As David Harvey (2006) explains, ‘the theory of neoliberalism... takes the view that individual liberty and freedom are the high point of civilization and then goes on to argue that individual liberty and freedom can best be protected and achieved by an institutional structure, made up of strong private property rights, free markets, and free trade: a world in which individual initiative can flourish. The implication of that is that the state should not be involved in the economy too much, but it should use its power to preserve private property rights and the institutions of the market and promote those on the global stage if necessary.’ In practice, however, as Wendy Brown (2006) describes, neoliberalism occupies the ‘shell of liberalism’. In other words it promotes freedom in name only. Neoliberals oppose state intervention unless it is to protect the freedom of the markets. Therefore, the Welfare State has come under extensive attack in neoliberal societies since the 1970s, while the punitive role of the state has grown. The result is greater inequality for the majority of people. Nevertheless, the emphasis placed on ‘personal responsibility’ in neoliberal discourse is attractive for those who believe that societies fare better when individuals are allowed to work more and pay less taxes. This view does not take into account the persistence of inequalities in terms of class, gender, race, sexuality, and disability in shaping individuals’ ability to participate equally in the market.