETWORKS VISIBLE LIGHT COMMUNICATION DEVICE-CENTRIC ARCHITECTURE NATIVE SUPPORT FOR M2M CLOUD NETWORK & CACHE NEW MODULATION SCHEME  New protocol for shared spectrum rational use  Mitigate and avoid interference by surrounding radio environment and regulate its transmission accordingly.  In interference-free CR networks, CR users are allowed to borrow spectrum resources only when licensed users do not use them.
  7. 7. 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2020+ Release 16 & 5G Enh (ITU) Release 15 & 5G SI/WI (sub 40 GHz) Evaluation & Specification Proposal Submission Tech. Requirements & Eval. Methodology Vision, Technology & Spectrum 5G Timeframe WRC15WRC12 WRC19 Trials and CommercializationStandardization ActivitiesPre-standardizationExploratory Research First Release White Paper Requirements & Tech. feasibility Release 14 & 5G SIRelease 10-13 NFV Phase 3NFV Phase 2NFV Phase 1 MEC Phase 2MEC Phase 1 RG on Cloud based Mobile Core Net. for 5G Evolution to SDN Open FlowOpen Daly Light Open Flow v1.2 Google Intensivelyandextensivelyeffortfromoverall standardizationboards Trial of basic functionality Tests IoT and deployment
  8. 8. LTE-PROLTE-ALTE LTE Evolution and SmallCell Capacity Improvement Carrier Aggregation Intra & Inter Band Band X Band y 256 QAM Smallcells Heterogeneous Network Colaboration MIMO (CoMP) & HetNet High Order DL-MIMO & Advanced UL-MIMO C-plane (RRC) Phantom Celll Macro Cell F1 F2 F2>F1 U-plane D2D New Architecture 20 MHz OFDM SC-FDMA DL 4x4 MIMO SON, HeNB Carrier Aggregation UL 4x4 MIMO DL/UL CoMP HetNet (x4.33) MU-MIMO (x1.14) eICIC CoMP Small Cells Enh. Fe-ICIC/CoMP Enh. (x 1.3) FD-MIMO (x3.53) DiverseTraffic Support 256 QAM (x1.33) Dual Connectivity/LAA/LWA D2D/Proximiy Services InternetEPC LTE+ LTE-U/LAA MuLTEFire ... ... Freq. 20 MHz Channel s Clear Channel X2 Victim Cell P1 P2 Unlicensed Spectrum & Spectrum Sharing MU-MIMO/FD-MIMO eICIC/FeICIC 64 QAM 256 QAM +33%
  9. 9. Why SmallCells? 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 0,0 Mbps/km2 500,0 Mbps/km2 1000,0 Mbps/km2 1500,0 Mbps/km2 2000,0 Mbps/km2 0,250 km0,350 km0,450 km0,550 km DOWNTOWN: HIGH DENSITY TRAFFIC Coverage Radius Capacity 2015 Capacity 2016 Capacity 2017 A +63% C D +61% +54% B TECHNOLOGY ALTERNATIVES AND TOTAL COST OWNERSHIP $$$ $$$ $$$ $$$ $$$ $$$ 1 x 3 x 5 x 7 x 9 x 2600 MHz (10) +1800 MHz (5) +1800 MHz (10) SmallCell 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 Legend Notes: 2600 MHz (10) : Basic Scenario; +1800 MHz (5): Additional 5 MHz; +1800 (10): Additional 10 MHz; SmallCell: Using 2600 MHz with 10 MHz TCO  A B C Indifference between Macro 1800 & 2600 MHz Macro LTE 1800 MHz for coverage Dual layer Macro LTE 1800 & 2600 MHz 181 265 890 SmallCell 2600 MHz 𝑴𝒃𝒑𝒔 𝒌𝒎 𝟐 X  DEMANDS Source: SmallCells Forum INDOOR TRAFFIC 39% 32% 14% 4% 11% In Car At Home At Work Travelling Others The indoor traffic density can be thousand times higher than outdoor: the number of persons per km2 in stadium, can reach 1 Million! If all persons upload video with 64 kbps, it represents 64 Gbps/km2 Voice Originating Call INDOOR LOST PERFORMANCE 0 bps/Hz 4 bps/Hz 8 bps/Hz 12 bps/Hz -130 dBm -110 dBm -90 dBm 3GPP (LTE) Shannon OutdoorIndoor Building Penetration Loss varies around 10-20 dB, that reduces around of 50% overall performance of outdoor macro sites; RSRP  50% and 80% of voice and data traffic respectively are performed indoor. ≈-50%
  10. 10. Why Centralizing? ● Capacity & Coverage: – C-RAN = 30 x D-RAN: C-RAN can easily implement CoMP and e-ICIC, which can together increase system capacity in 30 times distributed network; – Traffic Optimization. C-RAN optimizes pool of resources in unbalanced traffic areas;. – Indoor Coverage. 50% of voice traffic and 80% of data traffic are performed in indoor environment, and indoor traffic density can represent 10-100 times outdoor environment; – Economic Solution. Accordingly to Airvana , C-RAN is 69% cheaper than DAS; ● Transmission & Infrastructure: – Low Latency. e-ICIC and CoMP have tighter latency requirement below 10 micro seconds. – Network Synchronization. It can be simplified by requiring synchronism in less centralized sites – Opex Reduction. Space/Colocation, air conditioning and other site support equipment's power consumption can be largely reduced. China Mobile estimates a reduction of 71% of power saving comparing to Distributed Cell Site; ● Rollout, Operation & Maintenance: – Faster Rollout. Due simpler remote cell site that reduces 1/3 comparing to D-RAN. – Multi-Tenant BBUs. Few big rooms, it is much easier for centralized management and operation, saving a lot of the O&M cost associated with the large number of BS sites in D-RAN. ● TCO: – Accordingly to China Mobile, 15% and 50% of CapEx and OpEx savings respectivelly comparing to Distributed RAN Core Net. BBU TDM IP BBU BBU Core Net. Fronthaul Backhaul IP BBU BBU BBU eICIC CoMP Distributed RAN Centralized RAN Coherent transm. & Non-Coherent transm. Instantaneous Cell Selection X2 X2 ABS Protected Subframe Aggressor Cell Victim Cell X2 Identifies interfered UE Requests ABS Configure s ABS ABS Info Measurement Subset Info Uses ABS and signals Patern
  11. 11. NETWORK FUNCTION VIRTUALIZATION WHy Virtualizing? SDN applications SDN controllers Network Resources Programmatic control of abstracted network resources (application- control interface) Logically centralized control of network resources (resource- control interface) Source: ITU-T Y.3300 Acceleration of innovation: Accelerates business and/or technical innovation through more flexibility of the network operations, thus making trials easier; Accelerated adaptation to customer demands: Dynamic negotiation of network service characteristics and of dynamic network resource control; Improved resource availability : Improves network resource availability and efficiency, Service-aware networking: Allows network customization for the network services which have different requirements, through the programming of network resource operations, including the dynamic enforcement of a set of policies. Hardware Resources Virtualized Network Functions (VNFs) Virtualization Layer VNF ... NFVManagementand Orchestration Compute Storage Network NFV Infrastructure Virtual Compute Virtual Storage Virtual Network VNF VNF VNF CapEx: Reduces equipment costs by consolidation, leveraging the economies of scale; OpEx: Reduces power consumption, space and collocation costs, improved network monitoring. O&M: Improves operational efficiency by taking advantage of a homogeneous physical platform Deployment: Easily, rapidly, dynamically provision and instantiate new services in various locations (i.e. no need for new equipment install) Time to market: Minimizing a typical network operator cycle of innovation. Service differentiation: Rapidly prototype and test new services Source: ETSI NFV+SDN => MOBILE NETWORK SDN can enable, simplify and automate NFV implementation Mobile Network Simplification: Common functions optimized for RAN , EPC and transport . Traffic Optimization : Network status awareness allows to optimize traffic by observing e2e congestion level, system capacity and element capabilities. Resilience: SDN provides greater visibility at the network level, regardless of whether the network concept is Layer 2, Layer 3 or even Layer 4. Power Management: Power consumption of wireless network elements can be optimized in real-time. Spectrum and Interference Management: Opens a new range of interference mitigation and spectrum optimization techniques at the network level. SDN applications SDN controllers Network ResourcesHardware Resources Virtualized Network Functions (VNFs) Virtualization Layer VNF ... NFVManagementand Orchestration Compute Storage Network NFV Infrastructure Virtual Compute Virtual Storage Virtual Network VNF VNF VNF SOFTWARE DEFINED NETWORK
  12. 12. MEC – Mobile Edge Computing (Multiple Access Edge Computing) ● Main Idea – Brings the cloud closer to the network edge – Opens the edge for application from 3rd parties – Provides services to enhance application with context information to benefit from running near the edge – Enables ultra low latency and traffic redirection – Location does not matter. ● Benefits – Proximity – Ultra-low Latency – High Bandwidth – Real time access to radio network and context information – Location awareness ● Framework – Specfied in ETSI GS MEC 003 – Aligned with NFV principles – Focuses on what is unique about Mobile Edge – Allows flexibility in deployment Mobile Edge Host Mobile Edge AppMobile Edge App Virtualization Infrastucture (NFVI) Mobile Edge Platform Mobile Edge Host Level Manag. Virtualization Infrastucture Manager Mobile Edge Platform Maganer Mp1 Mp2 Mm5 Mm7 Mm6 Mobile Edge System Level Management Mobile Edge Orchestrator User App LCM Proxy Mm8 Mm1 Mm2 Mm3 CFS Portal UE App Mx1 Mx2 NetworksMobileEdgeHostLevelMobileEdgeSystemLevel Wi-Fi/FemtoLTE (MCN/SCN) NR (MCN/SCN) LPWA GPON/XGPON/G.Fast/XGFast OSS
  13. 13. Role of mmWave in 5g SmallCells 3000 MHz 3500 MHz 4000 MHz 4500 MHz 5000 MHz 5500 MHz 6000 MHz B42 Satellite B46 Mobile Broadband & Critical Mission Applications – Indoor 3 - 6 GHz 400 MHz 900 MHz 1400 MHz 1900 MHz 2400 MHz 2900 MHz B31 Broadcast B28 B20 B5 B8 B32 B3 B1 B40 ISM B7 Long Range for Massive Internet of Things (IoT) < 1GHz Mobile Broadband & Critical Mission – Outdoor 1 – 3 GHz 20 GHz 30 GHz 40 GHz 50 GHz 60 GHz 70 GHz 80 GHz 90 GHz K Band Ka Band Ka Band Ka Band V Band V Band V Band V Band V Band V Band W Band W Band Extreme Mobile Broadband & Short Range > 6GHz & cm/mmWave > 6 GHz ~30 GHz 1-6 GHz ~ 3 GHz <1 GHz ~0.3 GHz Huge Spectrum Capacity & Large Channels
  14. 14. Role of mmWave in 5g SmallCells MMWAVE  SMALL DISTANCE & SENSORS  LARGE ARRAYS NARROW BEAMS  BEAMFORMING AND SPATIAL REUSEMASSIVE MIMO  HUGE CAPACITY AND COVERAGE IMPROVEMENT h11 h12 h21 h22 𝒀 = 𝒉 𝟏𝟏 𝒉 𝟏𝟐 𝒉 𝟐𝟏 𝒉 𝟐𝟐 𝑿 + 𝒏 4x 3x 2x 1x Capacity Coverage 𝑪 𝒃𝒑𝒔 ~𝑩(𝑯𝒛) ∙ 𝒍𝒐𝒈 𝟐 𝟏+, 𝒎𝒊𝒏(𝑵 𝑻𝒙, 𝑵 𝑹𝒙) ∙ 𝑺𝑵𝑹 𝑪 𝒃𝒑𝒔 ~, 𝒎𝒊𝒏(𝑵 𝑻𝒙, 𝑵 𝑹𝒙) ∙ 𝑩(𝑯𝒛) ∙ 𝒍𝒐𝒈 𝟐 𝟏 + 𝑺𝑵𝑹 LARGE ARRAYS  NARROW BEAMS & MASSIVE MIMO ... p1 p2 pN  ∆𝜽 𝑨𝒑= 𝟐 𝒅 𝝀 𝑵 1 2 N • Reduce interference (better SINR) • Spectrum reuse (multiple users share same channel) 𝜸(𝚫) 𝚫                 Nsen senN Nsen senN 1 2 2 1)( 2  )()()( 1  aaG H  ... p1 p2 pN   d d dd dd  Z(t) p2 p3 p4 p5 p6 p7p1  Ericsson & IBM Module • Azimuth Beamforming • Elevation Beamforming • 3D Beamforming 𝒅 ≈ 𝝀 𝟐
  15. 15. New Radio (NR) design MBMS DL DL UL UL UL UL D2D Forward compatibility Integrated Framework Mission-Critical Self-cotained integrated subframe Dynamic UL/DL 15 kHz 30 kHz 60 kHz 120 kHz Outdoor & Macro coverage FDD/TDD< 3GHz Outdoor & SmallCells TDD > 3GHz Indoor wideband TDD 5GHz mmWave TDD Scalable Numerology with Scaling of Subcarrier Spacing Scalable Transmission Time Interval (TTI) Shorter TTI for low latency & high reliability Longer TTI for higher spectral efficiency Spectral Efficiency Complexity MUAC (1 GC) MUAC (no GC) PAPR ACLR CP-OFDM SC-FDMA UFMC GFDM FBMC Spectral Efficiency – Short Packet Spectral Efficiency Low Complexity Frequency Localization Low Power Consumption Asynchronous Multiplexing Coexistence with New Modulation and Code Schemes Source: Based on Qualcomm material
  16. 16. Transmission Concerns FRONTHAUL HIGH TRANSMISSION CAPILLARITY Split for function centralization can happen on each protocol layer or on the interface between each layer. Currently, LTE implies certain constraints on timing as well as feedback loops between individual protocol layers. Depending on resource scheduling and coordination requirements will be needed, different schemes of centralized vs distributed protocol stacks can be used; It can flexibilize the overall fronthaul requirements; WHAT TO VIRTUALIZE RF PHY MAC RRM AC/LC NM RF PHY MAC RRM AC/LC NM How much to centralize Executed at RRH Centralized Executed Centralized Executed SDRMonolithic Executed at BTS Middle Range Virtualization Source: IEEE Communications Magazine BBU CPRI OBSAI ETSI ORI Data Control Sync RRU/ RRH BBU N BBU 2 BBU 1 CRAN 246 Mbps 1200 Mbps 2500 Mbps 9830 Mbps WCDMA (1 Carrier) LTE (MIMO 2x2, 10 MHz) LTE (MIMO 2x2, 20 MHz) WCDMA + LTE CRAN requires a tighter latency requirement for interefrence control (e-ICIC and CoMP) - In general IP backhaul transport cannot accomplish this latency level in X2 interface. CRAN unfolds complexity of capillarity for access trasportation; Although there are fronthaul standards, but each vendor implemented its own flavor: OBSAI, CPRI versions; CPRI/OBSAI requires low latency 5 micro seconds in total, that introduces limitation of 40 km in terms of distance between BBU and RRU; mmWave has a benefit to provide a very high capacity but a short range coverage. Thus, multiplying the number of Smallcells . These Smallcells will be controlled in the cloud (Cloud RAN) and will need fiber optics for connectivity; Combination of huge number of Smallcells with fiber premises for connectivity will bring an important concern for 5G infrastructure.
  17. 17. New Fronthaul Network CPRI RoE SBI/Fronthaul NBI/Internet Hardware Poll Virtualization Layer BBU1 ... O&M/Orchestrator BBU2 BBUn EPC IMS MTAS RRH RRH RRH Time Sensitive Network (TSN) Fronthaul IP Backhaul SDNController IEEE 1588 vBBU in MEC, Radoi Cloud Center or Telco Datacenter Radio over Ethernet  CPRI converter Ethernet TSN based Network RAU RF/DF L1Off. NGFI CPRI RoE Agg. NEW TRANSPORT NETWORK HIGH TRANSMISSION CAPILLARITYNEW TRANSPORT INTERFACESS IEEE P1914.3 - CPRI over Ethernet mapper/de-mapper IEEE P1914.1 – (NGFI) Next Generation Fronthaul Interface IEEE 802.3 – (TSN) Time Sensitive Network features IEEE 1588v2 – Synchronization L2(MAC/RLC/PDCP)L1(PHY) Resource Mapping & IFFT Layer Mapping Precoding Modulation Bit-level Processing Resource Mapping & FFT Layer Mapping Precoding IDFT & Demodulation Bit-level Processing Low MAC High MAC RLC Dual Connection PDCP CPRI PHY Pre – PHY IFFT PHY Bit – PHY Sym MAC - PHY MAC Hi – MAC Lo PLCP - RLC FronthaulBandwidthRequirement FronthaulDelayRequirement High Stringent Low Relaxed CentralizedGain High Low FronthaulCost High Low SBI/Fronthaul NBI/Internet Hardware Poll Virtualization Layer BBU1 ... O&M/Orchestrator BBU2 BBUn EPC IMS MTAS RRH Next Generation Fronthaul Interface Network Slicing & Flexible Protocol Stack Split Load Balancing and Statistical Mutiplexing MIMO => RRH Cordinating function => vBBU V-RAN
  18. 18. Final Words ● 5G Requirements. 5G imposes several challenges in terms of system resource and technology lifecycle management; radio access architecture evolution; due a combination of very different service requirements: massive type communications; mission-critical and extreme mobile broadband services; ● SmallCells. It will be important tool to accomplish target demand 800 Mbps/km2 and above; ● MIMO. However, for accomplishing high spectral efficiency (30 bps/Hz ) there is required to explore spatial modulation, such as: massive MIMO and beaforming; ● mmWave. It will be an important frequency for high density traffic due: a high bandwidth and easy for high order MIMO (massive) technology design; ● MEC. MEC in conjunction with SDN+NFV will play an important role as affordable environment to accommodate very different service requirement by optimizing network and computational resources; ● 5G Infrastructure. Combination of huge number of Smallcells with fiber premises for connectivity will bring an important concern for Smallcells and 5G infrastructure. ● New Fronthaul. New network and interfaces for fronthaul are under standardization (TSN, RoE, NGFI, etc.) for replacing traditional CPRI radio interface and it promises to solve fiber as main transmission resource requirement. But not in all cases; ● Fiber. Fiber is still main requirement for 5G Cell Sites (Macro and Small). Oi, as fixed incumbent operator in 26 Brazilian states, with over 370,000 km of fiber, is being prepared to support 5G for own mobile network service, but all remainder Brazilian mobile operators.
  19. 19. Alberto Boaventura alberto@oi.net.br ¡Gracias! Thanks! Obrigado! Q&A

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