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Steganography                 Hiding information in past, present and future.                              Alberto Villega...
ReviewConcepts reviewPreviously in crypto-world...Math backgroundModular arithmetics give us the power       Factorization...
ReviewTodaySteganography                               What is Steganography?                               We will review...
ReviewIndex                                          1    Introduction                                          2    Past ...
IntroductionIndex                                               1    Introduction                                         ...
IntroductionStegano... what?                                         What is Steganography?                               ...
IntroductionStegano... what?                                         What is Steganography?                               ...
IntroductionStegano... what?                                         What is Steganography?                               ...
IntroductionStegano... what?                                         What is Steganography?                               ...
IntroductionStegano... what?                                         What is Steganography?                               ...
IntroductionSteganographyDefinitionSteganographyArt and science of writing hidden messages in such a way that no onesuspect...
IntroductionSteganographyDefinitionSteganographyArt and science of writing hidden messages in such a way that no onesuspect...
IntroductionSteganographyTerminology [1]      Embedded data (M): the message that one wishes to send secretly.      Cover-...
IntroductionSteganographyTerminology [1]      Embedded data (M): the message that one wishes to send secretly.      Cover-...
IntroductionSteganographyTerminology [1]      Embedded data (M): the message that one wishes to send secretly.      Cover-...
IntroductionSteganographyTerminology [1]      Embedded data (M): the message that one wishes to send secretly.      Cover-...
IntroductionSteganographyTerminology [1]      Embedded data (M): the message that one wishes to send secretly.      Cover-...
IntroductionSteganographyModel (I)                           Figure: Steganography abstract process  Alberto V. E. (CRYP -...
IntroductionSteganographyModel (II)  Pure versus secret key steganography      Pure steganographic systems:      no prior ...
IntroductionSteganographyWho is it for?  Who is using steganography  nowadays?         Spies: intelligence and         cou...
IntroductionSteganographyWho is it for?  Who is using steganography  nowadays?         Spies: intelligence and         cou...
IntroductionSteganographyWho is it for?  Who is using steganography  nowadays?         Spies: intelligence and         cou...
IntroductionSteganographyWho is it for?  Who is using steganography  nowadays?         Spies: intelligence and         cou...
IntroductionSteganographyWho is it for?  Who is using steganography  nowadays?         Spies: intelligence and         cou...
IntroductionSteganographyWho is it for?  Who is using steganography  nowadays?         Spies: intelligence and         cou...
IntroductionSteganographyWho is it for?  Who is using steganography  nowadays?         Spies: intelligence and         cou...
IntroductionSteganographyWho is it for?  Who is using steganography  nowadays?         Spies: intelligence and         cou...
IntroductionSteganographyExamples?Stop!        Could someone give an example of Steganography right now?                  ...
IntroductionSteganographyExamples?Stop!        Could someone give an example of Steganography right now?                  ...
IntroductionSteganographyExamples?Stop!        Could someone give an example of Steganography right now?                  ...
PastIndex                                         1    Introduction                                         2    Past     ...
PastChinaSilk passion       Paper masks: The sender and the receiver shared copies of a paper       mask with a number of ...
PastGreece#HerodotusFacts                                               Shaved slaves: messages                           ...
PastMusicStego-heros        Gaspar Schott (17th        century): music notes        coding letters.        John Wilkings (...
PastWritingAcrostic, morse and more.  A boat, beneath a sunny sky  Lingering onward dreamily  In an evening of July -  Chi...
PastWritingAcrostic, morse and more.  A boat, beneath a sunny sky  Lingering onward dreamily  In an evening of July -  Chi...
PastWritingAcrostic, morse and more.  A boat, beneath a sunny sky  Lingering onward dreamily  In an evening of July -  Chi...
PastWritingAcrostic, morse and more.  A boat, beneath a sunny sky  Lingering onward dreamily  In an evening of July -  Chi...
PastWritingAcrostic, morse and more.  A boat, beneath a sunny sky  Lingering onward dreamily  In an evening of July -  Chi...
PastInvisible Ink                                          Lemon, urine: after burned                                     ...
PastInvisible Ink                                          Lemon, urine: after burned                                     ...
PastPublishingNot only for war   Steganography has protected copyright even when it did not exists.            Intended ga...
PresentIndex                                          1    Introduction                                          2    Past...
PresentDigital EraFollow the white rabbit     Digital era: how do we     manage data now?            Sound: bit streams.  ...
PresentDigital EraFollow the white rabbit     Digital era: how do we     manage data now?            Sound: bit streams.  ...
PresentDigital EraFollow the white rabbit     Digital era: how do we     manage data now?            Sound: bit streams.  ...
PresentDigital EraFollow the white rabbit     Digital era: how do we     manage data now?            Sound: bit streams.  ...
PresentDigital EraFollow the white rabbit     Digital era: how do we     manage data now?            Sound: bit streams.  ...
PresentDigital EraFollow the white rabbit     Digital era: how do we     manage data now?            Sound: bit streams.  ...
PresentA simple ideaTake a closer look   Alberto V. E. (CRYP - UGR)    Steganography   April 2010   22 / 38
PresentA simple ideaA said CLOSER!        (a) #18657E            (b) #19657E        (c) #1A657E   (d) #1B657E             ...
PresentLSB SteganographyI have discovered a truly marvelous proof of this, which this pixel is too narrow to contain.     ...
PresentLSB SteganographyI have discovered a truly marvelous proof of this, which this pixel is too narrow to contain.     ...
PresentLSB SteganographyI have discovered a truly marvelous proof of this, which this pixel is too narrow to contain.     ...
PresentLSB SteganographyI have discovered a truly marvelous proof of this, which this pixel is too narrow to contain.     ...
PresentLSB Steganography Pros                                           Cons        Easy to understand and code.          ...
PresentWattermarkingCopyrigthing  Problem  Lossy compression (JPEG,  MGEP) destroys LSB variations.  Solution         Hide...
PresentWattermarkingCopyrigthing                                         Concepts                                         ...
PresentWattermarkingCopyrigthing                                         Concepts                                         ...
PresentWattermarkingCopyrigthing                                         Concepts                                         ...
FutureIndex                                          1    Introduction                                          2    Past ...
FutureScience fiction?Keep your mind open                                                Where are the limits?             ...
FutureScience fiction?Keep your mind open                                                Where are the limits?             ...
FutureMessages through lightQuantum physics killed the cryptography stars              Idea: Polarized photons cryptosyste...
FutureMessages through lightQuantum physics killed the cryptography stars              Idea: Polarized photons cryptosyste...
FutureDNA CodingLimits?     DNA and RNA have coded     life of living things in a pretty     good way for years.          ...
FutureDNA CodingLimits?     DNA and RNA have coded     life of living things in a pretty     good way for years.          ...
FutureDNA CodingLimits?     DNA and RNA have coded     life of living things in a pretty     good way for years.          ...
ConclusionsIndex                                              1    Introduction                                           ...
ConclusionsConclusions                                        Benefits                                            Secrecy a...
ConclusionsConclusions                                        Cons                                            Not suitable...
ReferencesReferences I     Information Hiding - A Survey     Fabien A. P. Petitcolas, Ross J. Anderson and Markus G. Kuhn ...
ReferencesReferences II     Quantum cryptography: Public-key distribution and coin tossing     Bennett, C. H. and Brassard...
ReferencesReferences III     Matem´ticos, esp´ y piratas inform´ticos. Codificaci´n y            a        ıas              ...
The end            Thank you.            Questions?                                    Please be nice                     ...
The end            Thank you.            Questions?                                    Please be nice                     ...
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Steganography: Hiding information in past, present and future.

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50min talk for a Cryptography course I did during 2010/2011 year.

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Steganography: Hiding information in past, present and future.

  1. 1. Steganography Hiding information in past, present and future. Alberto Villegas Erce albvi@correo.ugr.es Cryptography University of Granada April 2010Alberto V. E. (CRYP - UGR) Steganography April 2010 1 / 38
  2. 2. ReviewConcepts reviewPreviously in crypto-world...Math backgroundModular arithmetics give us the power Factorization and Primality. Finite fields. Pseudo-random Sequences. ...Cryptography HistoryFrom ancient greeks to Enigma machine.Information TheoryShannon’s theory for perfect crypto security. Alberto V. E. (CRYP - UGR) Steganography April 2010 2 / 38
  3. 3. ReviewTodaySteganography What is Steganography? We will review the topic through history 1 Past: historical examples. 2 Present: digital era. 3 Future: no-that-much science fiction ideas. Alberto V. E. (CRYP - UGR) Steganography April 2010 3 / 38
  4. 4. ReviewIndex 1 Introduction 2 Past 3 Present 4 Future 5 Conclusions Alberto V. E. (CRYP - UGR) Steganography April 2010 4 / 38
  5. 5. IntroductionIndex 1 Introduction 2 Past 3 Present 4 Future 5 Conclusions Alberto V. E. (CRYP - UGR) Steganography April 2010 5 / 38
  6. 6. IntroductionStegano... what? What is Steganography? A word with 4 vowels... ... and 9 consonants. Sounds like Cryptography. Error! You are doing it wrong! Greek: “concealed writing” Steganos: covered or protected. Graphein: to write. Alberto V. E. (CRYP - UGR) Steganography April 2010 6 / 38
  7. 7. IntroductionStegano... what? What is Steganography? A word with 4 vowels... ... and 9 consonants. Sounds like Cryptography. Error! You are doing it wrong! Greek: “concealed writing” Steganos: covered or protected. Graphein: to write. Alberto V. E. (CRYP - UGR) Steganography April 2010 6 / 38
  8. 8. IntroductionStegano... what? What is Steganography? A word with 4 vowels... ... and 9 consonants. Sounds like Cryptography. Error! You are doing it wrong! Greek: “concealed writing” Steganos: covered or protected. Graphein: to write. Alberto V. E. (CRYP - UGR) Steganography April 2010 6 / 38
  9. 9. IntroductionStegano... what? What is Steganography? A word with 4 vowels... ... and 9 consonants. Sounds like Cryptography. Error! You are doing it wrong! Greek: “concealed writing” Steganos: covered or protected. Graphein: to write. Alberto V. E. (CRYP - UGR) Steganography April 2010 6 / 38
  10. 10. IntroductionStegano... what? What is Steganography? A word with 4 vowels... ... and 9 consonants. Sounds like Cryptography. Error! You are doing it wrong! Greek: “concealed writing” Steganos: covered or protected. Graphein: to write. Alberto V. E. (CRYP - UGR) Steganography April 2010 6 / 38
  11. 11. IntroductionSteganographyDefinitionSteganographyArt and science of writing hidden messages in such a way that no onesuspects the existence of the message. But, then, what is the difference with Cryptography? “Cryptography is about protecting the content of messages, steganography is about concealing their very existence” [1] Alberto V. E. (CRYP - UGR) Steganography April 2010 7 / 38
  12. 12. IntroductionSteganographyDefinitionSteganographyArt and science of writing hidden messages in such a way that no onesuspects the existence of the message. But, then, what is the difference with Cryptography? “Cryptography is about protecting the content of messages, steganography is about concealing their very existence” [1] Alberto V. E. (CRYP - UGR) Steganography April 2010 7 / 38
  13. 13. IntroductionSteganographyTerminology [1] Embedded data (M): the message that one wishes to send secretly. Cover-text (O): (covert-image or cover-audio) innocuous message used to hide the embedded data. Stego-key (K ): used to control the hiding process. ˜ Stego-object (M): the combination of the previous. ˜ M ×O ×K →M Alberto V. E. (CRYP - UGR) Steganography April 2010 8 / 38
  14. 14. IntroductionSteganographyTerminology [1] Embedded data (M): the message that one wishes to send secretly. Cover-text (O): (covert-image or cover-audio) innocuous message used to hide the embedded data. Stego-key (K ): used to control the hiding process. ˜ Stego-object (M): the combination of the previous. ˜ M ×O ×K →M Alberto V. E. (CRYP - UGR) Steganography April 2010 8 / 38
  15. 15. IntroductionSteganographyTerminology [1] Embedded data (M): the message that one wishes to send secretly. Cover-text (O): (covert-image or cover-audio) innocuous message used to hide the embedded data. Stego-key (K ): used to control the hiding process. ˜ Stego-object (M): the combination of the previous. ˜ M ×O ×K →M Alberto V. E. (CRYP - UGR) Steganography April 2010 8 / 38
  16. 16. IntroductionSteganographyTerminology [1] Embedded data (M): the message that one wishes to send secretly. Cover-text (O): (covert-image or cover-audio) innocuous message used to hide the embedded data. Stego-key (K ): used to control the hiding process. ˜ Stego-object (M): the combination of the previous. ˜ M ×O ×K →M Alberto V. E. (CRYP - UGR) Steganography April 2010 8 / 38
  17. 17. IntroductionSteganographyTerminology [1] Embedded data (M): the message that one wishes to send secretly. Cover-text (O): (covert-image or cover-audio) innocuous message used to hide the embedded data. Stego-key (K ): used to control the hiding process. ˜ Stego-object (M): the combination of the previous. ˜ M ×O ×K →M Alberto V. E. (CRYP - UGR) Steganography April 2010 8 / 38
  18. 18. IntroductionSteganographyModel (I) Figure: Steganography abstract process Alberto V. E. (CRYP - UGR) Steganography April 2010 9 / 38
  19. 19. IntroductionSteganographyModel (II) Pure versus secret key steganography Pure steganographic systems: no prior exchange of secret information. Secret key steganography system: embeds secret using a secret key. Perfect Secure Stego-system It exists. Apply the concepts we saw two weeks ago. Alberto V. E. (CRYP - UGR) Steganography April 2010 10 / 38
  20. 20. IntroductionSteganographyWho is it for? Who is using steganography nowadays? Spies: intelligence and counterintelligence agences. Militaries: unobtrusive communications. Terrorists: “it arouses less suspicion” - John Wilkins (1641) Copyright: watermarks and fingerprints. SPAM: email forgery. Only the good guys! (actually, is not that bad) Alberto V. E. (CRYP - UGR) Steganography April 2010 11 / 38
  21. 21. IntroductionSteganographyWho is it for? Who is using steganography nowadays? Spies: intelligence and counterintelligence agences. Militaries: unobtrusive communications. Terrorists: “it arouses less suspicion” - John Wilkins (1641) Copyright: watermarks and fingerprints. SPAM: email forgery. Only the good guys! (actually, is not that bad) Alberto V. E. (CRYP - UGR) Steganography April 2010 11 / 38
  22. 22. IntroductionSteganographyWho is it for? Who is using steganography nowadays? Spies: intelligence and counterintelligence agences. Militaries: unobtrusive communications. Terrorists: “it arouses less suspicion” - John Wilkins (1641) Copyright: watermarks and fingerprints. SPAM: email forgery. Only the good guys! (actually, is not that bad) Alberto V. E. (CRYP - UGR) Steganography April 2010 11 / 38
  23. 23. IntroductionSteganographyWho is it for? Who is using steganography nowadays? Spies: intelligence and counterintelligence agences. Militaries: unobtrusive communications. Terrorists: “it arouses less suspicion” - John Wilkins (1641) Copyright: watermarks and fingerprints. SPAM: email forgery. Only the good guys! (actually, is not that bad) Alberto V. E. (CRYP - UGR) Steganography April 2010 11 / 38
  24. 24. IntroductionSteganographyWho is it for? Who is using steganography nowadays? Spies: intelligence and counterintelligence agences. Militaries: unobtrusive communications. Terrorists: “it arouses less suspicion” - John Wilkins (1641) Copyright: watermarks and fingerprints. SPAM: email forgery. Only the good guys! (actually, is not that bad) Alberto V. E. (CRYP - UGR) Steganography April 2010 11 / 38
  25. 25. IntroductionSteganographyWho is it for? Who is using steganography nowadays? Spies: intelligence and counterintelligence agences. Militaries: unobtrusive communications. Terrorists: “it arouses less suspicion” - John Wilkins (1641) Copyright: watermarks and fingerprints. SPAM: email forgery. Only the good guys! (actually, is not that bad) Alberto V. E. (CRYP - UGR) Steganography April 2010 11 / 38
  26. 26. IntroductionSteganographyWho is it for? Who is using steganography nowadays? Spies: intelligence and counterintelligence agences. Militaries: unobtrusive communications. Terrorists: “it arouses less suspicion” - John Wilkins (1641) Copyright: watermarks and fingerprints. SPAM: email forgery. Only the good guys! (actually, is not that bad) Alberto V. E. (CRYP - UGR) Steganography April 2010 11 / 38
  27. 27. IntroductionSteganographyWho is it for? Who is using steganography nowadays? Spies: intelligence and counterintelligence agences. Militaries: unobtrusive communications. Terrorists: “it arouses less suspicion” - John Wilkins (1641) Copyright: watermarks and fingerprints. SPAM: email forgery. Only the good guys! (actually, is not that bad) Alberto V. E. (CRYP - UGR) Steganography April 2010 11 / 38
  28. 28. IntroductionSteganographyExamples?Stop! Could someone give an example of Steganography right now? My recommendation Think before going deeper into a topic. Think about what happened so far. Alberto V. E. (CRYP - UGR) Steganography April 2010 12 / 38
  29. 29. IntroductionSteganographyExamples?Stop! Could someone give an example of Steganography right now? My recommendation Think before going deeper into a topic. Think about what happened so far. Alberto V. E. (CRYP - UGR) Steganography April 2010 12 / 38
  30. 30. IntroductionSteganographyExamples?Stop! Could someone give an example of Steganography right now? My recommendation Think before going deeper into a topic. Think about what happened so far. Alberto V. E. (CRYP - UGR) Steganography April 2010 12 / 38
  31. 31. PastIndex 1 Introduction 2 Past 3 Present 4 Future 5 Conclusions Alberto V. E. (CRYP - UGR) Steganography April 2010 13 / 38
  32. 32. PastChinaSilk passion Paper masks: The sender and the receiver shared copies of a paper mask with a number of holes cut at random locations (keep this in mind). Wax balls: The also wrote messages on silk and encased them in balls of wax. The wax ball could then be hidden in the messenger. Alberto V. E. (CRYP - UGR) Steganography April 2010 14 / 38
  33. 33. PastGreece#HerodotusFacts Shaved slaves: messages were written over slaves heads. Still in 20th century! Wax tablet: a good example of camouflage over unsuspicious diary objects. Alberto V. E. (CRYP - UGR) Steganography April 2010 15 / 38
  34. 34. PastMusicStego-heros Gaspar Schott (17th century): music notes coding letters. John Wilkings (17th century): talking musicians. J. S. Bach (17th-18th century): embedded his name in the organ chorale “Vor deinen Thron” using the rule: if the i-th note of the scale occurs k times, then the k-th letter of the alphabet is to be entered in the i-th place. Alberto V. E. (CRYP - UGR) Steganography April 2010 16 / 38
  35. 35. PastWritingAcrostic, morse and more. A boat, beneath a sunny sky Lingering onward dreamily In an evening of July - Children three that nestle near, Eager eye and willing ear, Pleased a simple tale to hear - Long has paled that sunny sky: Acrostic: messages hidden in Echoes fade and memories die: text using patterns. Autumn frosts have slain July. Still she haunts me, phantomwise, Morse Code with {i, j, f, t}: Alice moving under skies another good example of Never seen by waking eyes. Children yet, the tale to hear, camouflage over unsuspicious Eager eye and willing ear, diary objects. Lovingly shall nestle near. In a Wonderland they lie, Dreaming as the days go by, Is Father Dead or Deceased? Dreaming as the summers die: Ever drifting down the stream - Lingering in the golden gleam - Life, what is it but a dream? Alberto V. E. (CRYP - UGR) Steganography April 2010 17 / 38
  36. 36. PastWritingAcrostic, morse and more. A boat, beneath a sunny sky Lingering onward dreamily In an evening of July - Children three that nestle near, Eager eye and willing ear, Pleased a simple tale to hear - Long has paled that sunny sky: Acrostic: messages hidden in Echoes fade and memories die: text using patterns. Autumn frosts have slain July. Still she haunts me, phantomwise, Morse Code with {i, j, f, t}: Alice moving under skies another good example of Never seen by waking eyes. Children yet, the tale to hear, camouflage over unsuspicious Eager eye and willing ear, diary objects. Lovingly shall nestle near. In a Wonderland they lie, Dreaming as the days go by, Is Father Dead or Deceased? Dreaming as the summers die: Ever drifting down the stream - Lingering in the golden gleam - Life, what is it but a dream? Alberto V. E. (CRYP - UGR) Steganography April 2010 17 / 38
  37. 37. PastWritingAcrostic, morse and more. A boat, beneath a sunny sky Lingering onward dreamily In an evening of July - Children three that nestle near, Eager eye and willing ear, Pleased a simple tale to hear - Long has paled that sunny sky: Acrostic: messages hidden in Echoes fade and memories die: text using patterns. Autumn frosts have slain July. Still she haunts me, phantomwise, Morse Code with {i, j, f, t}: Alice moving under skies another good example of Never seen by waking eyes. Children yet, the tale to hear, camouflage over unsuspicious Eager eye and willing ear, diary objects. Lovingly shall nestle near. In a Wonderland they lie, Dreaming as the days go by, Is Father Dead or Deceased? Dreaming as the summers die: Ever drifting down the stream - Lingering in the golden gleam - Life, what is it but a dream? Alberto V. E. (CRYP - UGR) Steganography April 2010 17 / 38
  38. 38. PastWritingAcrostic, morse and more. A boat, beneath a sunny sky Lingering onward dreamily In an evening of July - Children three that nestle near, Eager eye and willing ear, Pleased a simple tale to hear - Long has paled that sunny sky: Acrostic: messages hidden in Echoes fade and memories die: text using patterns. Autumn frosts have slain July. Still she haunts me, phantomwise, Morse Code with {i, j, f, t}: Alice moving under skies another good example of Never seen by waking eyes. Children yet, the tale to hear, camouflage over unsuspicious Eager eye and willing ear, diary objects. Lovingly shall nestle near. In a Wonderland they lie, Dreaming as the days go by, Is Father Dead or Deceased? Dreaming as the summers die: Ever drifting down the stream - Lingering in the golden gleam - Life, what is it but a dream? Alberto V. E. (CRYP - UGR) Steganography April 2010 17 / 38
  39. 39. PastWritingAcrostic, morse and more. A boat, beneath a sunny sky Lingering onward dreamily In an evening of July - Children three that nestle near, Eager eye and willing ear, Pleased a simple tale to hear - Long has paled that sunny sky: Acrostic: messages hidden in Echoes fade and memories die: text using patterns. Autumn frosts have slain July. Still she haunts me, phantomwise, Morse Code with {i, j, f, t}: Alice moving under skies another good example of Never seen by waking eyes. Children yet, the tale to hear, camouflage over unsuspicious Eager eye and willing ear, diary objects. Lovingly shall nestle near. In a Wonderland they lie, Dreaming as the days go by, Is Father Dead or Deceased? Dreaming as the summers die: Ever drifting down the stream - Lingering in the golden gleam - Life, what is it but a dream? Alberto V. E. (CRYP - UGR) Steganography April 2010 17 / 38
  40. 40. PastInvisible Ink Lemon, urine: after burned released carbon shows up. Refined with chemistry: salt ammoniac dissolved in water. Refined with biology: some natural unique responses. Wait a second... Alberto V. E. (CRYP - UGR) Steganography April 2010 18 / 38
  41. 41. PastInvisible Ink Lemon, urine: after burned released carbon shows up. Refined with chemistry: salt ammoniac dissolved in water. Refined with biology: some natural unique responses. Wait a second... Alberto V. E. (CRYP - UGR) Steganography April 2010 18 / 38
  42. 42. PastPublishingNot only for war Steganography has protected copyright even when it did not exists. Intended gaps: False intended data. Microdots: imperceptible dots. Line spacing: modern publishing. Alberto V. E. (CRYP - UGR) Steganography April 2010 19 / 38
  43. 43. PresentIndex 1 Introduction 2 Past 3 Present 4 Future 5 Conclusions Alberto V. E. (CRYP - UGR) Steganography April 2010 20 / 38
  44. 44. PresentDigital EraFollow the white rabbit Digital era: how do we manage data now? Sound: bit streams. Images: bit streams. Video: bit streams. Text: bit streams. Noise A weak spot to exploit. Alberto V. E. (CRYP - UGR) Steganography April 2010 21 / 38
  45. 45. PresentDigital EraFollow the white rabbit Digital era: how do we manage data now? Sound: bit streams. Images: bit streams. Video: bit streams. Text: bit streams. Noise A weak spot to exploit. Alberto V. E. (CRYP - UGR) Steganography April 2010 21 / 38
  46. 46. PresentDigital EraFollow the white rabbit Digital era: how do we manage data now? Sound: bit streams. Images: bit streams. Video: bit streams. Text: bit streams. Noise A weak spot to exploit. Alberto V. E. (CRYP - UGR) Steganography April 2010 21 / 38
  47. 47. PresentDigital EraFollow the white rabbit Digital era: how do we manage data now? Sound: bit streams. Images: bit streams. Video: bit streams. Text: bit streams. Noise A weak spot to exploit. Alberto V. E. (CRYP - UGR) Steganography April 2010 21 / 38
  48. 48. PresentDigital EraFollow the white rabbit Digital era: how do we manage data now? Sound: bit streams. Images: bit streams. Video: bit streams. Text: bit streams. Noise A weak spot to exploit. Alberto V. E. (CRYP - UGR) Steganography April 2010 21 / 38
  49. 49. PresentDigital EraFollow the white rabbit Digital era: how do we manage data now? Sound: bit streams. Images: bit streams. Video: bit streams. Text: bit streams. Noise A weak spot to exploit. Alberto V. E. (CRYP - UGR) Steganography April 2010 21 / 38
  50. 50. PresentA simple ideaTake a closer look Alberto V. E. (CRYP - UGR) Steganography April 2010 22 / 38
  51. 51. PresentA simple ideaA said CLOSER! (a) #18657E (b) #19657E (c) #1A657E (d) #1B657E Figure: LSB variations over R Alberto V. E. (CRYP - UGR) Steganography April 2010 23 / 38
  52. 52. PresentLSB SteganographyI have discovered a truly marvelous proof of this, which this pixel is too narrow to contain. LSB Steganography LSB Variations are indiscernible. Even the two LSB! Let’s check a poor 800 × 600 image. (a) #18667D 800 × 600 = 48000pixels 480000pixels × 6 = 2880000bit 2880000bit = 360000characters 8bit/character (b) #1B657E Alberto V. E. (CRYP - UGR) Steganography April 2010 24 / 38
  53. 53. PresentLSB SteganographyI have discovered a truly marvelous proof of this, which this pixel is too narrow to contain. LSB Steganography LSB Variations are indiscernible. Even the two LSB! Let’s check a poor 800 × 600 image. (c) #18667D 800 × 600 = 48000pixels 480000pixels × 6 = 2880000bit 2880000bit = 360000characters 8bit/character (d) #1B657E Alberto V. E. (CRYP - UGR) Steganography April 2010 24 / 38
  54. 54. PresentLSB SteganographyI have discovered a truly marvelous proof of this, which this pixel is too narrow to contain. LSB Steganography LSB Variations are indiscernible. Even the two LSB! Let’s check a poor 800 × 600 image. (e) #18667D 800 × 600 = 48000pixels 480000pixels × 6 = 2880000bit 2880000bit = 360000characters 8bit/character (f) #1B657E Alberto V. E. (CRYP - UGR) Steganography April 2010 24 / 38
  55. 55. PresentLSB SteganographyI have discovered a truly marvelous proof of this, which this pixel is too narrow to contain. LSB Steganography LSB Variations are indiscernible. Even the two LSB! Let’s check a poor 800 × 600 image. (g) #18667D 800 × 600 = 48000pixels 480000pixels × 6 = 2880000bit 2880000bit = 360000characters 8bit/character (h) #1B657E Alberto V. E. (CRYP - UGR) Steganography April 2010 24 / 38
  56. 56. PresentLSB Steganography Pros Cons Easy to understand and code. Weak against noise attack. Pure steganographic (a priori). Requires good images. Lot’s of coding chances. [3] Requires non-coded images. Alberto V. E. (CRYP - UGR) Steganography April 2010 25 / 38
  57. 57. PresentWattermarkingCopyrigthing Problem Lossy compression (JPEG, MGEP) destroys LSB variations. Solution Hide in other LSB. Also indiscernible for human eye. Alberto V. E. (CRYP - UGR) Steganography April 2010 26 / 38
  58. 58. PresentWattermarkingCopyrigthing Concepts Visible watermarking. Invisible watermarking. Requires redundancy! Also valid for video compression. Alberto V. E. (CRYP - UGR) Steganography April 2010 27 / 38
  59. 59. PresentWattermarkingCopyrigthing Concepts Visible watermarking. Invisible watermarking. Requires redundancy! Also valid for video compression. Alberto V. E. (CRYP - UGR) Steganography April 2010 27 / 38
  60. 60. PresentWattermarkingCopyrigthing Concepts Visible watermarking. Invisible watermarking. Requires redundancy! Also valid for video compression. Alberto V. E. (CRYP - UGR) Steganography April 2010 27 / 38
  61. 61. FutureIndex 1 Introduction 2 Past 3 Present 4 Future 5 Conclusions Alberto V. E. (CRYP - UGR) Steganography April 2010 28 / 38
  62. 62. FutureScience fiction?Keep your mind open Where are the limits? Science and engineering develop fast. Multiple fields merge and split continuously. What can we learn from other fields? Keep your mind open! Alberto V. E. (CRYP - UGR) Steganography April 2010 29 / 38
  63. 63. FutureScience fiction?Keep your mind open Where are the limits? Science and engineering develop fast. Multiple fields merge and split continuously. What can we learn from other fields? Keep your mind open! Alberto V. E. (CRYP - UGR) Steganography April 2010 29 / 38
  64. 64. FutureMessages through lightQuantum physics killed the cryptography stars Idea: Polarized photons cryptosystem... in 1984! [4] Alberto V. E. (CRYP - UGR) Steganography April 2010 30 / 38
  65. 65. FutureMessages through lightQuantum physics killed the cryptography stars Idea: Polarized photons cryptosystem... in 1984! [4] Alberto V. E. (CRYP - UGR) Steganography April 2010 30 / 38
  66. 66. FutureDNA CodingLimits? DNA and RNA have coded life of living things in a pretty good way for years. Let’s use copyright it! 4 nucleic acids: How? A: 00 Innocuous sequences. C: 01 Redundant sequences. G: 10 Add sequences. T: 11 Alberto V. E. (CRYP - UGR) Steganography April 2010 31 / 38
  67. 67. FutureDNA CodingLimits? DNA and RNA have coded life of living things in a pretty good way for years. Let’s use copyright it! 4 nucleic acids: How? A: 00 Innocuous sequences. C: 01 Redundant sequences. G: 10 Add sequences. T: 11 Alberto V. E. (CRYP - UGR) Steganography April 2010 31 / 38
  68. 68. FutureDNA CodingLimits? DNA and RNA have coded life of living things in a pretty good way for years. Let’s use copyright it! 4 nucleic acids: How? A: 00 Innocuous sequences. C: 01 Redundant sequences. G: 10 Add sequences. T: 11 Alberto V. E. (CRYP - UGR) Steganography April 2010 31 / 38
  69. 69. ConclusionsIndex 1 Introduction 2 Past 3 Present 4 Future 5 Conclusions Alberto V. E. (CRYP - UGR) Steganography April 2010 32 / 38
  70. 70. ConclusionsConclusions Benefits Secrecy and confusion. Variety of combinations. Can be combined with cryptography. Only few pros but strong ones. Alberto V. E. (CRYP - UGR) Steganography April 2010 33 / 38
  71. 71. ConclusionsConclusions Cons Not suitable for massive transmissions. Requires more effort than regular cryptography. Weak against transformation. Specific solutions for specific problems. Always trade security against robustness. Alberto V. E. (CRYP - UGR) Steganography April 2010 34 / 38
  72. 72. ReferencesReferences I Information Hiding - A Survey Fabien A. P. Petitcolas, Ross J. Anderson and Markus G. Kuhn Proceedings of the IEEE, special issue on protection of multimedia content, 87(7):1062-1078, July 1999 Exploring Steganography: Seeing the Unseen Neil F. Johnson and Sushil Jajodia. IEEE Computer, February 1998: 26-34. Reliable Dectection of LSB Steganography in Color and Grayscale Images. Jessica Fridrich, Miroslav Goljan and Rui Du Multimedia, IEEE, 2001 Alberto V. E. (CRYP - UGR) Steganography April 2010 35 / 38
  73. 73. ReferencesReferences II Quantum cryptography: Public-key distribution and coin tossing Bennett, C. H. and Brassard, G. Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Computers, December 1984. Hiding Data in DNA Boris Shimanovsky, Jessica Feng and Miodrag Potkonjak Information Hiding, 2003 - Springer Disappearing Cryptography. Information Hiding: Steganography & Watermarking. (3rd ed.) Peter Wayner. Elsevier, 2009. Alberto V. E. (CRYP - UGR) Steganography April 2010 36 / 38
  74. 74. ReferencesReferences III Matem´ticos, esp´ y piratas inform´ticos. Codificaci´n y a ıas a o Criptograf´ ıa. Joan G´mez o RBA, 2010. Wikipedia: Steganography http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Steganography Kriptopolis (in Spanish) http://www.kriptopolis.org/articulos/esteganografia Steganography: How to Send a Secret Message http://www.strangehorizons.com/2001/20011008/ steganography.shtml Johnson & Johnson Technology Consultants (Neil F. Johnson) http://www.jjtc.com/Steganography/ (software) Alberto V. E. (CRYP - UGR) Steganography April 2010 37 / 38
  75. 75. The end Thank you. Questions? Please be nice Just one more thing!Alberto V. E. (CRYP - UGR) Steganography April 2010 38 / 38
  76. 76. The end Thank you. Questions? Please be nice Just one more thing!Alberto V. E. (CRYP - UGR) Steganography April 2010 38 / 38

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