http://www.lausd.k12.ca.us/lausd/resources/Literary.Terms.html#BalladBallad A story in poetic form, often about tragic love and usually sung. Ballads were passed down from generation to generation by singers. Two old Scottish ballads are "Sir Patrick Spens" and "Bonnie Barbara Allan." Coleridges, "The Rime of the Ancient Mariner" is a 19th century English ballad.Sonnet A lyric poem of fourteen lines whose ryhme scheme is fixed. The rhyme scheme in the Italian form as typified in the sonnets of Petrarch is abbaabba cdecde. The Petrarchian sonnet has two divisions: the first is of eight lines (the octave), and the second is of six lines (the sestet). The rhyme scheme of the English, or Shakespearean sonnet is abab cdcd efef gg. (See Rhyme Scheme). The change of rhyme in the English sonnet is coincidental with a change of theme in the poem. SeeTheme.The meter is iambic pentameter. See Meter for more information.Meter A regular pattern of unstressed and stressed syllables in a line or lines of poetry. Below is an illustration of some commonly used metrical patterns: EnjambmentWhen the units of sense in a passage of poetry dont coincide with the verses, and thesense runs on from one verse to another, the lines are said to be enjambed. When theverse length matches the length of the units of sense (clauses, sentences, whatever),
the lines are said to be end-stopped. The term comes from the French for "straddling,"since sentences "straddle" several lines. End-StoppedWhen the units of sense in a passage of poetry coincide with the verses, and the sensedoes not run on from one verse to another, the lines are said to be end-stopped. Whenthe verse length does not match the length of the units of sense (clauses, sentences,whatever), the lines are said to be enjambed.Eighteenth-century verse was most often end-stopped, as can be seen in this passagefrom Pope:Nothing so true as what you once let fall,"Most women have no characters at all."Matter too soft a lasting mark to bear,And best distinguished by black, brown, or fair.Notice each verse seems to contain a complete idea. Here, as often in Pope, sentencesare restricted to couplets. Now compare a heavily enjambed stanza from theRenaissance poet Henry Vaughan:With that some cried, "Away!" Straight IObeyed, and ledFull east, a fair, fresh field could spy;Some called it Jacobs bed,A virgin soil which noRude feet ere trod,Where, since he stepped there, only goProphets and friends of God.Here theres no sense of resting after many of the verses — "Straight I" needs to becontinued, as does "and led," "which no," and "only go."EpistleFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaJump to: navigation, searchAn epistle (Greek επιστολη, epistolē, "letter") is a writing directed or sent to a personor group of persons, usually a letter and a very formal, often didactic and elegant one.The letters in the New Testament from Apostles to Christians are usually referred toas epistles; those traditionally from Paul are known as Pauline epistles and the othersas Catholic or general epistles.
False analogyFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaJump to: navigation, searchThis article or section does not cite any references or sources.Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. (help, get involved!)Any material not supported by sources may be challenged and removed at any time.(See WP:BRD for suggestions how to do this constructively.) This article has been tagged since April2007.False analogy is a fallacy applying to inductive arguments. It is often mistakenlyconsidered to be a formal fallacy, but it is not, because a false analogy consists of anerror in the substance of an argument (the content of the analogy itself), not an errorin the logical structure of the argument. Thus, it is an informal fallacy, not a formalfallacy..In an analogy, two concepts, objects, or events proposed to be similar in nature (Aand B) are shown to have some common relationship with another property. Thepremise is that A has property X, and thus B must also have property X (due to theassumed similarity of A and B). In false analogies, though A and B may be similar inone respect (such as color) they may not both share property X (e.g. size). Thus, evenif bananas and the sun appear yellow, one could not conclude that they are the samesize. Many languages have culturally idiosyncratic idioms for invalid analogies orcomparisons; for example, such false analogies are likened to "comparinggrandmothers and frogs" in Serbian and to "comparing apples and oranges" inEnglish. Examples • In the field of international relations theory, the fallacy known as the domestic analogy is committed when relationships between political communities (nations) are treated as analogous to relations within political communities (between individuals), such that familiar morals and remedies for interpersonal issues are projected onto foreign policy narratives. To the extent that relationships are different at the local and international level, such analogies are invalid (Hidemi Suganami, The Domestic Analogy and World Order Proposals, CUP, 1989). • Another example is the following: The universe is like an intricate watch. A watch must have been designed by a watchmaker. Therefore, the universe must have been designed by some kind of creator. While the universe may be like a watch in that it is intricate, this does not in itself justify the assumption that watches and the universe have similar origins. For this reason, most scientists and philosophers do not accept the analogy, known as the argument from design, with this one specifically known as The Watchmaker Analogy. By changing a term, the fallacy becomes apparent:
The universe is like an intricate watch.A watch occasionally needs repair.Therefore, the universe occasionally needs repair.The structure of the argument is exactly the same, but we can see that theconclusion does not follow from the two premises.