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Love is a stranger in an open car to tempt you in and drive you far away... toward OEP

From the blog TOETOE (ˈtɔɪtɔɪ): Technology for Open English - Toying with Open E-resources http://www.alannahfitzgerald.org/love-is-a-stranger-in-an-open-car-who-tempts-you-in-and-drives-you-far-away/

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Articles from TOETOE Technology for
    Open English Toying with Open E-
              resources (ˈtɔɪtɔɪ)
Love is a stranger in an open car to tempt you in and
drive you far away … toward OEP
2013-02-14 09:02:47 admin


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       Love Is A Stranger by the
       Eurythmics. Image via the
       Eurythmics Sheet Music
       Gallery

Happy Valentine’s Day!

This post is about how I came to be seduced by open educational practices (OEP).

TOETOE International blog series

After a period of radio silence, I have prepared a new series of blog posts on OEP in
ELT based on my TOETOE International project with the University of Oxford, the
UK Higher Education Academy (HEA) and the Joint Information Systems Committee
(JISC). They will be released weekly from today leading up to my presentation at the
OER13 Conference in Nottingham in April, Stories from the Open Frontier of English
Language Education Resources. These posts are a version of the case study I have
prepared for this project, FLAX Weaving with Oxford Open Educational Resources,
which will be published by the HEA/JISC as an OER later this year.

I have assembled these posts into ethnographic accounts (LeCompte & Schensul
1999:17; Clifford 1990:51-52) to stop the clock as it were and to reorder the recent
past that has been observed and jotted down; to systematize, contextualize and
assemble the activity of the TOETOE International project across seven different
countries. They will be part narrative and part design dialectic, drawing on stories
and evaluations made by international stakeholders concerning the re-use of Oxford
content: Oxford-managed corpora (the British National Corpus aka BNC and the
British Academic Written English corpus aka BAWE) and Oxford-created OER
(podcast lectures and seminars, images, essays, ebooks) in combination with other
open English-medium content. Moreover, these evaluation narratives will continue to
inform the design of open source digital library software for developing flexible open
English language learning and teaching collections with the FLAX project (Flexible
Language Acquisition) at the University of Waikato in New Zealand.

Thick descriptions (Geertz, 1973) will be presented from networked meetings,
workshops, conference presentations and interviews with OER and ELT
practitioners for arriving at better understandings of the social acts and symbols
connected with the international open education movement. As part of the reflexive
writing process, I have re-storied the stories of participating individuals and
institutions, placing them in chronological sequence and providing causal links
among ideas. Themes arising from the stories contain new metaphors for linking
unfamiliar phenomena from each country represented with familiar concepts for
understanding OER in the international context. Topics introduced by this TOETOE
International blog series include: emancipatory English, Do-It-Yourself (DIY) open
English language collections building, working OER into traditional ELT publications,
and long-range planning for embedding OER and OEP within sustainable English
language education.



What drives someone toward open educational practice?

The reasons will be numerous but the one that stands out for me is the capacity to
work across the international open education network, either in online or face-2-face
mode. Working across disciplinary, technological and geographical boundaries, my
current practice seems very distant from the practice I was trained in all those years
ago when I did the Cambridge Dip.TEFLA (now the DELTA) in Seoul, Korea.
Nonetheless, everything that I do now in my new open educational practice is very
much informed by my past teaching practice in traditional classroom-based
EFL/ESL and EAP.

There are vast changes happening across education globally and there is a growing
need for flexible and high quality open educational resources in English along with
an expanded open infrastructure to support research, teaching, training, learning
and curriculum development while English is the lingua franca in education,
research and publishing. Indeed, the position of English as international lingua
franca is wholly dependent on its use and ownership by non-native speakers of
English (Graddol, 2006). However, the reality of a rapidly expanding global higher
education industry (UNESCO 2008), where open and online distance education are
fast becoming major players because of affordances with educational technologies,
has yet to trickle down into the workflow of English language teaching practitioners
working in traditional classroom-based education.

In one of the learning technology forums I belong to someone was asking after
recommended PhD programmes; someone else replied that whatever area you do
your PhD in you’d better be prepared to live and breathe your chosen PhD topic area
for many years to come if not your whole career. With my PhD I have begun
identifying flexible pathways for open educational resources and practices to be
shared across traditional classroom-based and open online English language
education, but I expect that I will be continuing with this inquiry for quite some time to
come.



Somewhere OvER the Rainbow – the myth about OER quality in language
resources

I was only at the Open Education 2012 Conference in Vancouver for the first day,
presenting The Great Beyond in English language resources, as I was flying out to
Beijing the day after to catch the Global Local Computer Assisted Language
Learning (GLoCALL) Conference. Before attending these conferences I had been
working on a detailed TOETOE project blog post, Radio Ga Ga: Corpus-based
resources, you’ve yet to have your finest hour, which outlined the beginning of this
OER International project with Oxford for the development and promotion of open
corpus-based resources and practices in ELT.

Not surprisingly, I was assigned to the Libraries and Languages presentation slot at
OpenEd 2012 where the conference theme was Beyond Content. The presenters
from the other project in this session, Developing Foreign Language Courses for the
Open Library Project, seemed to be fairly new to OER and raised issues around
OER quality, stating that they needed to work with professional resource developers
and publishers to produce what appeared to me to be fairly ordinary audio
recordings for target language items to be used in their project resources.

Put simply, publishing language resources with a reputable publishing house does
not always guarantee quality in the same way that publishing with an open license
does not always guarantee quality. The difference being that if you buy a course
book and it turns out to be a lemon then you’re stuck with it – you either leave it on
the shelf or you spend hours developing supplementary resources to ‘fix’ it.
However, if you subscribe to an open educational practice model for materials
development you can:

Re-use an OER and if it doesn’t work for you then you’re free to:
Re-vise / re-purpose;

Re-mix with other open (and proprietary content which you have cleared for use)
and;

Re-distribute through a variety of open and proprietary channels.

These are the four Rs of OER (Wiley, 2009). A far cry from the materials
development method I learned on the Cambridge CELTA and DipTEFLA modules
which was to Select, Adapt, Reject and Supplement (SARS) course book materials
from leading ELT publishers (Graves, 2003).

In addition to raising the point about quality with the other presenters in my Open
Educationa 2012 session in the Q&A, during the lunch break I discussed the on-
going myth about OER quality with one of my SCORE colleagues from the UK,
Chris Pegler. I have been a big fan of her Resource Reuse Card Game (embedded
below in Slideshare) from the ORIOLE project (Open Resources: Influence on
Learners and Educators) to look at issues surrounding educational resource re-use,
including the issue of quality. It turns out that I would be re-using her card game in
workshops in Korea, New Zealand and Vietnam as part of this project, and I will be
including more findings from these interactions with the re-use card game in
upcoming posts.

ORIOLE is currently fielding survey responses to Investigating Sharing and Use of
Open Resources and is particularly keen to hear from non-UK respondents.




Resource reuse card game from orioleproject
Reinforcement of the myth surrounding OER quality was not what I was expecting
to encounter at an open education conference but I do come across this a lot in the
work I do with teacher training at ELT events. I have noticed a discernible pattern
whereby a handful of language teachers will say that their role at their institution is to
develop resources (often single-handedly) for their programme(s), and where many
more teachers will openly declare that they do not consider themselves to be
supported or encouraged to develop materials to share across their community of
practice. Common claims for not developing and sharing resources beyond
classroom handouts include a deficit in technology training and a reliance on in-
house materials or proprietary course books that have been selected and or
developed by programme managers. These are all valid reasons considering these
are all common practices.

In many ways we are trained to consume and not to create resources, and at most
we permit ourselves to adapt and supplement often irrespective of intellectual
property rights, making it difficult to share beyond institutional and virtual learning
environment walls. But can language practitioners and the training and professional
bodies that promote current ELT practice continue to shy away from an era of
ubiquitous digital content and self-publishing platforms? Going through the motions
with course books is a killer so how are we going to support our creative license if all
that’s required of us is to consume and regurgitate ready-made ELT skills meals in
the form of generic course books? Hopefully the question of bringing language
teachers to the realization of their central role as materials developers will be one of
the topics on the table at the Materials Development Association (MATSDA)
University of Liverpool Conference which I will be attending in April directly after the
IATEFL Conference Liverpool 2013.



Less yak and more hack! : rapid prototyping of resources

      …it became clear to me that every technology is based upon what I call
      the orchestration of phenomena, natural effects working together. If you
      look at any new technology as a whole symphony orchestra of working
      phenomena, it becomes a huge wonder. I have a sense of wonder far,
      far greater than I had before. As human beings, we’re using these
      things unthinkingly every day—it’s like having magic carpets at our
      disposal, and we have no idea how they fly. Let me add one last thing.
      I’m an enthusiast about technology, but I am also suspicious of it and
      what it’s doing to us. It intrudes in our lives, it causes us problems such
      as climate change, and it’s taken away a lot of our deep connection with
      nature. But at the same time it’s an incredible wonder. (Interview with
      W. Brian Arthur, author of The Nature of Technology)

Unless you know what’s at your disposal technologically-speaking and unless you
know how to bring resources together, mindful of their affordances and their
limitations, then to the untrained eye technological innovation can seem like pure
genius. But it’s probably more the case of working through problem solving
scenarios step by step, pulling together an ever increasing swag bag of tech
goodies to create solutions for the moment until the next thing comes along….and
so the cycle continues. This can feel very overwhelming to the individual teacher
who would like to be better at using technology and this is why Russell Stannard’s
Teacher Training Videos (TTV) is such a big hit among language teachers with
bringing what’s out there from the wide world of web-based language resources to
teachers.

We now have the technology to flip the course book, the classroom and even higher
education with the massive explosion in MOOCs (Massive Open Online Courses)
entering the traditional university world with for-profit providers such as Udacity,
Coursera and FutureLearn. However, the point I would like to add to this is that
resource developers such as those whose web-based language technologies are
featured on TTV need feedback on what does and does not work in practice. This is
where language teachers can come squarely into the technology equation and learn
far more from evaluating and contributing to the development of resources than they
would ever pick up at any teacher training continuing professional development
session on technology. It dawned on me during my Masters in Edtech and ELT at
Manchester University that I wasn’t going to learn much from talking about
technology; instead I ended up going directly to the source itself by working with
open source software (OSS) developers at the FLAX project.

Hackfests with OSS developers and OER book sprints (see an example of a maths
book sprint here) with educators are two rapid prototyping methods for creating
code and educational resources. There is no time for hesitancy or hierarchy, you
simply work and learn with others to devise shared goals and to bring all that you
can to the creation process; to come up with rapid prototypes to share back to the
wider community to re-use, re-purpose, re-mix and re-distribute as OER. By
attending two Mozilla Drumbeat festivals in Barcelona and London I got to observe
and participate in early discussions for the rapid prototyping of Open Badges for
educational assessment and Mozilla Popcorn for creating interactive online videos.




Mozilla Drumbeat Festivals since
2010 – Learning, Freedom and the
Web via Flickr
Ad

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Love is a stranger in an open car to tempt you in and drive you far away... toward OEP

  • 1. Articles from TOETOE Technology for Open English Toying with Open E- resources (ˈtɔɪtɔɪ) Love is a stranger in an open car to tempt you in and drive you far away … toward OEP 2013-02-14 09:02:47 admin Tweet Share Share Love Is A Stranger by the Eurythmics. Image via the Eurythmics Sheet Music Gallery Happy Valentine’s Day! This post is about how I came to be seduced by open educational practices (OEP). TOETOE International blog series After a period of radio silence, I have prepared a new series of blog posts on OEP in ELT based on my TOETOE International project with the University of Oxford, the UK Higher Education Academy (HEA) and the Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC). They will be released weekly from today leading up to my presentation at the OER13 Conference in Nottingham in April, Stories from the Open Frontier of English
  • 2. Language Education Resources. These posts are a version of the case study I have prepared for this project, FLAX Weaving with Oxford Open Educational Resources, which will be published by the HEA/JISC as an OER later this year. I have assembled these posts into ethnographic accounts (LeCompte & Schensul 1999:17; Clifford 1990:51-52) to stop the clock as it were and to reorder the recent past that has been observed and jotted down; to systematize, contextualize and assemble the activity of the TOETOE International project across seven different countries. They will be part narrative and part design dialectic, drawing on stories and evaluations made by international stakeholders concerning the re-use of Oxford content: Oxford-managed corpora (the British National Corpus aka BNC and the British Academic Written English corpus aka BAWE) and Oxford-created OER (podcast lectures and seminars, images, essays, ebooks) in combination with other open English-medium content. Moreover, these evaluation narratives will continue to inform the design of open source digital library software for developing flexible open English language learning and teaching collections with the FLAX project (Flexible Language Acquisition) at the University of Waikato in New Zealand. Thick descriptions (Geertz, 1973) will be presented from networked meetings, workshops, conference presentations and interviews with OER and ELT practitioners for arriving at better understandings of the social acts and symbols connected with the international open education movement. As part of the reflexive writing process, I have re-storied the stories of participating individuals and institutions, placing them in chronological sequence and providing causal links among ideas. Themes arising from the stories contain new metaphors for linking unfamiliar phenomena from each country represented with familiar concepts for understanding OER in the international context. Topics introduced by this TOETOE International blog series include: emancipatory English, Do-It-Yourself (DIY) open English language collections building, working OER into traditional ELT publications, and long-range planning for embedding OER and OEP within sustainable English language education. What drives someone toward open educational practice? The reasons will be numerous but the one that stands out for me is the capacity to work across the international open education network, either in online or face-2-face mode. Working across disciplinary, technological and geographical boundaries, my current practice seems very distant from the practice I was trained in all those years ago when I did the Cambridge Dip.TEFLA (now the DELTA) in Seoul, Korea. Nonetheless, everything that I do now in my new open educational practice is very much informed by my past teaching practice in traditional classroom-based EFL/ESL and EAP. There are vast changes happening across education globally and there is a growing need for flexible and high quality open educational resources in English along with an expanded open infrastructure to support research, teaching, training, learning and curriculum development while English is the lingua franca in education,
  • 3. research and publishing. Indeed, the position of English as international lingua franca is wholly dependent on its use and ownership by non-native speakers of English (Graddol, 2006). However, the reality of a rapidly expanding global higher education industry (UNESCO 2008), where open and online distance education are fast becoming major players because of affordances with educational technologies, has yet to trickle down into the workflow of English language teaching practitioners working in traditional classroom-based education. In one of the learning technology forums I belong to someone was asking after recommended PhD programmes; someone else replied that whatever area you do your PhD in you’d better be prepared to live and breathe your chosen PhD topic area for many years to come if not your whole career. With my PhD I have begun identifying flexible pathways for open educational resources and practices to be shared across traditional classroom-based and open online English language education, but I expect that I will be continuing with this inquiry for quite some time to come. Somewhere OvER the Rainbow – the myth about OER quality in language resources I was only at the Open Education 2012 Conference in Vancouver for the first day, presenting The Great Beyond in English language resources, as I was flying out to Beijing the day after to catch the Global Local Computer Assisted Language Learning (GLoCALL) Conference. Before attending these conferences I had been working on a detailed TOETOE project blog post, Radio Ga Ga: Corpus-based resources, you’ve yet to have your finest hour, which outlined the beginning of this OER International project with Oxford for the development and promotion of open corpus-based resources and practices in ELT. Not surprisingly, I was assigned to the Libraries and Languages presentation slot at OpenEd 2012 where the conference theme was Beyond Content. The presenters from the other project in this session, Developing Foreign Language Courses for the Open Library Project, seemed to be fairly new to OER and raised issues around OER quality, stating that they needed to work with professional resource developers and publishers to produce what appeared to me to be fairly ordinary audio recordings for target language items to be used in their project resources. Put simply, publishing language resources with a reputable publishing house does not always guarantee quality in the same way that publishing with an open license does not always guarantee quality. The difference being that if you buy a course book and it turns out to be a lemon then you’re stuck with it – you either leave it on the shelf or you spend hours developing supplementary resources to ‘fix’ it. However, if you subscribe to an open educational practice model for materials development you can: Re-use an OER and if it doesn’t work for you then you’re free to:
  • 4. Re-vise / re-purpose; Re-mix with other open (and proprietary content which you have cleared for use) and; Re-distribute through a variety of open and proprietary channels. These are the four Rs of OER (Wiley, 2009). A far cry from the materials development method I learned on the Cambridge CELTA and DipTEFLA modules which was to Select, Adapt, Reject and Supplement (SARS) course book materials from leading ELT publishers (Graves, 2003). In addition to raising the point about quality with the other presenters in my Open Educationa 2012 session in the Q&A, during the lunch break I discussed the on- going myth about OER quality with one of my SCORE colleagues from the UK, Chris Pegler. I have been a big fan of her Resource Reuse Card Game (embedded below in Slideshare) from the ORIOLE project (Open Resources: Influence on Learners and Educators) to look at issues surrounding educational resource re-use, including the issue of quality. It turns out that I would be re-using her card game in workshops in Korea, New Zealand and Vietnam as part of this project, and I will be including more findings from these interactions with the re-use card game in upcoming posts. ORIOLE is currently fielding survey responses to Investigating Sharing and Use of Open Resources and is particularly keen to hear from non-UK respondents. Resource reuse card game from orioleproject
  • 5. Reinforcement of the myth surrounding OER quality was not what I was expecting to encounter at an open education conference but I do come across this a lot in the work I do with teacher training at ELT events. I have noticed a discernible pattern whereby a handful of language teachers will say that their role at their institution is to develop resources (often single-handedly) for their programme(s), and where many more teachers will openly declare that they do not consider themselves to be supported or encouraged to develop materials to share across their community of practice. Common claims for not developing and sharing resources beyond classroom handouts include a deficit in technology training and a reliance on in- house materials or proprietary course books that have been selected and or developed by programme managers. These are all valid reasons considering these are all common practices. In many ways we are trained to consume and not to create resources, and at most we permit ourselves to adapt and supplement often irrespective of intellectual property rights, making it difficult to share beyond institutional and virtual learning environment walls. But can language practitioners and the training and professional bodies that promote current ELT practice continue to shy away from an era of ubiquitous digital content and self-publishing platforms? Going through the motions with course books is a killer so how are we going to support our creative license if all that’s required of us is to consume and regurgitate ready-made ELT skills meals in the form of generic course books? Hopefully the question of bringing language teachers to the realization of their central role as materials developers will be one of the topics on the table at the Materials Development Association (MATSDA) University of Liverpool Conference which I will be attending in April directly after the IATEFL Conference Liverpool 2013. Less yak and more hack! : rapid prototyping of resources …it became clear to me that every technology is based upon what I call the orchestration of phenomena, natural effects working together. If you look at any new technology as a whole symphony orchestra of working phenomena, it becomes a huge wonder. I have a sense of wonder far, far greater than I had before. As human beings, we’re using these things unthinkingly every day—it’s like having magic carpets at our disposal, and we have no idea how they fly. Let me add one last thing. I’m an enthusiast about technology, but I am also suspicious of it and what it’s doing to us. It intrudes in our lives, it causes us problems such as climate change, and it’s taken away a lot of our deep connection with nature. But at the same time it’s an incredible wonder. (Interview with W. Brian Arthur, author of The Nature of Technology) Unless you know what’s at your disposal technologically-speaking and unless you know how to bring resources together, mindful of their affordances and their limitations, then to the untrained eye technological innovation can seem like pure genius. But it’s probably more the case of working through problem solving
  • 6. scenarios step by step, pulling together an ever increasing swag bag of tech goodies to create solutions for the moment until the next thing comes along….and so the cycle continues. This can feel very overwhelming to the individual teacher who would like to be better at using technology and this is why Russell Stannard’s Teacher Training Videos (TTV) is such a big hit among language teachers with bringing what’s out there from the wide world of web-based language resources to teachers. We now have the technology to flip the course book, the classroom and even higher education with the massive explosion in MOOCs (Massive Open Online Courses) entering the traditional university world with for-profit providers such as Udacity, Coursera and FutureLearn. However, the point I would like to add to this is that resource developers such as those whose web-based language technologies are featured on TTV need feedback on what does and does not work in practice. This is where language teachers can come squarely into the technology equation and learn far more from evaluating and contributing to the development of resources than they would ever pick up at any teacher training continuing professional development session on technology. It dawned on me during my Masters in Edtech and ELT at Manchester University that I wasn’t going to learn much from talking about technology; instead I ended up going directly to the source itself by working with open source software (OSS) developers at the FLAX project. Hackfests with OSS developers and OER book sprints (see an example of a maths book sprint here) with educators are two rapid prototyping methods for creating code and educational resources. There is no time for hesitancy or hierarchy, you simply work and learn with others to devise shared goals and to bring all that you can to the creation process; to come up with rapid prototypes to share back to the wider community to re-use, re-purpose, re-mix and re-distribute as OER. By attending two Mozilla Drumbeat festivals in Barcelona and London I got to observe and participate in early discussions for the rapid prototyping of Open Badges for educational assessment and Mozilla Popcorn for creating interactive online videos. Mozilla Drumbeat Festivals since 2010 – Learning, Freedom and the Web via Flickr
  • 7. The Mozilla Drumbeat Hackfest in Barcelona 2010 via Flickr While back in New Zealand late last year with the FLAX project team at the Greenstone digital library lab at Waikato, every week I would participate in developer meetings with the computer scientists behind the project and one other English language teacher from the Chinese Open University who is also basing her PhD research on the FLAX project. Well-versed in natural language processing and research on current web-based search behaviour, the computer scientists behind the interface designs of the FLAX collections and activities were adept at exploiting available linguistic resources for the development of simple-to-use language learning collections and OSS text analysis tools. I soon picked up what the limitations of the different technologies and resources were. The focus of these meetings was to develop rapid prototype resources for envisioning and discussing how they could work across different language learning scenarios. I was able to observe and contribute to many iterations of the resources currently under development and I will be bringing these resources to the fore of future blog posts in this series.
  • 8. Networking Open Tertiary Writing Resources from Alannah Fitzgerald I also had a chance to present my work at the Tertiary Writers Network Colloquium which was hosted by the Department of Education at Waikato. This was a great opportunity to share open practices in EAP with a non UK-based audience working mainly in Australasia and in the US. I highlighted some of the OEP going on with the EAP community online using social networking technologies such as Twitter, blogs, Slideshare, YouTube and so on for reflection on the different types of networks we are and are not plugging into. EFL/ESL has been employing these technologies for longer for sharing ideas and resources in general ELT but there is more that could be done with connecting teachers to resources development projects, either through the OSS community or through working with traditional ELT publishers for creating more effective resource evaluation channels that would help teachers learn more about technology. This would involve the development of resources to engage potential end-users, namely language teachers and students, in the research and development cycle of technology for ELT. In the field of educational technology we refer to this approach as design-based research which Terry Anderson, professor and Canada research chair in distance education, has referred to as action research on steroids (2007). Anderson’s analogy is a useful one as most language teachers are familiar with action research, which shares many of the same principles as design-based research. Pragmatism is central to both approaches, often employing mixed methods of inquiry to arrive at tangible solutions to educational problems. Normally within action
  • 9. research cycles it is individual teaching practitioners who carry out classroom teaching interventions to observe, record and reflect on the impact of these interventions over time with the aim of informing and improving teaching practice (Reason & Bradbury, 2007). However, within design-based research cycles, emphasis is more commonly placed on educational practitioners working in collaboration with research and design teams (Anderson & Shuttuck, 2012). Returning to EAP the question remains as to how much can we learn about EAP by talking about it? Quite a bit and I’m all for sharing views about what EAP is as it tries to define itself. What I would like to see beyond yak and competency frameworks like the one from BALEAP that came out in 2008, however, is more in the way of teaching and learning resources from EAP practitioners and evaluations on what works. At this point in time, we’re not yet collaborating with resources development practices across our EAP contexts in any sustainable way. It would be great if we could clone more Andy Gillettes of the Using English for Academic Purposes (UEfAP) website, successfully bringing together genre and corpus-based approaches to EAP resources development. However, it would be even better if instead of creating EAP resources that are open gratis (free to access like UEfAP) we were developing EAP resources that are open libre (free to re-use, re-vise, re- mix and re-distribute), for scaling collaborative open educational resources and practices in EAP as well as in the wider ELT community. References Anderson, T. & Shattuck, J. (2012) Design-Based Research: A Decade of Progress in Education Research. Educational Researcher, Vol 41(1): 16-25 Clifford, J. (1990). Notes on (field)notes. In R. Sanjek (ed.), Fieldnotes: The makings of anthropology (pp. 47–70). Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. Fitzgerald, A. (In press). FLAX Weaving with Oxford Open Educational Resources. Open Educational Resources International Case Study. Commissioned by the Higher Education Academy (HEA) and the Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC), United Kingdom. Geertz, C. (1973). The interpretation of cultures: selected essays. New York: Basic Books. Graddol. D. (2006). English Next – why English as a global language may mean the end of ‘English as a Foreign Language’. The British Council: The English Company. Graves, K, 2003. “Coursebooks.” In D. Nunan (Ed.) Practical English Language Teaching. New York: McGraw-Hill. LeCompte, M. & Schensul, J. (1999). Analyzing and interpreting ethnographic data. California: AltaMira Press. Reason, P. & Bradbury, H. (2007) Handbook of Action Research, 2nd Edition. London: Sage. Ross, G. (no date). An Interview with W. Brian Arthur. In American Scientist, On the Bookshelf. Retrieved from http://www.americanscientist.org/bookshelf/pub/an-interview-with-w- brian-arthur
  • 10. Wiley, D. & Gurrell, S. (2009). A decade of development…Open Learning: The Journal of Open, Distance and e-Learning. Vol 24 (1), pp.11-21. UNESCO (2008). Education For All. Global Monitoring Report 2008. United Nations Education Scientific Cultural Organisation. Retrieved from www.efareport.unesco.org Tweet Share Share The Love is a stranger in an open car to tempt you in and drive you far away … toward OEP by Alannah Fitzgerald, unless otherwise expressly stated, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. Terms and conditions beyond the scope of this license may be available at www.alannahfitzgerald.org.