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Korea University OER for ELT Presentation and Workshop


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A presentation and workshop given at Korea University in Seoul at the Center for Teaching and Learning with graduate students and English lecturers on November 2nd, 2012.

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Korea University OER for ELT Presentation and Workshop

  1. 1. Open Educational Resources for English Language Teaching Korea University WorkshopAlannah Fitzgerald
  2. 2. Overview• FLAX Open Source Data Driven Learning tools and collections – Windows into linked copyrighted and open corpora = super ELT resources that go beyond many published resources – More accessible for non-specialist users, namely teachers and students• Promotion, training and evaluation of resources – DDL is still not a popular sport in mainstream ELT (Tribble, 2012) – DDL approaches facilitate English for Specific (Academic) Purposes• Broadening the DDL stakeholder vision – How can we move beyond classroom practice to include open and distance learning? – How can we work more closely with international collaborators for OER?• UK OER International programme – Oxford creative commons resources & Oxford-managed corpora – Crowd sourcing open DDL resources = a new methodology for ELT & Materials Development – ORIEL Re-use game and Creative Commons licensing scenarios
  3. 3. OER Defined (i)Open Educational Resources are “...digitised materials offered freely and openly for educators, students and self learners to use and reuse for teaching, learning and research.” Giving Knowledge for Free: The Emergence of Open Educational Resources, OECD 2007
  4. 4. OER Defined (ii)Open communities as much as open content
  5. 5. SCORE Academic Practice & Accreditation
  6. 6. Cambridge ESOL Training in Materials DevelopmentKnowledge of resources, materials andreference sources for language learningDELTA Module Outline 2008
  7. 7. Adapting Textbook Activities with SARSSelectAdaptRejectSupplementGraves, 2003
  8. 8. Open Educational PracticesThe four Rs of OER in teaching & learning:Reuse – Use the work verbatim, just exactly as you found itRework – Alter or transform the work so that it better meets your needsRemix – Combine the (verbatim or altered work) with other works to better meet your needsRedistribute – Share the verbatim work, the reworked work, or the remixed work with othersDavid Wiley, 2007
  9. 9. Open Data-Driven Technology in Language Teaching and Learning Shaoqun Wu & Alannah Fitzgerald The Universities of Waikato and OxfordThe Higher Education Academy OER International
  10. 10. Data Driven Learning (DDL)In DDL, a student has access to a large body ofauthentic language, from which s/he can extractlanguage items in context. (Boulton, 2011)The student is a language “research worker”(Johns, 1994).
  11. 11. What is a Digital Library?The digital library concept is applied to acollection of digital resources includingbut not restricted to those selected bythe teacher.
  12. 12. Collocation Collocation database database Any other Any other resource resourceDigital LibraryDigital Library Glossary Glossary
  13. 13.
  14. 14. BNC/BAWE
  15. 15. Learning Collocations collection in FLAX FLAX team collections building:Shaoqun Wu, Ian Witten, Margaret Franken, Xiaofeng Yu – Waikato University
  16. 16. The BAWE text sub collections
  17. 17. Wikify key words & phrases
  18. 18. How could you use the FLAXcollections in your teaching andlearning?
  19. 19. Using corpus-based resources tosupport student writing Shaoqun Wu The University of Waikato
  20. 20. Features of academic writing• Complexity• Formality• Hedging• Precision• Objectivity• Explicitness• Accuracy• Responsibility
  21. 21. Complexity• more lexical words than grammatical words• more noun-based phrases• more nominalizations• more lexical variation
  22. 22. Laugesen claims that, "Two of the group who are Year 13s havenoticed a change this year." This point of view expressed is thatpeople understand drink too much is bad and it changes theirattitude of drinking. I agree with Laugesens point that with peoplegetting older and older, they realize drinking is not as fun as it seemsto be and they dont need to drink to be cool, instead, they can maketheir own decision whether to drink or not. However, the problem isthat Laugesen doesnt effectively shows the factors that changepeoples responds to their overdrinking and it seems to be notpersuasive enough . It is not only a whether to be cool problem ,drinking too much also brings some other problems. To take anexample, if people drink a lot and get to be addictive to drinking thatcannot get off it, it would bring the physical health problem such asmemory loss and myocardial infarction. Hence, Laugesens claim isnot persuasive enough to show why people change their attitude ofdrinking and more factors should be considered. The other point Iwant to make is that Laugesen doesnt concluded the article.
  23. 23. In the last paragraph, Laugesen points out that teenagers are furiousabout adults criticism of their overdrinking as a problem when adultthemselves drink so much . That is, many examples are shown in thearticle, but Laugesen doesnt really conclude what teenagers thinkabout how they are drinking. The article should be concluded in thelast paragraph and make the article more clearly to understand. First,teenagers are drawn to drink and the age to start drinking is gettingyounger and younger. Second, overdrinking is now becoming aproblem; its not only a teens problem, but is a problem of thepeople who get drunk. Finally, people realize overdrinking is aproblem and change their mind of drinking . Therefore, a conclusionis necessarily needed in the article. In this review, I have discussedLaugesens article "Our teen drinking culture". The article coversseveral points of how teenagers think about their drinking. I haveargued that while Laugesen is right that teenagers are drawn todrink, but the problems are that Laugesen doesnt effectively claimswhy and how people change their responds to their overdrinking. Aclearly conclusion is needed to make the article more specific andeasier understandable.
  24. 24. Formalityavoid: "stuff", "a lot of", "thing", "sort of", "cant", "doesnt", "shouldnt" "put off", "bring up"
  25. 25. Binge drinking is considered harmful, regardless of a personsage, and there have been calls for healthcare professionals togive increased attention to their patients drinking habits,especially binge drinking. Some researchers believe thatraising the legal drinking age and screening briefinterventions by healthcare providers are the most effectivemeans of reducing morbidity and mortality rates associatedwith binge drinking. Programs in the United States havethought of numerous ways to help prevent binge drinking.The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention suggestsincreasing the cost of alcohol or the excise taxes, restrictingthe number of stores who may obtain a license to sell liquor(reducing "outlet density"), and implementing stricter lawenforcement of underage drinking laws. There are also anumber of individual counselling approaches, such asmotivational interviewing and cognitive behavioralapproaches, that have been shown to reduce drinking amongheavy drinking college students.
  26. 26. Binge drinking is considered harmful, regardless of a personsage, and there have been calls for healthcare professionals togive increased attention to their patients drinking habits,especially binge drinking. Some researchers believe that raisingthe legal drinking age and screening brief interventions byhealthcare providers are the most effective means of reducingmorbidity and mortality rates associated with binge drinking.Programs in the United States have thought of numerous waysto help prevent binge drinking. The Centers for Disease Controland Prevention suggests increasing the cost of alcohol or theexcise taxes, restricting the number of stores who may obtain alicense to sell liquor (reducing "outlet density"), andimplementing stricter law enforcement of underage drinkinglaws. There are also a number of individual counsellingapproaches, such as motivational interviewing and cognitivebehavioral approaches, that have been shown to reducedrinking among heavy drinking college students.
  27. 27. Preparing for essay writing• for teachers: building a collection of articles on a related topic• for students: collecting noun phrases on a related topic
  28. 28. Example topic: stress at work• … is caused by work stress• … is affected by work stress• … due to the work stress• …. suffer from work stress• … is under extreme work stress•• … causes higher levels of stress• Effects of work stress include …• Sources of work stress are …• … are the signs of work stress• As a result of work stress, …•• What can you do to reduce work stress?• How to manage work stress/handle work stress/cope with work stress• uses strategies/resources to cope with work stress• learn … ways of coping with work stress
  29. 29. Student feedback• Words or phrases I had heard before but had trouble understanding properly, it was very good to look up these in relation to my assignment.• Origins of words like notation that were used in a different context that I’m used to. Makes me understand the text better.• When reading other texts related to assignment I could look words up I didnt understand.• I looked up words that I normally overlook as normal dictionaries dont tend to have these phrases or words. (EC’s comments on using the system for her phonology assignment) 29
  30. 30. Open Training Resources for Wider Participation Alannah Fitzgerald & Shaoqun Wu The Universities of Waikato and OxfordThe Higher Education Academy OER International
  31. 31. Training Videos for FLAX
  32. 32. Beyond audience boundariesRussell Stannard - Teacher Training Videos
  33. 33. Widening audience participation
  34. 34. Gyeonggi English Village
  35. 35. Education Broadcasting System ( 한국교육방송공사 )
  36. 36. International Collaboration OER for ELT FLAX and Oxford TOETOE International
  37. 37. University of Oxford 37
  38. 38. English through literature OER
  39. 39.
  40. 40.
  41. 41. Elements of a successful OER channel• Attractive to contributors• Usable• Useful• Used (and re-used)• Sustainable Photo courtesy of San Mateo County Library on Flickr
  42. 42. iTunesU OER Success FactorsAttractive to Usable Useful Used SustainablecontributorsProfile ✔ User Quality Download Over 800 Experience ✔ material ✔ numbers ✔ universities ✔‘Apple gloss’ Search Consistency Teachers ✔ Apple ✔✔ function ✔ ✔International Apple mobile Copyright Personal ✔ Benefit toreach ✔ ✔ ✗ ✔− contributors/i nstitution ✔ Linux, Feedback Not very Android ✗ ✗✔ repurposable ✗✔ Discoverability Community ✗ ✗✔
  43. 43. It’s all in the downloads University Downloads Open University, UK Over 34 million since June 2008 University of Oxford Over 9 million since June 2008 Coventry University 2.5 million in 2010 alone University of Warwick 1 million Jan ‘09 – June ‘10
  44. 44. What is Creative Commons?• Derived from free and open source software licensing• Founded in 2001 by Prof Lawrence Lessig at the University of Stanford• Designed to push back against increased enclosure of ‘intellectual commons’• Six ‘general’, regionalised licences for easy sharing of rights in content• A suite of machine-, human- and lawyer-readable licences• Some cool icons
  45. 45. What are the conditions?Attribution• Author must be acknowledged on all copies and adaptations of the work, including a link to the original version of the work
  46. 46. What are the conditions?Non-commercial• The work can only be used for non-commercial purposes
  47. 47. What are the conditions?No Derivatives• The work can only be distributed in its original form; no adaptations or translations can be made
  48. 48. What are the conditions?Sharealike• The work can be modified and adapted, but the entire resulting work (including new material added by the adaptor) must be distributed under the same sharealike licence
  49. 49. What are the six licences?
  50. 50. What does adaptation mean?• Your authorship will always be acknowledged• Some examples – Re-use in educational material – Sampling your voice to use in electronic music – Incorporating still or moving images into a Youtube video• Re-use must avoid ‘derogatory treatment’ meaning adaptation that risks having a detrimental effect on your reputation
  51. 51. What could you do with theOxford Creative Commonspodcast content?
  52. 52. Open podcast corpus development for spoken collections in FLAX
  53. 53. Linking open tools and open pods http:// 53
  54. 54. SPINDLE at
  55. 55. Teachers as OER developers, users, publishers
  56. 56. Materials Development with OERArguably, competencies with resources cut across the whole of the TEAP framework. 56
  57. 57. Why make educational resources open?A growing momentum behind OER worldwide Commitment to social justice and widening participation Helps build markets and reputation Bridges the divide between formal and informal learning A test bed for new e-learning developments and an opportunity to research and evaluate them A way of drawing in materials from other organisations A means for attracting the attention of publishers Provides the basis for world-wide collaboration
  58. 58.
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  60. 60. Reuse of OER•The blue cards are on a general theme ofMOTIVATION – what leads to OER reuse ordiscourages it.•The grey cards are on the theme of TECHNOLOGY –how this may affect OER reuse•The pink cards are on the theme of QUALITY – howthis affects OER use decisions 60
  61. 61. Open licensing scenarios with Creative Commons
  62. 62. Lichôdmapwa v. Théâtre de Spa Court of First Instance Nivelles (Tribunal de Première Instance Nivelles) 26 October 2010 A Belgian band uploaded some songs on a freely accessible website under a non-commercial and no derivatives Creative Commons license. A Belgian theatre used one of the songs to create an advertisement for the next theatrical season, which was broadcasted on several national radios channels. The Court found that the theatre did not respect the license and consequently granted indemnities to the band. tribunal-de-premiere-instance-bruxelles-26-october-2010-2/
  63. 63. Licensing ScenariosGroup work:Read and discuss the following licensing scenarios asthey would apply to language teaching and materialsdevelopment practice.(Adapted from copyright resources created by Bernie Atwell at the OU;adapted for language resource developers)
  64. 64. Use clearanceI’ve found an open access pre-publication article byDiane Nation on the web and this would be brilliant touse in my EAP class. I intend to develop a languagelearning resource with these materials and then toupload it into LORO for open use. I’ve tried to contact MsNation twice and have been in touch with the webmaster of the site to see if s/he can help but have had noresponse so far. I’ve amended the article, as I didn’tagree with some of the points she was making. I thinkI’ve improved the work actually and I’ve obviously lefther acknowledged as the author. As I’ve had no responseI’m just going to use it anyway. Everyone’s always talkingabout risk so I’ll take one. Is this OK?
  65. 65. CC licensing worldwideMy institution has an online open learning resourceand is based in the UK. We have selected an Englandand Wales UK licence for the use of our content.However, a user in China has asked us if the CC licencestill applies? Does the CC licence refer to where thecontent is being used or where it is hosted?
  66. 66. Open software licensesI have some software I would like to make available under a CC licence – would that be OK?
  67. 67. Logo protectionMy institution is making some of its content availableunder a CC licence. How do we ensure that ourtrademarks/logos are protected?
  68. 68. Extended Licensing ScenarioThe following scenario is intended to promotediscussion around the areas of creative commonslicensing, the collaborations involved, and any otherissues the discussion may highlight.
  69. 69. Your educational institution is going to be working incollaboration with at least two other educationalinstitutions in the UK.You are going to create an innovative joint MA TESOLresource for Masters students studying and researching inthe area of open corpora for teaching English forAcademic Purposes (EAP). This facility will act as a providerof online resources. All institutions will provide some oftheir own existing materials that contain third partycontent (journal articles, images, extracts from books, andwebsite content) which are made up of text and audio-visual content.The collaboration would like to make the content openlyavailable whilst ensuring that their intellectual propertyrights are not compromised.
  70. 70. Consider the following questions for discussion:• How would you license this content to users?• Would you consider using a Creative Commons licence, if so which one?• Would you need to consider more than one type of licence?• What would you need to take care of contractually in relation to the content?• How would you ensure that the integrity of third party content is maintained?
  71. 71. Thank youEmail:; FLAX Language:; Twitter: @AlannahFitz Slideshare: Blog: Technology for Open English – Toying with Open E-resources