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Setting a Precedent with Open Resources Development in English for Specific Academic Purposes


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Workshop with Martin Barge, Saima Sherazi and William Tweddle at the BALEAP 2015 Conference in Leicester, England on April 17, 2015.

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Setting a Precedent with Open Resources Development in English for Specific Academic Purposes

  1. 1. Setting a Precedent with Open Resources Development in English for Specific Academic Purposes Alannah Fitzgerald, Martin Barge, Saima Sherazi, William Tweddle Image: "The Village Lawyer's office" by Pieter Brueghel the Younger - Sotheby's. Licensed under Public Domain via Wikimedia Commons.
  2. 2. Workshop Overview • Research and development project with FLAX – Who we are • Demonstration of free gamed-based apps for Android devices for interacting with FLAX collections • Reflection on ESAP resources development with openly licensed content – Demonstration Law Collections – Creative Commons – Open Access – MOOCs
  3. 3. The FLAX Vision “FLAX (Flexible Language Acquisition) is both a vision and a tool that you can use for language learning. The Web contains innumerable language activities, quizzes, and games, but they are fixed: the activities are cast in stone and the material is chosen by others. Our vision is to put the control back where it belongs, in the hands of teachers and learners.” (eBook of FLAX)
  4. 4. Who are we in this flax research & Development collaboration?
  5. 5. FLAX Language Project at the Greenstone Digital Library Lab, Waikato University NZ Professor Ian Witten FLAX Project Lead Dr Shaoqun Wu FLAX Project Lead Researcher & Developer
  6. 6. Research on Open FLAX Collections Alannah Fitzgerald Open Fellow with OERRH FLAX Language & Open Education Researcher
  7. 7. OER Research Hypotheses
  8. 8. Queen Mary U. of London Language Centre William Tweddle, Martin Barge, Saima Sherazi
  9. 9. Demonstration of Interactive flax activities and apps
  10. 10. FLAX TEAM Apps for Android via GooglePlay File:Android_robot_skateboarding.svg /
  11. 11. Split Sentences Developers’ Interface
  12. 12. Split Sentences Learners’ Interface
  13. 13. Related Words Developers’ Interface
  14. 14. Related Words Learners’ Web Interface
  15. 15. Collocation Guessing Developers’ Interface
  16. 16. Collocations Guessing Learners’ Web Interface
  17. 17. Collocation Dominoes Developers’ Interface
  18. 18. Collocation Dominoes Learners’ Web Interface
  19. 19. Reflection on Open Educational Practices (OEP)
  20. 20. Openness in EAP? What do you perceive as the biggest barriers and affordances for adopting open resources and practices in EAP?
  21. 21. Research into EAP Mats Development Do you perceive the current culture of EAP as being supportive of research into materials development? Why/Why not? Can you give us an example?
  22. 22. The eBook of FLAX “FLAX enables teachers to build bespoke libraries very easily. It is built upon powerful digital library technology, and provides access to vast linguistic resources containing countless examples of actual, authentic, usage in contemporary text. But teachers can also build collections using their own material, focusing on language learning in a particular domain (e.g. business, law) or motivating students by using text from a particular context (e.g. country or region, common interests).”
  23. 23. Working with Full Texts
  24. 24. FLAX HTML Formatting Tool
  25. 25. Wikify Your FLAX Collections
  26. 26.
  27. 27. Wiki-Annotate Articles
  28. 28. Demo Law Collections in FLAX
  29. 29. Domain-specific Collocations We focus on lexical collocations with noun-based structures because they are the most salient and important patterns in domain-specific text. Collocations from the English Common Law MOOC: •verb + noun e.g. abolish judicial review •noun + noun e.g. precedent case •adjective + noun e.g. common law •noun + of + noun e.g. court of appeal
  30. 30. Collocations in FLAX
  31. 31. Linking to the FLAX Learning Collocations Collection (Wikipedia, BNC, BAWE)
  32. 32. Lexical Bundles “Lexical bundles” are multi-word sequences with distinctive syntactic patterns and discourse functions that are commonly used in academic prose (Biber & Barbieri, 2007; Biber et al, 2003, 2004). Bundles from British Law Report Corpus (BLaRC): •noun phrase + of e.g. In the course of his •prepositional phrase + of e.g. on the part of the •it + verb/adjective phrase e.g. it is common ground that •be + noun/adjective phrase e.g. be taken into account in •verb phrase + that e.g. There is no doubt that
  33. 33. Lexical Bundles in FLAX
  34. 34. Good Ol’ Part-Of-Speech Tagging
  35. 35. Creative Commons and OER
  36. 36. Creative Commons
  37. 37.
  38. 38. Steamboat Bill Jnr  Steamboat Willie  Mickey Mouse
  39. 39. Culture as Owned “The meaning of this pattern is absolutely clear to those who pay to produce it. The meaning is: No one can do to the Disney Corporation what Walt Disney did to the Brothers Grimm. That though we had a culture where people could take and build upon what went before, that's over.” (Larry Lessig, Keynote address at the Open Source Convention, 2002)
  40. 40. Common Sense of the Commons “I've told a dark story. The truth is more mixed. A technology has given us a new freedom. Slowly, some begin to understand that this freedom need not mean anarchy. We can carry a free culture into the twenty-first century, without artists losing and without the potential of digital technology being destroyed. ... Common sense must revolt. It must act to free culture. Soon, if this potential is ever to be realized.” (Larry Lessig, 2004)
  41. 41. Open access
  42. 42.
  43. 43. Aaron Swartz What do you know about Aaron Swartz and his contribution to the Open Access and Open Education movements?
  44. 44. Aaron Swartz “Aaron Swartz was a brilliant young programmer and internet activist. Among many other things, he helped found the social news site, Reddit, and helped Larry Lessig establish Creative Commons... Schwartz believed deeply that information of all sorts should be widely accessible. And that belief proved his undoing.” (William Fisher, 2014)
  45. 45. “In 2011, while he was a fellow at Harvard's Safra Center, Swartz surreptitiously downloaded a large number of journal articles from the website of JSTOR, a massive nonprofit repository of such articles, to a laptop computer that he had placed in a closet at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Most likely, Swartz intended to make the articles available to the public at large, but he never did so. His actions were detected, and he was arrested. He subsequently returned to JSTOR all of the data he had downloaded. JSTOR itself, the ostensible victim of Swartz's misconduct, released a statement indicating that it would not bring a civil copyright infringement suit against him and did not support a criminal prosecution. Nevertheless, the United States Attorney in Boston pressed forward with a prosecution. Swartz was indicted, not for violating Section 506(a), but for, quote, "wire fraud, computer fraud, unlawfully obtaining information from a protected computer, and recklessly damaging a protected computer," close quote.” (William Fisher, 2014)
  46. 46. “Perhaps some sort of criminal penalty was warranted in this case, perhaps a deferred prosecution agreement, which would have been effective in preventing Swartz from engaging in similar conduct in the future. Perhaps. ...In short, the prosecutors in this case failed to exercise their power wisely. I know and respect one of those prosecutors. He's not a cruel person. But he and his colleagues acted irresponsibly, and the result was tragedy.” (William Fisher, 2014)
  47. 47. “I received an email from JSTOR four days before Aaron died, from the president of JSTOR, announcing, celebrating that JSTOR was going to release all of these journal articles to anybody around the world who wanted access — exactly what Aaron was fighting for. And I didn’t have time to send it to Aaron; I was on — I was traveling. But I looked forward to seeing him again — I had just seen him the week before — and celebrating that this is what had happened. Aaron Swartz is now an icon, an ideal. He is what we will be fighting for, all of us, for the rest of our lives. … Every time you saw Aaron, he was surrounded by five or 10 different people who loved and respected and worked with him. He was depressed because he was increasingly recognizing that the idealism he brought to this fight maybe wasn’t enough... This was somebody — this was somebody who was pushed to the edge by what I think of as a kind of bullying by our government.” (Larry Lessig, 2013)
  48. 48.
  49. 49. Directory of Open Access Journals
  50. 50. EThOS at the British Library e-theses online service;jsessionid=D5C054EBBD8621322F76B65408CC0932
  51. 51. Massive open online courses
  52. 52. Openness in Mainstream MOOCs?
  53. 53. How Open are MOOCs? • Mostly Open Gratis or Open Libre? • What difference does open licensing make to the education community?
  54. 54. Current MOOC Language Issues • Mainstream MOOCs (Coursera, edX, Udacity) are predominantly in the English Language – MOOC learners are not registered as language learners • Language ability impacts on retention and course completion • Crowdsourcing and funding for commercial translations of MOOCs is currently limited – Translations of lectures only do not assist with assessment requirements in e.g. English-medium MOOCs • Receptive versus productive language needs • Mainstream MOOCs do not (in most cases) license content openly as Open Educational Resources (OER) – Open licensing with Creative Commons is vital for developing derivative resources to support language learning – Building linguistic support into MOOC learning platforms? e.g. a combination of translation and corpus-based tools? • Online learning offers a compelling case for corpus-based approaches
  55. 55. Look Out for FLAX with Russell Stannard’s Teacher Training Videos
  56. 56. FLAX Across Platforms • FLAX Website for hosting open online language collections • Building directly onto the Web with OER • FLAX multilingual open-source software for download • Set up your own FLAX server online or; • Build collections offline for use on your PC • FLAX Android apps for download • Interact with game-based FLAX collections while on the go • FLAX for MOODLE plug-in for download • FLAX for MOOC Platforms? • FLAX in conjunction with translation technologies?
  57. 57. References • Biber, D., Conrad, S., & Cortes, V. (2003). Lexical bundles in speech and writing: an initial taxonomy. In A. Wilson, P. Rayson, & T. McEnery (Eds.), Corpus linguistics by the lune: A festschrift for Geoffrey Leech (pp. 71–92). Frankfurt/Main: Peter Lang. • Biber, D., Conrad, S., & Cortes, V. (2004). If you look at . . .: lexical bundles in university teaching and textbooks. Applied Linguistics, 25, 371–405. Biber, D. (2006). University Language, A corpus-based study of spoken and written registers. John Benjamins, Amsterdam. • Biber, D., Barbieri F. (2007). Lexical bundles in university spoken and written registers. English for Specific Purpose, 26, 263–286. • Lessig, L. (2013). In Democracy NOW! " An Incredible Soul": Larry Lessig Remembers Aaron Swartz After Cyberactivist ’s Suicide Before Trial; Parents Blame Prosecutor” • Lessig, L. (2004).Free Culture: How Big Media Uses Technology and the Law to Lock Down Culture and Control Creativity. • Milne, D. & Witten, I.H. (2013). An open-source toolkit for mining Wikipedia. Artificial Intelligence, 194, 222-239. • William Fisher, (2014). CopyrightX: Lecture 12.3, Remedies: Criminal Penalties.
  58. 58. Thank You FLAX Language Project & Software Downloads: The How-to eBook of FLAX: %20links.pdf FLAX Game-based Apps for Android via Google Play Store (free): Ian Witten (FLAX Project Lead): Shaoqun Wu (FLAX Research and Development): Alannah Fitzgerald (FLAX Open Language Research): Xiaofeng Alex Yu (FLAX Apps Development): Martin Barge (Queen Mary Language Centre): Saima Sherazi (Queen Mary Language Centre): William Tweddle (Queen Mary Language Centre): OER Research Hub: TOETOE Technology for Open English Blog: Slideshare: Twitter: @AlannahFitz