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Katahdin expo mineral talk 2021

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Katahdin expo mineral talk 2021

  1. 1. 8/19/2021 1 Minerals and their role in ruminant productivity and health Dr. Dan Morrical Premier 1 Production Specialist 515-460-1396 morrical@iastate.edu My credentials Hoosier by birth, Boilermaker by education Small farm in Indiana Attended Purdue livestock judging and B&B Graduate school NMSU PhD Ruminant Nutrition Sheep Specialist ISU (33 years) Production specialist Premier 1 Supplies Co-developer NSIP 1987 Co-developer Sheep Brands Co-developer Goat Brands Objective of Supplementation Provide for animal needs Low cost ($3-42/head per year) Livestock do not read the labels Types of Minerals Macro Micro Ca, P, K, Mg, S, Zn, Se, Co, Cu, Na, Cl Mn, I, Fe, Mo Required in PPM or mg/kg .1 to .7% .3 to 50 Present Knowledge NRC, 2007 NATIONAL SURVEY 353 FORAGE SAMPLES Cattle Adequate Deficient Marginal Copper 36% 14.2% 49.7% Manganese 76% 4.7% 34.1% Zinc 2.5% 48.6% 17.3% Cobalt 34.1% 14.2% 49.7% Selenium 19.7% 44.3% 19.3% High antagonist Iron 28% Molybdenum 51% Corah, KSU
  2. 2. 8/19/2021 2 Ontario Feed Values Suleiman etal. 1995 Macro Minerals Alfalfa Grass Corn Corn silage Calcium, Ca 1.2% .64% .02% .24% Phosphorous, P .20% .22% .29% .22% Potassium, K 1.75% 1.87% .4% .82% Magnesium, Mg .26% .2% .11% .18% Sulfur, S probably short Alberta Feed Value Survey 2018 Suleiman etal. 1995 Macro Minerals Alfalfa Brome Barley Corn Oats Calcium, Ca 1.8% .57% .07% .06% .07% Phosphorous, P .23% .16% .36% .32% .32% Potassium, K 1.8% .54% .46% .50% Magnesium, Mg .31% .15% .17% .14% Sulfur, S .31% .16% .17% Sodium, Na not reported but probably short Alberta Feed values, Micro Minerals Alfalfa Brome Barley Corn Oats Zinc, Zn 27 21 40 24.8 34 Iron, Fe 213 167 88 74 Manganese, Mn 48 70 19 9 46 Copper, Cu 6.3 5.1 5.0 2.7 4.6 Molybdenum, Mo 3.0 2.2 1.4 1.7 Cobalt, Co 1.2 1.4 1.4 .19 2.0 Selenium, Se .33 .18 .15 .14 .10 Iodine, I not evaluated but probably deficient IBC & ISWPB Micro Mineral Survey 2016 50 samples Aver SD Mark Shane Copper 9.7 3.5 11.2 3.8 Iron 351 222 174 158 Zinc 26.4 8.0 37.7 10.8 Manganese 90.2 43.1 97.7 92.1 Molybdenum 1.9 1.1 2.2 6.8 Selenium .24 .21 .71 .32 Cobalt .44 .47 <.5 <.5 Iodine .35 .21 .31 .32 Do I have a problem? Mineral Interactions Copper Sulfur Molybdenum Iron
  3. 3. 8/19/2021 3 Mineral Interactions Sulfur Selenium Biologically Critical Times for Trace Minerals Stress increases urinary excretion of Cu, Zn Weaning, transport/shipping, parasitism, lactation and cold stress Reproduction (conception and fetal development, including fetal liver mineral storage) Immune response (vaccination titer response, neutrophil function, other immune mechanisms?) Requirements, 07 NRC Stage of production Other mineral levels Age Level of production Ewe Lambs vs Ewes Ewe lambs Ewes E. Lactation Ca 8.6g 12g E. Lactation P 7.9g 11g Doing the math Lactating ewes 4.5 lbs alfalfa hay and 2 lbs barley 4.5 X.24% P = .01 lb P 2.0 barley X .40%P = .008 lb P .018 lb P X 454 g/lb = 8.2g provided vs 11g req. Meeting animal needs Mineral Consumption Salt driven, but unfortified is big mistake grain byproducts molasses Mineral Density Se 10-90 PPM controlled by FDA .69mg intake/d
  4. 4. 8/19/2021 4 Comparison of Trace Mineral Sources Gold SE/I BG TM Kelp Se 90 88 90 .4 Zn 22.7K 21 6000 35 I 545 196 200 624 Mn 1454 15 520 1235 Mo 68 3.5 ?? 15.9 Co 60 4 30 12.3 Cu 2.6 0 0 6.4 Kelp feeding level suggested at 2% of ration or 1 ounce Sheep Mineral Premix Calcium 16% Phosphorous 10% Magnesium 6% Salt % Sulfur .35% Magnesium 1% Zinc 3040 PPM short Iron 5875 PPM Iodine 69 PPM short Cobalt 30 PPM okay Selenium 60 PPM okay Vitamin A 300K/KG Vitamin D 100k/KG Vitamin E 15K/KG = 150 IU/day Activity level .35 ounce Mineral sources Trace mineral salt 90-98% salt only micro minerals lower intake required lower cost approx. half price w/ lower intake (mostly salt) total cost of mineral supp. 25% Water may also provide minerals Premier 1 Supplies Mineral Availability Mineral form Absorption Oxides (zinc oxide) low 20-40% Sulfates (zinc sulfate) medium 40-60% Chelates (selno yeast) higher 50-70% Some research shows responses Is it simply amount or improved availability What should you do? Test forages Macro minerals Micro MSU ($60 to $150) Monitor mineral intake put out set amounts, ex. Week’s supply monitor how long it lasts
  5. 5. 8/19/2021 5 BMP Selenium Read mineral tag Monitor mineral intake Add to grain mix and force feed Eliminates animal to animal variation Needed year round Pre-caution, some is good more may not be better. Toxic at 2 ppm High S decrease absorption (DDGS) also heavy metals Copper Toxicosis Prevention Sheep specific feeds No additional copper Feed some Mo CU & MO are both toxic CU:MO ratio range 6-1 up to 10-1 Deficiency is possible with high Molybdenum Milk Fever/Hypocalcemia Miss diagnosed with ketosis, rapid response, pupil dilation Treat with CMPK gel Treat with calcium borogluconate Excess potassium may increase incidence Cation anion balance. Na and K positive ions Chloride and sulfur are negatives (NH4Cl and MgS04) , Urinary Calculi Calcium phosphorous ratio Excess magnesium (.3) Excess phosphorous (>.4) Water management Salt 10-20 pounds per ton Ammonium chloride 10 pounds per ton , Vitamins in mineral sources Vitamins are inactivated during storage Half life 30 days Do not count on them to help. EX. 10 IU E per pound of mineral Use Premier ADE premix with mineral ISU Results - Serum E levels in ewes ISU,900 IU injected weekly Con E-G E-GL E-L Pretreatment 1.27 1.26 Pre-lambing 1.51a 1.91b Post-lambinga .93a 1.13b Mid-lactation .97a .95a 1.28b 1.37b Milk e at 3 days 10.8 15.1 a,b Row means with different superscripts differ (p<.05). Base ration was excellent alfalfa hay and corn
  6. 6. 8/19/2021 6 Results - Serum E lambs Age Con E-G E-L E-GL 3 days 1.08 1.08 28 days .41 .38 1.33 1.33 BMP Vitamin E Feed ewes or Nannies >100 IU/hd/d late gestation and lactation Creep feed minimum 60K IU/ton Up to 100K IU per ton Do not count on E in mineral Concentration is way too low. Grazing on green grass no problem Late gestation Stressful which leads to reduced immunity Cold stress Milk fever inadequate calcium or too much other minerals cation-anion imbalance, see Dairy Nutritionist occurs in late, late gestation mostly Reduced immunity leads to more health issues, (mastitis, respiratory, uterine infections) Reallocation of nutrients On farm vitamin fortification 50 ewes free choice mineral with .5 ounce intake Premier ADE premix 2 million A, .2 million D and 60,000 E / lb Ewes need 3500 IU A and 150-300 IU E daily 3 pounds of E and 2 pounds of ADE What should You do? Harvest kidney and liver from deads. Sample forages Trace minerals are around $35-50/sample Read mineral tags Monitor mineral intake Plain salt is not enough Sheep have zero nutritional wisdom Consult a nutritionist/veterinarian Dietary Supplements ASI Lets Grow Good Scales
  7. 7. 8/19/2021 7 Questions? DGM:ISU:2007 Questions

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